Facets of Pauline Discourse in Christocentric and Christotelic Perspective

by Dan Lioy (Author)
©2016 Monographs X, 357 Pages
Series: Studies in Biblical Literature, Volume 166


In this thought-provoking study, Dan Lioy asserts that a Christocentric and Christotelic perspective is an unmistakable feature of Paul’s discourse. The journey begins with an analysis of the old Adamic creation in Genesis 1–3 before digressing into representative passages from Paul’s writings, touching on such themes as new creation theology, the apostle’s apocalyptic interpretation of reality, and his theology of the cross. Then Lioy examines the influence of the Old Testament on Paul’s Christological outlook, how the apostle viewed Satan operating as the counterfeit word, and the way in which the writings of Paul correlate with the letter from James, leading into a deliberation that Paul, rather than Christ, is to be seen as a new or second Moses. Contrast is then provided regarding the historical authenticity of the Adam character in Paul’s discourse, along with the Genesis creation narratives. Facets of Pauline Discourse in Christocentric and Christotelic Perspective is the ideal volume for college and seminary classes dealing with the teaching and theology of Paul.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Series Editor’s Preface
  • Chapter One: Prologue
  • Chapter Two: A biblical and theological analysis of the old Adamic creation in Genesis 1–3
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 The creation week (Gen 1:1–2:3)
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The primordial earth (Gen 1:1–2)
  • 2.3 The first creation day (Gen 1:3–5)
  • 2.4 The second creation day (Gen 1:6–8)
  • 2.5 The third creation day (Gen 1:9–13)
  • 2.6 The fourth creation day (Gen 1:14–19)
  • 2.7 The fifth creation day (Gen 1:20–23)
  • 2.8 The sixth creation day (Gen 1:24–2:1)
  • 3.0 The special creation of the first man and woman (Gen 2:4–25)
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 The special creation of the first man (Gen 2:4–7)
  • 3.3 The placement of the first man in the Garden of Eden (Gen 2:8–17)
  • 3.4 The special creation of the first woman (Gen 2:18–24)
  • 4.0 The fall of the first man and woman (Gen 3:1–24)
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 The advent of sin (Gen 3:1–7)
  • 4.3 The aftermath of sin (Gen 3:8–24)
  • 5.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Three: New creation theology in 2 Corinthians 5:11–6:2
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 The concept of new creation theology within the Pauline corpus
  • 3.0 The Old Adamic Creation in Genesis 1–3
  • 4.0 Background information from relevant Old Testament passages and extra-canonical Jewish writings
  • 5.0 The new creation theology of Paul in Second Corinthians 5:11–6:2
  • 6.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Four: Paul’s apocalyptic interpretation of reality: A case study analysis of Ephesians 1:15–23
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 Paul’s apocalyptic view of reality against the backdrop of diverse cultural contexts
  • 3.0 Paul’s apocalyptic interpretation of reality in Ephesians 1:15–23
  • 4.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Five: Paul’s theology of the cross: A case study analysis of 2 Corinthians 11:16–12:10
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 A synopsis of Paul’s theology of the cross from a confessional Lutheran perspective
  • 3.0 Paul’s theology of the cross in 2 Corinthians 11:16–12:10
  • 4.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Six: A comparative analysis of the Song of Moses and Paul’s speech to the Athenians
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 Literary parallels between the Song of Moses and Paul’s speech to the Athenians
  • 2.1 The organizational scheme for the Song of Moses (Deut. 31:30–32:44)
  • 2.2 The organizational scheme for Paul’s Speech to the Athenians (Acts 17:16–34)
  • 3.0 Conceptual and linguistic parallels between the Song of Moses and Paul’s speech to the Athenians
  • 3.1 An analysis of the Song of Moses
  • 3.2 An analysis of Paul’s speech to the Athenians
  • 4.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Seven: Opposing Satan, the counterfeit word
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 An analysis of what Scripture reveals about Satan, his minions, and how the devil operates through them
  • 3.0 A case study analysis: Jesus’ temptation in the wilderness (Matt 4:1–11; Mark 1:12–13; Luke 4:1–11)
  • 4.0 A biblical response to Satan’s diabolical schemes (Eph 6:10–20)
  • 5.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Eight: Putting the Letter from James in its place: A candid assessment of its continuing theological value
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 Background considerations related to James
  • 3.0 The biblical concept of the law
  • 4.0 The biblical concept of wisdom
  • 5.0 The interrelationship between the Mosaic Law, faith, and good deeds
  • 6.0 The Christological emphases found in James
  • 7.0 The emphasis on law and wisdom in James
  • 8.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Nine: Making the case for Paul, not Jesus, as a new or second Moses
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 Jesus’ absolute supremacy over all Old Testament individuals and institutions
  • 3.0 Jesus’ unrivaled preeminence over Moses
  • 4.0 Viewing the arc of redemptive history through the prism of Jesus’ atoning sacrifice
  • 5.0 Excursus: The new perspective on Paul (or NPP)
  • 6.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Ten: Two contrasting views on the historical authenticity of the Adam character in the Genesis creation narratives
  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 2.0 An overview of Did Adam and Eve Really Exist? (Collins 2011)
  • 2.1 A brief synopsis of the author and the contents of his work
  • 2.2 A detailed synopsis of the individual chapters of the author’s work
  • 2.2.1 Introduction (chap. 1)
  • 2.2.2 The shape of the biblical story (chap. 2)
  • 2.2.3 Particular texts that speak of Adam and Eve (chap. 3)
  • 2.2.4 Human uniqueness and dignity (chap. 4)
  • 2.2.5 Can science help us pinpoint ‘Adam and Eve’? (chap. 5)
  • 2.2.6 Conclusions (chap. 6)
  • 3.0 An overview of the Evolution of Adam (Enns 2012)
  • 3.1 A brief synopsis of the author and the contents of his work
  • 3.2 A detailed synopsis of the individual chapters of the author’s work
  • 3.2.1 Introduction
  • 3.2.2 Genesis and the challenges of the nineteenth century: Science, biblical criticism, and biblical archaeology (chap. 1)
  • 3.2.3 When was Genesis written? (chap. 2)
  • 3.2.4 Stories of origins from Israel’s neighbors (chap. 3)
  • 3.2.5 Israel and primordial time (chap. 4)
  • 3.2.6 Paul’s Adam and the Old Testament (chap. 5)
  • 3.2.7 Paul as an ancient interpreter of the Old Testament (chap. 6)
  • 3.2.8 Paul’s Adam (chap. 7)
  • 3.2.9 Conclusion: Adam today: Nine theses
  • 4.0 Conclusion
  • Chapter Eleven: Epilogue
  • Bibliography
  • Subject Index
  • Ancient Sources Index
  • Series index

| ix →

Series Editor’s Preface

More than ever the horizons in biblical literature are being expanded beyond that which is immediately imagined; important new methodological, theological, and hermeneutical directions are being explored, often resulting in significant contributions to the world of biblical scholarship. It is an exciting time for the academy as engagement in biblical studies continues to be heightened.

This series seeks to make available to scholars and institutions, scholarship of a high order, and which will make a significant contribution to the ongoing biblical discourse. This series includes established and innovative directions, covering general and particular areas in biblical study. For every volume considered for this series, we explore the question as to whether the study will push the horizons of biblical scholarship. The answer must be yes for inclusion.

In this volume, Daniel Lioy builds and expands on his previous works focusing on Genesis and the manner in which Paul incorporates and constructs what the author terms his “Christocentric and Christotelic perspective.” Predicated on the general Christian understanding of the organic relationship between the Old Testament and the New Testament, the author provides a cogent biblical and theological analysis of Genesis 1-3, creating a link with the “new creation theology in the writings of Paul.” This he argues is the literary framework for the theological foundation for the appraisal of Paul’s Christocentric and Christotelic discourse. The author focuses more on a close reading of the text and primary sources, rather ← ix | x → than secondary literature, though he is attentive to those as well. Lioy’s ongoing examination of this relationship provides a basis for still further discourse on this theme.

The horizon has been expanded.

Hemchand Gossai
Series Editor

| 1 →


This monograph takes as its starting point my previous research dealing with creation themes in Scripture, especially in connection with the writings of Paul. For instance, in chapter 2 of the present study, I have reworked material appearing in my following three earlier monographs:1 The search for ultimate reality: intertextuality between the Genesis and Johannine prologues (2005); Axis of glory: a biblical and theological analysis of the temple motif in Scripture (2010); and Evolutionary creation in biblical and theological perspective (2011). Concisely synthesizing and updating my prior research in this way enables me to build a conceptual bridge to the information that follows in the remaining chapters of this treatise dealing with various facets of Pauline discourse in Christocentric and Christotelic perspective.2

Additionally, the impetus for the upcoming disquisition emerges from a class titled Paul and his legacy,3 which I teach each year for the Institute of Lutheran ← 1 | 2 → Theology. The course provides seminary students with an introduction to the apostle’s epistles.4 Along with overviewing the form and content of Paul’s writings, the class explores their historical underpinnings and theological importance.5 In connection with my ongoing research agenda in this area, each time I teach the course, I spend a portion of the semester with my students considering ways in which eschatological and apocalyptic themes are a defining characteristic of the Pauline corpus. From one year to the next, a variety of seminarians have responded with a considerable amount of engaging discussion, and it has helped to further shape my own views on the Christological contours of Paul’s thought.6

With respect to the issue of Christology, Fee (2007:1) restricts the term’s conceptual horizon ‘exclusively’ to the ‘person’ of the Messiah. Fee’s intentional demarcation between Jesus’ person and work arises from the tendency within contemporary scholarship to bifurcate who the Son is from His redemptive activity (otherwise known as soteriology). Boers (2006:3) mirrors this perspective when he insists that Paul understood the Messiah only as a ‘real being, not a theological ← 2 | 3 → idea’; yet, this view sets up a false dichotomy, in which existential aspects of Paul’s Christology allegedly do not lead to any propositional inferences. In contrast, the study that follows endeavors to articulate theological conceptualizations arising from Paul’s discourse about Jesus of Nazareth. Concerning Fee (2007:1), he acknowledges that Paul did not differentiate between Jesus’ person and work. This is one reason why, as this treatise unfolds, no attempt is made to either separate out or contrast the ontological and functional aspects of Paul’s teaching concerning Jesus of Nazareth. In point of fact, deliberations about the Son’s full divinity and humanity appear together with considerations of His sacrificial death at Calvary.

As for the task of exploring Paul’s Christological thought, instead of adopting a ‘narrative approach’ (Fee 2007:4), the preceding author utilizes a combination of ‘exegetical’ analysis and theological synthesis (10). Fee’s preferred methodology notwithstanding, this study draws upon a narrative approach, along with other methodologies, to appraise the Christocentric and Christotelic aspects of Paul’s discourse. In Fee’s landmark tome (16), he identifies the following as the major Christological texts in the Pauline corpus emphasizing the Son’s personhood: 1 Corinthians 8:6; Philippians 2:6–11; and Colossians 1:12–17. As a result of doing so, Fee draws attention to three overarching, interrelated themes dealing with the Messiah’s ontology (481–2):7 (1) Jesus as the divine Savior; (2) Jesus as the second Adam, who overturns the catastrophe brought about by the first Adam; and, (3) Jesus as the eternal, preexistent Son of God and exalted Lord of the universe, who is revealed in the Messianic prophecies of the Hebrew sacred writings.

Fee (2007:530) maintains that the title, ‘Son of God’, points to the ‘relationship’ between Jesus and the Father; in contrast, the title, ‘Lord’ (which is equivalent to the Tetragrammaton, or divine name, ‘Yahweh’), spotlights Jesus’ ‘relationship’ to the Church and the ‘world’. Tilling (2012), in his seminal study, builds on the work of Fee (among other specialists) by maintaining that Paul conceptualized and structured his Christological understanding of the Savior using ‘relational’ (243) categories of thought. According to Tilling (254), this ‘relational emphasis’ is influenced by Paul’s ‘Jewish faith in God’, as expressed in the Hebrew sacred canonical writings and texts from Second Temple Judaism. Specifically, an analysis of this literature indicates a ‘pattern of language involving the relation between Israel/individual Israelites’ and Yahweh. Also, against the backdrop of idolatrous ← 3 | 4 → beliefs and practices among Israel’s neighbors, there is a staunchly ‘monotheistic’ emphasis on the Creator’s ‘transcendent uniqueness’. In turn, Tilling surmises that this manner of communication finds strong parallels in the way Paul intentionally articulated the relationship between the Church/individual ‘believers’ (255) and the ‘risen Lord’.8 Tilling deduces that within the context of Greco-Roman polytheism, Paul’s writings both affirm Jewish monotheism and a ‘divine-Christology’.

In terms of the present treatise, a concerted effort is made to elucidate the unity and plurality of the biblical witness within selected Old and New Testament writings, especially those of Paul. In doing so, I have followed the basic guidelines of hermeneutics: (1) use the grammatical-historical method; (2) understand the context; (3) determine the type of literature; (4) properly interpret figurative language; and, (5) let Scripture interpret Scripture (especially its intertextual connections). Furthermore, to comprehend the background of a biblical passage, I have considered the immediate context,9 the remote context,10 and the historical context.11

In my exposition of God’s Word, I have sought to balance a methodologically critical approach with a predominately classical, ecumenical, and historically orthodox perspective. The latter includes an affirmation of the following: (1) the centrality of the Lord Jesus; (2) the inspiration, integrity, and authority of the canonical texts;12 and, (3) the reliability of the creeds and confessions13 of the early Church as faithful guides in interpreting the Bible. I think this stance helps to preserve the clarity of the scriptural message, especially as it relates to the good news about the Messiah promised and foretold in the Old Testament.

Because a classical Christian perspective affirms a unity throughout the ancient sacred writings, it also recognizes a literary and theological connection between the Old Testament and New Testament. Specifically, the Old Testament points forward to Jesus and His saving work, while the New Testament tells people of faith how Jesus, as the embodied presence of Israel’s God, fulfilled the Old Testament messianic prophecies. So, when the New Testament retrospectively speaks about an Old Testament passage as fulfilled by Jesus, this is viewed as the full and correct theological meaning of the Old Testament passage. ← 4 | 5 →

On one level, the Judeo-Christian Scriptures record the unfolding drama of redemption involving the Creator and His creation, including humankind; on another level, this theocentric outlook is complemented by a Christocentric perspective, one in which the God-man, Jesus of Nazareth, is declared to be the Agent of creation and the new (spiritual) beginning for all who are baptismally united to Him by faith. The writings of Paul, along with the rest of the New Testament corpus, affirm that the Son came to earth to fulfill the salvific promises the Father made to His chosen people through such luminaries as Abraham, Moses, and David. Also, like other New Testament writers, Paul considered Jesus to be the principal focus of the Judeo-Christian canon. In this regard, Hurtado (1997:155) observes that the ‘Pauline letters show a well-developed pattern of Christ-devotion’.

To put a fine point on the preceding observation, Jesus is the nexus, apex, and consummation of the redemptive-historical, narrative arc of Scripture. The technical locution, ‘Christotelic’, succinctly conveys the latter nuance. Enns (2015:182) clarifies that the term points to an ‘apostolic hermeneutic’ in which the Hebrew sacred writings are seen as ‘moving toward the climactic event’14 of the Messiah’s ‘death and resurrection’. As Green (2010:37) explains, this ‘full-canon approach’ both affirms the organic, metaphysical link between the Testaments and seeks to interpret God’s Word in a responsible and objective manner. McCartney (2003) adds that the exegete does so in the following ways: (1) respecting the meaning of an Old Testament passage in its original cultural, historical, and literary contexts; (2) affirming the text’s inspiration, authority, and coherency; and, (3) valuing the potential messianic import of the passage in light of the Savior’s advent.15

Ferguson (2002:7) likens the Messiah to a ‘prism where all light converges’. In this analogy, Jesus’ followers stand ‘within the light of New Testament revelation’. On the one hand, as they turn their gaze ‘back on the Old Testament’, they perceive the ‘white light of the unity of the truth’ of the Son ‘broken down into its constituent colors’ within and throughout the Hebrew sacred writings; on the other hand, as believers look ahead, they recognize ‘how the multicolored strands of the Old Testament revelation converge’ on the Savior and ‘unite’ in Him.16 A case in point would be Paul’s usage of Deuteronomy 30:12–14 in Romans 10:6–8. As ← 5 | 6 → noted in chapter 9 of this study, the apostle skillfully appropriates a portion of the Torah from an eschatological perspective. In doing so, Paul goes beyond a strictly literal interpretation of the Old Testament passage by depicting ‘righteousness’ as speaking for God. This, along with the apostle’s interjection of his own thoughts, reflects a Jewish form of exposition common in his day known as Midrash.

In keeping with what was stated earlier, chapter 2 revisits subjects I previously deliberated. The endeavor is to provide a biblical and theological analysis of the old Adamic creation in Genesis 1–3.17 In turn, a thematic link is made between the latter and new creation theology in the writings of Paul. Specifically, the opening chapters of Genesis provide the literary backdrop for appreciating and the theological foundation for appraising Paul’s Christocentric and Christotelic discourse. Given the expansive and sometimes inchoate nature of the apostle’s writings, it is unrealistic to attempt an exhaustive study of all the possible texts that might relate directly or indirectly to the research agenda. A more sensible and workable approach involves examining judiciously chosen, representative passages that strongly correlate with the main intent of this treatise.

To that end, the third chapter presents an analysis of 2 Corinthians 5:11–6:2 to confirm that new creation theology is a defining characteristic of Paul’s teaching. Specifically, this passage indicates that the Lord Jesus is the beginning, middle, and culmination for all physical and spiritual existence. Chapter 4 advances the ← 6 | 7 → discussion by exploring Paul’s apocalyptic interpretation of reality through a case study analysis of Ephesians 1:15–23.18 A primary assertion is that the apostle’s eschatological worldview exercised a controlling influence on his Christological assertions, both directly and indirectly.

Chapter 5 explores the crucicentric facet of Paul’s teaching by deliberating 2 Corinthians 11:16–12:10.19 The major premise is that apostle’s theology of the cross20 helps to clarify further his Christocentric and Christotelic-oriented, apocalyptic view of reality. The sixth chapter considers the issue of how the apostle’s Christological outlook was shaped by the Old Testament and transformed by the cross-resurrection event. In particular, a comparative analysis of Deuteronomy 32 and Acts 1721 indicates that at a literary, conceptual, and linguistic level, Paul connected his message to the Athenians with the theological perspective of the Song of Moses (and more broadly with that of the Tanakh). Expressed differently, the apostle’s speech about the advent of the Messiah is thoroughly grounded in the teleological mindset of the Torah.

The next three chapters direct attention to additional facets of Paul’s Christological discourse. The strategy intentionally includes an assessment of pertinent New Testament passages outside the Pauline corpus. This affirms the supposition articulated by Fanning (2015:2492) of both ‘continuity and advance in ← 7 | 8 → God’s redemptive plan’, as revealed in the Judeo-Christian canon.22 For instance, chapter 7 deliberates the ways in which Satan operates as the counterfeit word to the Savior, especially within the context of an end-time backdrop. Along with examining Ephesians 6:10–20,23 the discourse takes into consideration Jesus’ temptation in the wilderness.24 The Gospels reveal that Jesus relied on the Word of God to thwart the devil’s attacks. This Christocentric and Christotelic truth is complimented by Paul’s exhortation to Jesus’ followers to make full use of Scripture in parrying Satan’s attacks.

In chapter 8, the letter from James is correlated with the teachings of Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels and the writings of Paul, especially around the issue of justification by faith. The analysis indicates that all three portions of Scripture operate from an eschatologically-oriented mindset, in which the kingdom of God is inaugurated, yet awaits a future consummation. There is also the realization that the end-time message of salvation presented in James is in essential agreement with the Christological stance put forward by Paul (in his writings) and taught by Jesus (in the Gospels).

Next, chapter 9 offers a critique of the commonly held view in scholarly circles that Jesus is a new or second Moses. An alternative thesis is offered, namely, that it is better to regard Paul in this way. This premise is substantiated by an analysis ← 8 | 9 → of the Transfiguration episode recorded in the Synoptic Gospels,25 along with the explanation in Hebrews 3:1–6 of the way in which Jesus’ preeminence over Moses is unrivaled. Furthermore, it is argued that Paul, in his prophetic-apostolic role, taught that the arc of redemptive history should be viewed through the prism of Jesus’ atoning sacrifice at Calvary. This Christocentric and Christotelic assertion is confirmed by the apostle’s use of Deuteronomy 8:17, 9:4, and 30:12–14 in Romans 10:6–8.

Chapter 10 offers a comparison between the presuppositions made and deductions conveyed by Collins (2011) and Enns (2012) regarding the historical authenticity of the Adam character (and to a lesser extent Eve) in the Genesis creation narratives. The discourse includes each authors’ respective discussions of relevant passages within the Pauline corpus,26 especially as these texts relate to the apostle’s Christological treatment of the opening chapters of Genesis. Lastly, chapter 11 brings closure to the treatise by restating its main objective and concisely elucidating its primary findings.

Some observations are in order about the method I used to write this monograph. In contrast to my previous academic works, I composed the first draft of chapters 2 through 10 before consulting in earnest any secondary sources. One objective was to move inductively through selective, interrelated themes and passages and allow this process to shape unambiguously my initial observations, deliberations, and conclusions. A second objective was to ensure that my research was connected as directly as possible with the primary source documents being examined. After that, I made a concerted effort to engage a broad range of publications. The intent has been to let these scholarly treatises serve as indirect conversation partners to guide, inform, and substantiate my examination of God’s Word. For a ← 9 | 10 → representative (though not exhaustive) list of various works providing a meticulous analysis on specialized topics explored in this monograph, readers can consult the bibliography included at the end of the volume.

A note of appreciation is expressed to the Editorial Board of Conspectus27 for permission to use portions of the following journal articles:28

Lioy D 2012. Review article: two contrasting views on the historical authenticity of the Adam character in the Genesis creation narratives. Conspectus. 12 (1) 191–228 (used in chap. 10).

Lioy D 2013b. A comparative analysis of the Song of Moses and Paul’s speech to the Athenians. Conspectus. 16 (1) 1–45 (used in chap. 6).

Lioy D 2014b. New creation theology in 2 Corinthians 5:11–6:2. Conspectus. 17 (1) 53–87 (used in chap. 3).

Lioy D 2014c. Opposing Satan, the counterfeit word. Conspectus. 18 (1) 2–34 (used in chap. 7).

Lioy D 2015a. Paul’s apocalyptic interpretation of reality: a case study analysis of Ephesians 1:15–23. Conspectus. 19 (1) 27–64 (used in chap. 4).

Lioy D 2015b. Paul’s theology of the cross: a case study analysis of 2 Corinthians 11:16–12:10. Conspectus. 20 (1) 89–148 (used in chap. 5).

Lioy D 2016. Putting the letter from James in its place: a candid assessment of its continuing theological value. Conspectus. 21 (1) 41–76 (used in chap. 8).

As with my previous academic treatises, the current monograph seeks to be as clear and accessible as possible for the benefit of both specialist and non-specialist readers. To that end, beginning with chapter 2, I refrain from filling every paragraph and page with an excessive number of formal citations from secondary sources. The reality is that the majority of relevant exegetical and theological works frequently convey the same sort of information on the biblical passages being deliberated in this book. That said, my study charts its own course, in accordance with the premises I articulated above.

So, for the sake of expediency, I indicate using footnotes strategically placed within each chapter, the representative secondary sources that have influenced the discourse in any section wherein biblical texts are exposited. For the Old Testament, the Masoretic Text, as published in the latest edition of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, has been used. Similarly, for the New Testament, the latest editions ← 10 | 11 → of the Nestle-Aland/United Bible Societies’ Novum Testamentum Graece, have been used. Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture quotations are taken from the 2011 version of the NIV.

Readers will notice that the locution in this monograph is somewhat technical in places. This includes lexical definitions, observations about the grammar and syntax of various passages, and so forth. The bulk of this sort of information appearing in chapters 2 through 10 can be found in a number of standard reference works. The ones I regularly consulted are listed below to avoid cluttering the upcoming chapters with recurrent citations and to keep the discussion as straightforward and understandable as possible.

For the Old Testament

A dictionary of biblical languages: Hebrew Old Testament (J Swanson); Hebrew Bible insert: a student’s guide to the syntax of biblical Hebrew (FC Putnam); New international dictionary of Old Testament theology and exegesis (WA VanGemeren, ed.); Semantic dictionary of biblical Hebrew (R de Blois R and ER Mueller, eds.); The enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English lexicon (F Brown, SR Driver, and CA Briggs); Theological dictionary of the Old Testament (GJ Botterweck, H Ringgren, and H-J Fabry, eds.); Theological lexicon of the Old Testament (E Jenni and C Westermann, eds.); Theological wordbook of the Old Testament (RL Harris, GL Archer, and BK Waltke, eds.); The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament (L Koehler and W Baumgartner)

For the New Testament

A dictionary of biblical languages: Greek New Testament (J Swanson); A grammar of the Greek New Testament (N Turner, JH Moulton, and WF Howard); A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (FW Danker, ed.); Exegetical dictionary of the New Testament (H Balz and G Schneider, eds.); Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament based on semantic domains (JP Louw and EA Nida, eds.); Greek grammar beyond the basics: an exegetical syntax of the New Testament (DB Wallace); Greek New Testament insert (B Chapman and GS Shogren); New international dictionary of New Testament theology (C Brown, ed.); New international dictionary of New Testament theology and exegesis (M Silva, ed.); The new linguistic and exegetical key to the Greek New Testament (CL Rogers); Theological dictionary of the New Testament (G Kittel and G Friedrich, eds.); and Theological lexicon of the New Testament (C Spicq) ← 11 | 12 →

As a final point, the rationale, scope, and sequence of this treatise seeks to be substantive, rather than exhaustive, in its consideration of representative aspects of Paul’s Christological locution. While numerous other biblical texts could be included, this study regards the passages under consideration in the following chapters to be sufficient to establish the key theoretical argument of the monograph. In brief, a Christocentric and Christotelic perspective is an unmistakable feature of Paul’s discourse.

More specifically, as Backhaus (2012:83) maintains, the apostle’s epistolary texts reveal that the Lord Jesus ‘occupies the hermeneutic center of the cognitive universe’. Similarly, Walton (2015:161) opines that ‘Jesus is the keystone’ in the Creator’s redemptive ‘plan’ to ‘resolve disorder’, as well as ‘perfect order’. Furthermore, in concert with Jacob’s summary thoughts (1958:148), not only is the Messiah the telos (or ‘final goal’) of the Godhead’s great creation project, but also He is moving the cosmos to eschatological ‘perfection’. Likewise, in spiritual union with Him, ‘undivided humankind’ is ‘fulfilled, restored, and redeemed’ (84).

1. These three monographs are published by Peter Lang.

2. This study recognizes substantial conceptual overlap between the terms ‘Christological’, ‘Christocentric’, and ‘Christotelic’, notwithstanding the definitional distinctions articulated below. For this reason, when these terms are used in the treatise, it is intentionally done in synonymous ways to convey closely related ideas.


X, 357
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2016 (April)
paul christocentrism adam genesis
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2016. X, 357 pp.

Biographical notes

Dan Lioy (Author)

Dan Lioy earned his PhD in New Testament from North-West University (NWU) in South Africa. He is a professor at the Potchefstroom Campus of NWU, Senior Research Manager in the Postgraduate School of South African Theological Seminary, and a permanent faculty member in the graduate programs division of the Institute of Lutheran Theology. Lioy is also an ordained minister in the North American Lutheran Church. Three of his earlier Peter Lang monographs include Evolutionary Creation in Biblical and Theological Perspective (2011), Axis of Glory (2010), and The Search for Ultimate Reality (2005).


Title: Facets of Pauline Discourse in Christocentric and Christotelic Perspective
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