Research Methods in Africana Studies

by Serie McDougal III (Author)
©2014 Textbook XV, 347 Pages


Research Methods in Africana Studies is a major contribution to the discipline of Africana studies and social science involving people of African descent in general. This textbook is the first of its kind, offering instruction on how to conduct culturally relevant critical research on Africana communities in the American context, in addition to the African diaspora. It contains a collection of the most widely used theories and paradigms designed for exploring, explaining, and advancing Africana communities through science. The relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of every major method of data collection are explained as they relate to the lived experiences of the Black world. It stands alone as the only textbook that details empirical methods in the service of the collective advancement of Africana peoples.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Preface: Speak to the Posterity
  • Tehuti, the “Divine Tongue”
  • The Problem
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1. Africana Studies and the Science of Knowing
  • What Is Meant by “Research”?
  • Why Learn Research Methods?
  • Africana Studies Domain Theory
  • Common Ways of Knowing
  • Tradition
  • Authority
  • Common Sense
  • News and Media
  • Analytical Misjudgment and Roadblocks to Critical Thought
  • Overgeneralization
  • Selective Observation
  • Inaccurate Observations
  • Vested Interests: Shaping the evidence around the conclusions instead of shaping the conclusions around the evidence
  • Illogical Reasoning
  • Mistakes in Racial/Cultural Reasoning
  • Transubstantive Error
  • Hierarchical Comparative Analysis Problem
  • Fallacy of Homogeneity
  • Problem Orientation/Solution Deprivation
  • Ethnologic Ahistoricism
  • Disregarding Social Regularities Reaction
  • Self-Censorship: The Dirty Laundry Quandary
  • Variables
  • Causality
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Activity 4
  • Activity 5
  • 2. Methodology in Africana Studies Research
  • Methodology
  • Paradigms
  • Inferiority Paradigm
  • Cultural Deficit Paradigm
  • Cultural Difference Paradigm
  • Colonial Paradigm
  • Pan-African Paradigm
  • Afrocentric Paradigm
  • African-Centered Behavioral Change Paradigm
  • Kawaida Paradigm
  • Literary Pan-Africanism
  • Sacred Worldview Paradigm
  • Worldview Paradigms Analysis
  • Positivist Paradigm
  • Conflict Paradigm
  • Structural Functionalism
  • Symbolic Interactionism
  • Theory
  • Applying Theory to Social Phenomena
  • Triple Quandary Theory
  • Motivation Theory
  • Multiple Intelligence Theory
  • Teacher Expectations Theory
  • Two Cradle Theory
  • African American Family Functioning Model
  • African Self-Consciousness Theory
  • Africana Critical Theory
  • Africana Womanism
  • Africanity Model
  • African Feminism
  • Afrolatinidad
  • Agency Reduction Formation Theory
  • Anti-Life Forces Model
  • Black Consciousness Continuum
  • Black Existentialism
  • Black Feminist Theory
  • Black Queer Theory
  • Critical Race Theory
  • Eco-Bio-Communitarianism
  • Education and Schooling Model
  • Extended Self Model
  • Holistic/Solutions Framework for Studying African American Families
  • Invisibility Syndrome
  • Laissez-Faire Model of Racism
  • Lens Theory
  • Location Theory
  • The Multisystems Model
  • Nigrescence Theory
  • Nosology of African/Black Personality Disorder
  • Nzuri Theory
  • Phenomenological Variant of the Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST)
  • Post-Traumatic Slave Syndrome
  • Sudarkasa’s Seven R’s Model: Seven Cardinal Values of African Family Life
  • Social Systems Approach to the Study of Black Family Life (SSASBFL)
  • Site of Resiliency Theory
  • Situated-Mediated Identity Theory (SMIT)
  • TRIOS Model
  • Tripartite Model of Racism
  • Womanism
  • Womanist Identity Development Model
  • Sustainable Conceptual Development
  • Types of Theory: Inductive and Deductive
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • 3. Ethics in Research
  • Values and Research
  • The Ethics That Emerged from a Legacy of Abuse
  • Informed Consent
  • Non-Malfeasance and Beneficence
  • Right to Privacy
  • Deception
  • Quality
  • Reporting
  • African Americans and Research Ethics
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • 4. Research Design
  • Units of Analysis: The Who and What of Research
  • The Purpose of Research
  • Exploratory Research
  • Descriptive Research
  • Explanatory Research
  • Evaluative Research
  • Predictive Research
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Data Collection
  • Temporal Order and Research Design
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Panel Studies
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • 5. Choosing a Topic, Writing a Question, Reviewing the Literature
  • The Intersecting Interests Theory for Research in Africana Studies
  • Developing Topics and Questions
  • Finding Topics
  • Developing Research Questions
  • Writing a Literature Review
  • Functions of the Literature Review
  • What’s Known about Your Topic?
  • Weaknesses and Gaps in the Literature
  • Helps Narrow Your Scope
  • Provides Stylistic Models
  • Provides Examples of Methods
  • Exposure to Different Theoretical Approaches
  • Greater Knowledge of Definitions
  • Exposure to Connections and Contradictions
  • Caution! A Word of Warning to Reviewers of Literature
  • What Kind of Literature Do I Review?
  • How to Find the Literature
  • Maximize Your Reading: How to Carefully Read the Literatur
  • Organizing a Literature Review
  • Final Summary
  • Referencing and Citing Sources
  • The Structure of a Research Proposal
  • Introduction
  • Literature Review
  • Methodology
  • Works Cited
  • Appendices
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • 6. Measuring Social Reality
  • Measuring
  • Defining Variables
  • Reliability
  • Validity
  • Reliability, Validity, and Preventing Error
  • Levels of Measurement
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • 7. Sampling Procedures
  • The Language of Sampling
  • Bias in Sampling
  • Coverage Bias
  • Non-Response Bias
  • Probability Sampling
  • Sampling Underrepresented Populations
  • Non-Probability Sampling
  • Random Digit Dialing
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • 8. Non-Reactive Methods
  • Physical Evidence
  • Limitations of Analyzing Physical Evidence
  • Content Analysis
  • Advantages of Using Content Analysis
  • Sampling and Criteria for Inclusion in Content Analysis
  • Coding in Content Analysis
  • Coding Schedule
  • Coding Manual
  • Types of Coding: Manifest and Latent
  • Units of Analysis: What to Look for in Analysis of Content
  • Significant Actors
  • Frequency
  • Subjects and Themes
  • Dispositions
  • Space and Prominence
  • Semiotics
  • Categorizing Themes
  • Reporting Themes
  • Basic Steps in Content Analysis
  • Validity and Reliability in Content Analysis
  • Limitations of Content Analysis
  • Secondary Analysis
  • Advantages of Secondary Analysis
  • Statistical Data
  • Administrative Data
  • Official Statistics
  • Published Data Tables
  • Limitations of Secondary Data
  • The Problem of Missing Data
  • Means of Data Collection and Misleading Conclusions
  • The Problem of Reliability in Secondary Analysis
  • The Implications of Data Availability
  • The Problem of Validity in Secondary Analysis
  • The Inductive and Deductive Challenge
  • Why Collect Original Data?
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • 9. Scales and Indexes
  • Indicators
  • The Importance of Indexes
  • Creating a Scale or Index
  • Face validity
  • Unidimensionality
  • Exhaustiveness
  • Mutual Exclusivity
  • Variance
  • Empirical Relationships
  • Scaling Formats
  • The Likert Scale
  • Social Distance Scale
  • Guttman Scale
  • Thurstone Scale
  • Semantic Differential
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • 10. Survey Design: Asking Questions
  • The Survey Process
  • Practical Function of Surveys
  • Two Means of Collecting Survey Data
  • Constructing Survey Items
  • Vignette Questions
  • Avoiding Problems in Asking Questions: The Rules of Item Construction
  • Self-Administered Questionnaire Design
  • Instructions
  • Order of Questions
  • Questionnaire Format
  • Conducting the Self-Administered Questionnaire
  • Follow-Up Questionnaires and Letters
  • Cover Letter
  • Length and Appearance
  • Payment
  • Diaries
  • Advantages of Questionnaires
  • Disadvantages of Questionnaires
  • Interviews
  • Conducting Interviews
  • Know the Interview Schedule
  • Introducing the Research to the Respondent
  • Appearance of the Interviewer
  • Wording
  • Probing
  • Training Interviewers
  • Underrepresented Groups in Interviewing
  • Ending the Interview
  • Telephone Interviews
  • Computer-Assisted Interviewing
  • Online Surveys
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Activity 4
  • 11. Experimental Design
  • Classic Experimental Designs
  • Threats to Internal Validity
  • Matching and Random Selection
  • Pre-Experimental Designs
  • Quasi-Experimental Designs
  • Threats to External Validity
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of Experimental Designs
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • 12. Qualitative Field Research and Data Analysis
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Field Research
  • Observation/Participant Observation
  • Taking Field Notes
  • What to Write About
  • Qualitative Interviews
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Conversation Analysis
  • Profiling
  • Narrative Analysis
  • Case Studies
  • Focus Groups
  • Tips for Being Successful in the Field
  • Sampling in Qualitative Research
  • Validity and Reliability
  • Strengths and Limitations
  • Qualitative Data Analysis
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • 13. Quantitative Data Analysis
  • Scales of Measurement for Different Types of Variables
  • Coding Quantitative Data
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Univariate Analysis
  • Types of Distributions
  • Measures of Central Tendency
  • Measures of Dispersion
  • The Normal Distribution
  • Percentiles and Percentile Ranks
  • Z-Scores
  • Bivariate Analysis
  • Strength of Association
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Inferential Statistics
  • Hypothesis Testing
  • Additional Statistical Procedures
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Glossary
  • Works Cited
  • Index
  • Series index

← viii | ix → PREFACE

The discipline of Africana Studies’ activist-intellectual tradition goes back as far as classical African civilizations such as ancient Kemet (Egypt). In ancient Kemet, the Sesh, or scribe, was expected to use knowledge and skill to serve the people by ensuring justice, caring for the vulnerable and the environment, respecting persons and bearers of dignity and divinity, and working for future generations. The administration of ancient Egyptian civilization was carried out with the assistance of the Sesh, who experienced decades of rigorous training consisting of:

1. schooling in the village school at a very early age;

2. the study of classical literature, which they undertook in their twelfth year;

3. instruction in reading and writing complex texts. In addition, they received instruction in various medu neter (hieroglyphs) that required the ability to draw with a pen. (Obenga, 2007)

The Sesh’s command of writing was essential in making Kemet the most highly organized and prosperous state in the ancient world. In addition to mastering the skill of writing, the Sesh was expected to master the highest standards of beauty and deep thought (Hilliard, 1998). The Sesh was not an individual who was concerned with personal advancement, but instead was concerned with immortality. The discipline of the Sesh was writing in accordance with the precepts of Maat— ← ix | x → truth and justice. In addition to truth and justice, Maat is the ancient Kemetic divine principle that represents the proper ordering and construction of the individual, society, and the universe. The ancient Kemetic sage Ptah Hotep, in his book of wise instruction, proclaimed:

If you listen to my sayings all of your affairs will go forward. Their value resides in their truth. The memory of these sayings goes on in the minds of men and women because of the worth of their precepts. If every word is carried on, they will not perish in this land. If advice is given for the good, the great will speak accordingly. This is a matter of teaching a person to speak to posterity. He or she who hears it becomes a master hearer. It is good to speak to posterity. Posterity will listen. (Hilliard, Williams, & Damali, 1987)

Ptah Hotep’s proclamation charges one to produce enduring knowledge. Like Ptah Hotep’s wise instructions, the sacred duty of the Sesh was to speak to posterity or future generations. This goal was to be accomplished by producing writing and deep thought that was in accord with Maat. These sacred writings would endure for generations because of their truth and high standards.

Tehuti, the “Divine Tongue”

In ancient Kemet, Tehuti was the ancient neter (deity) who was the father of the written language and the patron of the Sesh. Tehuti is credited with the invention of the medu neter, the world’s oldest writing system. The name Tehu is an ancient Kemetic term meaning to measure in relation to the moon. Tehuti, or the divine tongue, was the personification of deep thought emerging from knowledge and wisdom. Most of the ancient Kemetic neter (deities) are represented by one or more animals. Tehuti is often represented by the head of an ibis or stork-like bird. He is also depicted holding a scroll and papyrus, which are symbols of the Sesh. Like the Sesh and Tehuti, the scholar in Africana studies is charged with producing knowledge of the highest standards of deep thought that will be of benefit to future generations of people of African descent, the larger society, and the universe. This goal is achieved by the systematic study of the lived experiences and prospects of people of African descent.

The Problem

What is a problem? In the context of conducting research in the social sciences, a “problem” doesn’t always have to indicate a negative situation. A problem exists ← x | xi → whenever there is a gap between a present condition and a better condition. The role of the Sesh was to aid society in closing the distance between the two; such is also the role of the scholar in Africana Studies. The imperfection of the human condition ensures the constant presence of problems that must be addressed, and the scholaractivist in Africana Studies stands at the ready. How does a scholar-activist approach problems? W.E.B. Du Bois once said that “true lovers of humanity can only hold higher the pure ideals of science, and continue to insist that if we would solve a problem we must study it” (Du Bois, 1898, p. 23). This book attempts to help sharpen the necessary skills for the process of studying and solving problems that arise in the lived experiences of people of African descent. Mastering the information in the pages of this book does not require that the reader possess any tremendous amount of prior knowledge on the topic of research methods. All you must have to become a great researcher in general and in the context of the Africana experience is:

1. intrigue and interest in furthering yours and others’ knowledge and understanding;

2. the courage to accept the responsibility of service to your community, society, and the world;

3. the discipline necessary to develop the skills needed to carry out the complex work that is essential for understanding and addressing social challenges.

This text is not written for the reader as simply a consumer of information or as a student; it is written for the reader as an active agent in his or her society and as a thinking person in the world.← xi | xii →

← xii | xiii →  

This text is dedicated to my mother, my father, my sister, my people, and the discipline of Africana Studies. Without them nothing I have ever accomplished would have been possible. Thank you mom, for teaching me resilience and that anything is possible. Thank you dad, for teaching me to be disciplined and strategic. Thank you big sister for always being supportive, for being the most multitalented person I have ever known, and for always helping me to think of things from a different perspective. A special thanks to my close friends: Oron Marshall, for being my best example of free thought; Michael Tillotson, for being my best example of relentless work and aggressive scholarship; Paul Easterling, for being my best example of a decolonized imagination; Crystal Guillory, for being my best example of victorious consciousness, and Justin Gammage, for being my best example of what a principled scholar should be. Thank you all for being the warrior scholars that you are and for always helping me sharpen my tools of analysis; steel sharpens steel. A special thanks to my mentors: Rev. John W. Brazil, for being a third parent and educator to me; Marc McConney, for seeing something in me that I didn’t see in myself; Daniel Johnson, for teaching me how to organize in the institutional setting; Marcia Sutherland, for teaching me what it means to be a scholar; Sonja Peterson-Lewis, for teaching me what research is all about; Molefi Asante, for teaching me what an academic discipline truly is and how to be a professional; Ama Mazama, for teaching me centeredness; Dorothy Tsuruta, for teaching me how to be a mentor to students; and Rochelle Brock, for taking an interest in my ← xiii | xiv → work. A special thanks to Ms. Sureshi Maduka Jayawardene for her unwavering encouragement and for helping me through every step of the editorial process. A special thanks to all of my former and current students for their challenging questions and comments. Last, thanks to my creator and my ancestors for helping me to do my best to honor you through my work.

← xiv | 1 → CHAPTER ONE

...the limits of knowledge in any field have never been set and no one has ever reached them.


As long as there is room to improve the society in which we live, research will be necessary. In professional and educational settings, people are advised or required to learn methods of research. Some wonder why research methods are relevant to them, especially if they do not intend to pursue a profession that requires them to conduct research. They often ask what is meant by the word “research” and why they should learn it. This chapter first explains the relationship between research methods and Africana Studies. Second, it explains some of the most common ways of knowing and the most common errors that occur during the process of investigation. Third, this chapter identifies the best ways of avoiding common roadblocks to critical thought in scientific research. Once researchers understand the techniques of engaging in systematic research, they must begin to engage in the process of explaining variation in human thought and behavior. This chapter describes the means of explaining variation and causality in scientific research. The following sections explore some of these basic concerns.

← 1 | 2 → What Is Meant by “Research”?

In the 25th century B.C., the African philosopher Ptah Hotep spoke of the limitless nature of knowledge. Training in scientific research is meant to prepare people for the endless pursuit of knowledge. This is of critical importance because knowledge is necessary for advancing society; thus it is relevant to enhancing the lived experiences of people of African descent. Research is something that most people are already intimately familiar with. In this book you will be gaining a deeper understanding of things you already understand to some degree, and a more complex knowledge of things that you already know to some extent. This notion of familiarity is not meant to give readers a false sense of prior knowledge; however, people should not be led to think that research methods are something totally foreign to them. They are a part of our nature. We all engage in research to some degree. The difference is that in this book you will be introduced to research in a much more deliberate, formal, and systematic way. Scientific Research has to be distinguished from casual, everyday research. Scientific research refers to systematic investigation; it involves the discovery, explanation, and description of a subject or topic. People engage in different forms of casual research on a daily basis. For example, we may need to find out the details of a new mobile phone to see if it has our desired features before making a purchase. We may need to find directions to the hotel at which we have a dinner engagement by calling and questioning some of the people we expect to be there. Before purchasing a new computer we examine those at a computer store to identify the one that works best for us. These are all forms of casual research. What happens if these forms of casual research turn out to be wrong or mistaken in any way? We might

buy the wrong phone,

be late to dinner, or

buy a keyboard that is uncomfortable for the wrist.

Clearly, in casual research there are consequences for mistakes that we must correct or learn to live with. However, for scientific researchers, research must be systematic and methodical as opposed to casual. Being systematic and methodical is necessary because when engaging in study about social problems that affect people’s lives in an instrumental way, the stakes are much higher than what is at stake in, for instance, being late to dinner. Social research contends with issues such as unemployment, academic achievement, housing discrimination, and police brutality. The greater the problems and challenges that researchers investigate, the greater the consequences of error. In many cases Africana scholar-activists are conducting research that directly or indirectly leads to saving lives, improving people’s overall ← 2 | 3 → well-being, or changing the way people think about critical issues. Africana Studies,* by definition, is designed to contribute to the emancipation of people of African descent and humanity by virtue of that contribution. Therefore, mistakes that are affordable in casual everyday research are hardly so in Africana Studies research. For these reasons, researchers of phenomena in the Africana world must be prepared with an adequate knowledge of scientific research.

Why Learn Research Methods?

The world is increasingly centered on information—having access to it and the ability to understand and produce it. Therefore, it is critically important to have a basic knowledge of the science of research. One of the goals of learning research methods is to equip people with the skills to carry out their own research. Learning research methods also gives people the ability to interpret, evaluate, and critique research produced by others.

The purpose of textbooks on research methods is to introduce readers to the tools and techniques for studying problems or social conditions. Within the discipline of Africana Studies, studying problems prepares researchers to formulate data-driven, reliable conclusions about the problems and challenges faced by people of African descent. Moreover, such information helps scholars formulate datadriven, evidence-based solutions to those problems. After reading a text on research methods, you should be familiar with the processes of scientific research. You should be familiar with every step in the process from formulating a research question, systematically stating the problem, reviewing the literature, collecting and analyzing the data, applying theory, and drawing conclusions. The study of research methods prepares people to produce practical research that will benefit the African world and sustain the utilitarian relevance of Africana Studies in the everyday lives of people of African descent. It is likely that no matter what profession you pursue or are currently in, you will be required to evaluate information and make choices based on the assessment of information. Knowledge of research methods provides people with an awareness of methods of collecting and processing information that will help prepare them to make informed decisions. Accurate and reliable information is the key to making effective decisions. Training in research methods teaches people how to judge the value and quality of data or information necessary ← 3 | 4 → for making critical choices. Access to information is expanding, and this makes the ability to evaluate the quality of information all the more critical.

Africana Studies Domain Theory

By definition, Africana Studies is the critical and systematic study of the thought and practice of people of African descent in their past and present unfolding (Karenga, 2002). Beyond its definition, every discipline has a domain of inquiry: for example, political phenomena for political science and psychological phenomena for psychology. The domain of inquiry refers to the specific aspects, subsets, or dimensions of reality on which a discipline focuses its thought. The term “Africana” is the label that represents Africana Studies’ domain of inquiry. “Africana” is a term that refers to African phenomena. It is an umbrella term that refers to people, geography, and culture (Carr, 2007). Carr (2007) explains that Africana refers to people of African descent and African-descended communities wherever they are found globally. Geographically, Africana refers to the study of Africa as well as any physical space occupied by African-descended peoples. Culturally, Africana refers to the study of the concepts, practices, materials, and cultural products that African-descended people have created to live and interact with themselves, others, and their environments inside and outside of the African continent (Carr, 2007). Africana Studies’ domain of inquiry is the African world. The African world stretches beyond time, space, political boundaries, and continental shores. Africana Studies is relevant everywhere in the universe that African influence can be detected and studied.

One of the first things I think young people, especially nowadays, should learn is how to see for yourself and listen for yourself and think for yourself. Then you can come to an intelligent decision for yourself.... This generation, especially of our people, has a burden, more so than any other time in history. The most important thing we can learn today is think for ourselves.


Much of what human beings know is based on agreement and belief, and very little of it is based on direct experience or personal discovery (Babbie, 2007). In our fast-paced lives we do not always have the time to discover everything for ourselves or learn everything through personal experience. Fortunately, we don’t have to take dangerous drugs to learn how they might affect our bodies, stick our hands into fire ← 4 | 5 → to learn that it burns the skin, or drink poisonous liquids to know that doing so can kill us. Various methods of knowing keep each generation from having to “reinvent the wheel.” However, because every method of knowing has its flaws and drawbacks, science must assume the burden of finding the most reliable and transparent means of knowing. Let’s explore some common ways of knowing and the roadblocks to reasoning embedded within them.

Common Ways of Knowing



XV, 347
ISBN (Softcover)
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2014 (May)
African descent social science critical research
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2014. 347 pp., num. ill.

Biographical notes

Serie McDougal III (Author)

Serie McDougal III is an associate professor at San Francisco State University in the Department of Africana Studies and co-founder of Afrometrics. McDougal currently teaches courses in research methods, introduction to Africana studies, and Black cultures and personalities.


Title: Research Methods in Africana Studies
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