Prismatic Reflections on Spanish Golden Age Theater

Essays in Honor of Matthew D. Stroud

by Gwyn E. Campbell (Volume editor) Amy R. Williamsen (Volume editor)
©2016 Monographs XXIII, 373 Pages
Series: Ibérica, Volume 44


This volume, organized in five major sections, honors the myriad scholarly contributions of Matthew D. Stroud to the field of Early Modern Spanish theater. Building upon Stroud’s seminal studies, each section of essays simultaneously claims and wrestles with aspects of the rich legacy generated by his explorations. The essays included in this volume consider the moral, ethical, and legal backdrop of uxoricide, explorations of the meaningful intersections of psychoanalytic theory and the comedia, and engage the topics of women, gender, and identity. They also bridge the gap between dramatist and actors and between page and stage as they consider everything from the physical demands on Early Modern actresses to the twenty-first-century performance possibilities of comedias. Moreover, these essays incorporate studies that transcend temporal, spatial, political, and cultural limits, continuing to push at the edges of traditional scholarship characteristic of Stroud’s pioneering research. Both scholars and students will find this cohesive, compelling collection of interest across a wide spectrum of disciplines from theater history to performance studies, from philosophy to queer studies.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Preludio
  • Reconocimientos
  • Table of Contents
  • Dedicatoria a nuestro “autor”
  • Loa
  • Dramatis personae
  • Setting the Stage: An Introduction
  • Act One: Uxoricide Unleashed
  • Wife-Murder Deflected: How Stage Husbands’ Prudence and Ingenuity Lead to Differing Outcomes
  • “Nada me digas”: Silencing and Silence in Comedia Domestic Relationships
  • Mencía as Tragic Hero in Calderón’s El médico de su honra
  • We Too Suffer: Calderón’s Honor Husbands
  • El médico de su honra: A Crisis of Interpretation
  • Incest, Natural Law and Social Order in El castigo sin venganza
  • Duelling (Dis)Honour in Mira de Amescua’s La adúltera virtuosa
  • Act Two: Reflections and Refractions: Cognitive Play(s) in the Mirror
  • Ovid, Gender, and the Potential for Tragedy in Don Gil de las calzas verdes
  • The Queen’s Dreams: Lope’s Representation of Queen Isabel I in El mejor mozo de España and El niño inocente de La Guardia
  • Mirror Neurons and Mirror Metaphors: Cognitive Theory and Privanza in La adversa fortuna de don Alvaro de Luna
  • The Calderonian Aesthetic Experience: Plot, Character, Politics, and Primal Emotions in El alcalde de Zalamea (What Neuroscience and US Presidential Campaigns Might Tell Us about the Spanish Comedia )
  • Gendered Gazing: Zayas and Caro Go Back to the Future of the “Artful Brain and Body”
  • Act Three: Gender Games: Plotting Women
  • Of Love and Labyrinths: Feminism and the Comedia
  • Woman, Learning, and Fear: Racial Mixing in Diego Ximénez de Enciso’s Juan Latino
  • Antona García: A Mujer Varonil for the 21st Century
  • “Más valéis vos, Antona”: Worthy Wives in Lope, Tirso, and Cañizares
  • Tried and True: Leonor de la Cueva y Silva’s Tirso Connection
  • Act Four: Performative Possibilities: From Actors to Audiences
  • Actresses as Athletes and Acrobats
  • Stages of Passing: Identity and Performance in the Comedia
  • The Spanish Golden Age Entremés in English: Translating the Juan Rana Phenomenon
  • Three Productions of El condenado por desconfiado: The Devil’s Polymorphism in Our Time
  • Adapting the Spanish Classics for 21st-Century Performance in English: Models for Analysis
  • Act Five: Contours and Contexts: Crossing (Temporal/Spatial/Political) Boundaries
  • The Contours of Self-Representation: Why Call Himself Tirso de Molina?
  • Inquisitorial Pressures: Honour as Metaphor on the Boards
  • Staging the Fall in 16th-Century Spain: The Aucto del peccado de Adán
  • Baltasar Funes y Villalpando’s El golfo de las sirenas: An Homage to Calderón?
  • The Transformation of a Baroque Zarzuela into an 18th-Century Opera: The Case of Salazar y Torres’s Los juegos olímpicos
  • Two Visions of Brotherhood: Calderón and Richard Strauss
  • Curtain Calls
  • Tabula Gratulatoria
  • Index

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Dedicatoria a nuestro “autor”

Among the many rich traditions shared by comediantes is the honoring of those who have helped shape the lives of others through their scholarship, teaching, research and more. We dedicate this volume to celebrating the career of our esteemed colleague and cherished friend, Dr. Matthew D. Stroud. Matt has served, in many senses, as the “autor” in that he has inspired this project, as well as countless others, through his impressive mastery of diverse fields of inquiry, supplemented by his illuminating spectrum of relationships in academia and beyond.

Born on October 4, 1950, in Hillsboro, Texas, Matt grew up in Amarillo, his early years giving little indication that he would spend his adult life immersed in the study of Spanish literature. It was in the 9th grade, at Austin High School, that he took his first Spanish course, then continuing with language courses at Tascosa High School—because they were required. His own history is a powerful example of the impact that individual teachers can have on a student’s life; Patricia Harnett, Rosemary Patterson and Allie Grillo, in particular, instilled in him an avid interest in the cultures of Mexico, Spain, and Argentina.

After graduating as valedictorian in 1968, Matt continued on to the University of Texas at Austin, the only university to which he applied, although his path to a major was less straightforward. Forays into mathematics, computer sciences (he earned the Computer Science Creativity Award), and education did little to pique his interest. The one constant through all of these experiences was a deepening and broadening interest in Spanish literature under such notable professors as Ricardo Guillén, George Schade, Beverly Gibbs, and Virginia Higginbotham. Matt completed his BA in Spanish in short order, graduating in 1971, but without ever having taken a course in Spanish literature before 1700. ← xiii | xiv →

After a one-year hiatus from studies, at a time when the economy was in a slump, the best job Matt could find was as Assistant Manager at the Woolworth’s in San Angelo, Texas. Fortunately, with his prodigious acumen, he enrolled for one semester at West Texas State University (now West Texas A & M) in order both to complete his second major in French and to investigate graduate schools. His decision about which graduate school to attend was in part determined by the weather: a heavy snowfall in Urbana, Illinois, the week the choice needed to be made led him to the west coast and the University of Southern California. There, Matt reveled in the total immersion in Spanish language, culture, and literature—and beyond—of Los Angeles during the mid 1970s. His first semester as a graduate student finally introduced him to Early Modern Spanish literature: Don Juan with Dr. Ted Sackett, and Don Quijote with Dr. James A. Parr. Nonetheless, Matt’s affinity was more for Latin American literature and philology, given that Latin became his doctoral minor. It was again fortuitous that USC did not have the resources to offer a Ph.D. in philology, and that Matt felt at home where he was. His off-the-cuff remark to the department Chair, that his interests were so broad that he could even consider specializing in the Golden Age, led him to an influential conversation with Jim Parr, and the rest is history, as it were. Moreover, for Matt, the best part of the story is that the more he delved into the history, culture, and literature of the Golden Age, the more he loved the period and his area of studies.

In 1977, Matt accepted a position at Trinity University. He has shared his love of Spanish literature with generations of students there ever since, as well as inspiring his colleagues at Trinity and around the world. The official university introduction clarifies: “His area of specialization is 16th- and 17th-century Spain, but he considers every aspect of his academic life from the point of view of the humanities in the broadest sense: what does it mean to be human, and how do we relate to each other?” In his teaching, he underscores that education is a transformative process for all involved since we learn as much from our students as they do from us. He finds that “students are often amazed at the relevance to today’s world of the issues that arise in the discussion of the Spanish epic, El poema de Mio Cid, Lope de Vega’s play, Fuenteovejuna, 19th-century Spanish history, and even Spanish grammar.” It is no surprise that in 1999 he was awarded the prestigious Dr. and Mrs. Z. T. Scott Faculty Fellowship for Outstanding Teaching and Advising, and more recently, the Trinity University Distinguished Achievement Award for Scholarship as well.

The impact that Matt has had on our field is profound. Throughout his career, he has practiced a unique brand of intellectual alchemy, exploring ← xiv | xv → ways to combine his disparate interests. Once at Trinity, he revolutionized the teaching of languages, developing over twenty-two instructional online programs in Spanish, French and Latin, a task that, in the seventies, required that he program them on the mainframe. He also creatively incorporated technology while engaging students in a hands-on research experience as they created their own online editions. In one such course, Matt had his students create an anthology of the one hundred best Spanish lyric poems; the project, of course, included discussions of what makes a poem good. The students undertook all the editing themselves, and each received a copy of the volume at the end of the course. Beyond his home campus, his ground-breaking work developing websites and electronic editions of classical Spanish texts still benefit students and specialists around the globe. Matt’s pioneering contributions as one of the four original founders of the Association of Hispanic Classic Theater, and his active decades-long management of the AHCT web presence, including the reformatting of over two thousand files, represent an invaluable legacy.

A true Renaissance scholar, he also delved into the musical realm, serving as a creative consultant for various productions. The grandest of these is, without question, his 1981 staging of Celos aun del aire matan [Even Baseless Jealousy Can Kill]. For this ambitious project, the first presentation in 250 years of Calderón de la Barca and Juan Hidalgo’s only fully sung three-act play for which the music still exists, he supervised every aspect of the seven performances. From editing the libretto to serving as language coach, creating publicity and producing the video- and audio-taped versions, he did it all. The visual aspect of the spectacle proved so stunning that the Museo del Barrio of New York dedicated an exhibit to the costumes that same year.

Although he has officially taught more undergraduates than graduate students, his mentoring has touched many lives. In fact, he was instrumental in launching the careers of several of the contributors to this volume. Whether in the classroom, at conferences or through his participation as an expert outside reader of dissertations and grant proposals, he simultaneously challenges and inspires those who work with him.

Matt’s innovative spirit continually leads him to deviate from established scripts, refracting, reframing and reshaping ideas and disciplines along the way, although he insists that he did not necessarily set out to blaze any trails. He stumbled across Serrano y Sanz’s edition and study of women writers, which led to his early work on Zayas and Caro. His friendship with Dr. Henry W. Sullivan took him down the path toward Lacan, and his participation in the 1989 Paris Lacan Seminar, the first offered in English. Matt’s unique combination of language skills enabled him to follow the trail of the comedia ← xv | xvi → to Amsterdam and beyond. Grounded in philosophical and theoretical considerations and his own personal experiences as a gay man, his exemplary work in the nascent field of queer studies blazed paths that freed others to explore exciting new critical avenues. All told, he has published three single-authored monographs; created over half a dozen editions and translations; written almost fifty journal articles and book chapters; and delivered countless presentations. There is no question, at least in comedia circles, that Matt’s colleagues rue being scheduled in a session concurrent with his: Matt’s room is packed to the proverbial rafters, with few potential audience members for the rest.

His unflinching insistence on intellectual rigor and his dogged commitment to precision may, at times, be misperceived as unyieldingness when, in fact, it underscores his resolute integrity. His unabashed directness and his forthright honesty combine with his candid openness to engender fierce loyalty across generations of scholars—his remarks, prepared and spontaneous, often serve as the catalyst for watershed moments. Matt’s razor sharp wit and singular laugh have graced many a session or exchange. Best known as an encouraging mentor who generously shares both time and knowledge, he is also a fierce competitor on and off the racquetball courts. Because of his erudition, his perspicacity, and his own compelling performances, he commands the respect and admiration of audiences from across our profession. He often quips that he is a legend in his own mind; yet, in fact, his irreverent brilliance radiates, unchecked and uncensored.

Matt has also been actively involved in community engagement, long before that term became an administrative commonplace serving, for example, as President of a nonprofit arts organization (Festival Calderón) in San Antonio. His civic activism and persistence have sparked meaningful dialogue and prompted significant change. He has especially worked to alleviate the suffering of others and to better our world by advocating for the marginalized. To this end, he has been involved, directly or indirectly, in every advance of inclusion of LGBT members of the Trinity University community: from being recognized as gay, to having his beloved partner (now spouse, Tom Davis) invited to University functions, first as a “guest,” then by name; from a decade-long work with his home institution’s benefits committee to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and HIV status, to a university-wide non-discrimination policy, and a recognition of domestic partners, with full medical benefits. Not a bad record, he believes, for a country boy at a Presbyterian university, deep in the heart of Texas!

| xvii →


En la que hablan las editoras

Every editing project requires multiple decisions. Throughout this process, we have tried to make information accessible to the specialist and the non-specialist alike. Thus, quotations from comedia texts are followed by English translations; any published translations used by the individual contributors are included in the references. If a specific translation is not referenced, that means that the authors supplied their own translations. Because of the metrical complexities of Spanish versification in the comedia, few of the translations attempt to capture the meaning within rhyming verse. Nonetheless, the division by virgules of the renditions in English prose roughly approximates the respective verse length in the original. The format that we have chosen to document verses quoted from the comedias strives to provide as much information as possible to facilitate finding the verses in the editions used and beyond. Thus, wherever feasible, we have indicated the details as follows: I.1203–05, 71; that is, Act [I], verse [1203–05], and page [71]; if no page number was readily available, as in the case of many electronic editions, we limit the citation to Act and verse [I.1203–05]. For editions lacking line numbers, the citations will read Act, page [I, 71]. An attempt has been made to standardize certain spellings and terms across all articles.

The most difficult decision we encountered during the final stages of assembling this volume was how to handle the consequences of the untimely and unexpected death of our cherished friend and colleague, Kathleen Regan. Kate fervently wished to contribute to this homage volume as a way of showing her respect and admiration for Matt, given her immense gratitude for all the ways he supported and encouraged her throughout her career. Ever since he served as a reader for her doctoral dissertation, completed at the University ← xvii | xviii → of Chicago, he assumed a pivotal role as mentor and friend. Equally important, Kate was among the scholars named by Matt as those whose presence in the collection would be meaningful to him. Although she was unable to complete the revisions she had planned for her article, we could not conceive of this volume without her presence. While remaining faithful to the original version she submitted, we have made any necessary small corrections and minor stylistic revisions. In this way, we respect Kate’s intellectual property, and honor both Matt and her memory. Although in recent years she had moved away from more traditional scholarship to produce digital documentaries exploring various facets of Spain’s socio-cultural heritage, poignantly, her contribution to this project brings her journey full circle, as she returns to her first academic passion—the comedia and its fascinating women characters.

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Dramatis personae

ISAAC BENABU is Associate Professor of Theater Studies at Hebrew University (Jerusalem). His areas of specialization, with numerous publications, include the public theater in Renaissance Europe, Spanish tragedy, Performance Theory, Early-Medieval Spanish lyric and the comedia. He is the author of Reading for the Stage: Calderón and His Contemporaries, and his current projects include The Problematics of Performance in Renaissance Theater.

WILLIAM R. BLUE is Professor of Spanish at the Pennsylvania State University. In addition to numerous articles on Early Modern Spanish theater, he is the author of three books: The Development of Imagery in Calderón’s Comedias, Comedia: Art and History, and Spanish Comedy and Historical Contexts in the 1620s.

GWYN E. CAMPBELL is Professor of Spanish at Washington and Lee University. She has published or presented on numerous 17th-century dramatists, including Calderón, Lope, Tirso, Azevedo, Vélez de Guevara, Zayas, and Mira de Amescua. The co-founder of GEMELA, her co-edited volumes include: Zayas and Her Sisters: An Anthology of novelas by 17 th-century Spanish Women Writers, Zayas and Her Sisters, II: Essays on novelas by 17 th-century Spanish Women Writers, and a critical edition of Leonor de Meneses’s El desdeñado más firme. Her most recent articles appear in Bulletin of the Comediantes.

CATHERINE CONNOR-SWIETLICKI is Professor of Spanish at the University of Vermont. Her many articles have appeared in such journals as Bulletin of the Comediantes, Cervantes, Comedia Performance, and Latin American Theater Review. Her recent book is entitled Spanish Christian Cabala: The Works of Luis de León, Santa Teresa de Jesús and San Juan de la Cruz, while her monograph in progress is Performance and Neuroscience: Enacting Embodied Cognition On-Stage and Off. ← xix | xx →

MANUEL DELGADO is Professor of Spanish at Bucknell University. His approach to Spanish Golden Age literature is grounded in the fields of philosophy, religion, ethics, political issues, and the history of ideas. Publishers of his numerous articles include: Bulletin of the Comediantes, Bulletin Hispanique, Hispanic Review, Juan de la Cuesta, the Modern Language Association, Ediciones Cátedra; and he is co-editor of The Calderonian Stage: Body and Soul.

EZRA ENGLING is Professor of Spanish at Eastern Kentucky University. His scholarship includes a critical edition of Calderón’s La aurora en Copacabana and articles and reviews published in Bulletin of the Comediantes, Romance Quarterly, Afro-Hispanic Review, and Moroccan Cultural Studies Journal.

SUSAN M. FISCHER is Professor Emerita of Spanish and Comparative Literature at Bucknell University. Author of more than 75 studies on Calderón, Lope, Tirso and Shakespeare, her most recent monograph is Reading Performance: Spanish Golden Age Theater and Shakespeare on the Modern Stage.

BALTASAR FRA-MOLINERO is Professor of Spanish at Bates College. In addition to his many articles, he is author of La imagen de los negros en el teatro del Siglo de Oro, editor of a double issue on Don Quijote and race in Annals of Scholarship: Don Quixote’s Racial Other, and is currently finishing a co-edition and translation of the Vida of Sor Teresa Juliana de Santo Domingo.

EDWARD H. FRIEDMAN is Gertrude Conaway Vanderbilt Professor of Spanish, Professor of Comparative Literature, and Director of the Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities at Vanderbilt University. Editor of the Bulletin of the Comediantes, and past President of the Cervantes Society of America, he has published numerous articles on Early Modern Spanish literature and Wit’s End: An Adaptation of Lope de Vega’s La dama boba (Lang, 2000). His most recent book is The Labyrinth of Love.

KATRINA M. HEIL is Associate Professor of Spanish at East Tennessee State University. Her recent scholarship has focused on the tragedies of Miguel de Unamuno and Antonio Buero Vallejo, and tragedy as a literary genre in general. Recent articles have appeared in Anales de la literatura española contemportánea, Estreno and Redes América.

DAVID J. HILDNER is Professor of Hispanic literature at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. A specialist in the Renaissance and Baroque theater and poetry of Spain, in addition to numerous publications he is author of Reason and the Passions in the Comedias of Calderón and Poetry and Truth in the Spanish Works of Fray Luis de León. ← xx | xxi →

ROBERT M. JOHNSTON is Professor Emeritus of Spanish at Northern Arizona State University. A past President of the Association of Hispanic Classical Theater, he has published articles on Medieval and Golden Age Spanish literature including El libro de buen amor, El poema de mío Cid, Cervantes’s Novelas ejemplares, and Calderón’s dramas de honor.

CATHERINE LARSON is Professor of Spanish at Indiana University. In addition to numerous article-length studies on Spanish and Spanish American theater, she is the author of two monographs: Games and Play in the Theater of Spanish American Women and Language and the Comedia: Theory and Practice. She has also co-edited Latin American Women Dramatists: Theater, Texts and Theories and Brave New Words: Studies in Spanish Golden Age Literature, and translated Zayas’s La traición en la amistad for a bilingual edition of the comedia.

DONALD R. LARSON is Professor Emeritus of Spanish at the Ohio State University. In addition to numerous articles and book chapters on Spanish Golden Age literature and the plays of Lope de Vega in particular, he is author of The Honor Plays of Lope de Vega, co-editor of The Comedia in English: Translation and Performance, and co-compiler/annotator of Lope de Vega Studies, 1937–62: A Critical Survey and Annotated Bibliography. His current book-length project studies visual aspects of the Spanish comedia in the 17th century.

MARYRICA ORTIZ LOTTMAN is Associate Professor of Spanish at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte. She specializes in the representation of gardens and landscapes in Early Modern Hispanic literature. Her many articles and interviews focus on the Spanish comedia and have appeared in such journals as Bulletin of the Comediantes, Cervantes, Comedia Performance, and Romance Quarterly.

BARBARA MUJICA is Professor of Spanish and Associated Faculty in the Department of Performing Arts at Georgetown University and Director of El Retablo Theater Group. She has published and lectured widely on Spanish theater, and her latest books are A New Anthology of Early Modern Spanish Theater: Play and Playtext, and Shakespeare and the Spanish Comedia: Translation, Interpretation, Performance. She is founder and editor of Comedia Performance, and an award-winning novelist.

THOMAS A. O’CONNOR is Distinguished Professor of Spanish at Binghamton University. He has published extensively on Spanish Golden Age literature, specializing in the dramatic works of Calderón and Salazar y Torres. He is author of Myth and Mythology in the Theater of Calderón, Love in the “corral”: Conjugal Spirituality and Anti-theatrical Polemic in Early Modern Spain (Lang, 2000), and, at present, he is editing the Complete Works of Salazar for Edition Reichenberger. ← xxi | xxii →

SUSAN PAUN DE GARCÍA is Professor of Spanish and Associate Provost at Denison University. Her articles have focused on María de Zayas, the 17th-century Spanish comedia, and the post-Baroque comedia of Cañizares and the early 18th century. The current President of the Association of Hispanic Classical Theater, she has co-edited The Comedia in English: Translation and Performance and is currently co-editing Remaking the Comedia.

KATHLEEN REGAN was Professor of Spanish at the University of Portland. Recipient of the US Professor of the Year Teaching Award (2000), she published articles on gender identity in the comedia. Her final research projects focused on the production of documentaries on the Sephardic legacy of Medieval Spain, the Sephardic musical tradition in the diaspora, and Don Quijote.

BARBARA SIMERKA is Associate Professor of Spanish at Queen’s College-CUNY where she specializes in Early Modern Spanish literature. She has published widely in the areas of the comedia, women writers, postcolonial studies and cognitive theory. The editor of three anthologies of scholarly articles, her books include Discourses of Empire and Knowing Subjects: Cognitive Cultural Studies and Early Modern Spanish Literature.

HENRY W. SULLIVAN is Professor of Golden Age Spanish literature at Tulane University. In addition to his extensive array of published articles, his books include: Juan del Encina, Tirso de Molina and the Drama of the Counter Reformation, Calderón in the German Lands, Grotesque Purgatory: A Study of Cervantes’s Don Quixote, Part II, and Hispanic Essays in Honor of Frank P. Casa (Lang, 1997, 1999). His current book-length monograph, When Two Golden Worlds Collide: Bohemia & The Fall of the Spanish European Empire (1576–1700), is a micro-history of cultural relations between Spain and the Kingdom of Bohemia.


XXIII, 373
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2015 (November)
Early Modern Spanish Theater Early Modern Comedias
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2016. XXIII, 373 pp., num. ill.

Biographical notes

Gwyn E. Campbell (Volume editor) Amy R. Williamsen (Volume editor)

Gwyn E. Campbell (PhD, Princeton) is Professor of Spanish at Washington and Lee University. Her co-edited volumes include: Zayas and Her Sisters: An Anthology of Novelas by 17th-century Spanish Women Writers; Zayas and Her Sisters, II: Essays on Novelas by 17th-century Spanish Women Writers; and a critical edition of Leonor de Meneses’s El desdeñado más firme. Amy R. Williamsen (PhD, University of Southern California) is Professor of Spanish at the University of North Carolina-Greensboro. In addition to her book Co(s)mic Chaos: Exploring Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, her co-edited volumes include: Critical Reflections: Essays on Spanish Golden Age Literature in Honor of James A. Parr; Engendering the Early Modern Stage: Women Playwrights in the Spanish Empire; Ingeniosa Invención: Studies in Honor of Professor Geoffrey Stagg; and María de Zayas: The Dynamics of Discourse.


Title: Prismatic Reflections on Spanish Golden Age Theater
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