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Becoming Fiction

Reassessing Atheism in Dürrenmatt's «Stoffe»

by Olivia Gabor-Peirce (Author)
Monographs VI, 288 Pages

Summary

Becoming Fiction: Reassessing Atheism in Dürrenmatt’s Stoffe sets forth a clarification of the importance of Friedrich Dürrenmatt, modern Swiss dramatist, essayist, novelist and self-proclaimed atheist (1921–1990), and offers new insights into the ways in which his father’s vocation as a Protestant minister, along with Dürrenmatt’s own decision as a young man to pursue a career in writing rather than religion, shaped his world view and, in particular, made necessary a final, desperate attempt to fictionally recast his own life through revisions and amplifications of many of his earlier works when he created his final prose volume, Stoffe. Dürrenmatt devoted immense energy in his writings to wrestling with his father’s God as a way of seeking self-identity. That perceived loss of his father’s esteem became the motor behind his works. After earlier successes, the icy reception of his most ambitious play, Der Mitmacher, in 1976, left the author in such a frustrated state of disappointment that he reached a point of linguistic breakdown. This book contends that Dürrenmatt’s loss of voice forced the author to a new kind of writing: a ‘re-turn’ home. Becoming Fiction explores the damage caused by Dürrenmatt’s inability to express his most central beliefs through the outdated, deceptive modes of linguistic thought and tradition. Consequently, the book argues, at the point of that breakdown of rigid linguistic and theological concepts, a space was forced open, and the Stoffe reveal a Divine presence.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Chapter 1: Introduction: Searching for Home
  • The “schwierigste[r] Moment meines Lebens”
  • Rejection of Tradition
  • Atemwende
  • Heimat
  • Expressing the Inexpressible
  • Chapter 2
  • Mitmacher-Komplex
  • Language
  • Chapter 3
  • God and Religion
  • Philosophy and Science
  • Chapter 4
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 2: Stoffe: The Story of a Life
  • Stoff
  • Fiction versus Nonfiction
  • Heimkehr and Wiederholung
  • Becoming Self—Becoming Text
  • Der Mitmacher
  • Loss and Failure
  • Atemwende
  • A New Writing
  • The Chaos of Identity
  • Background and (Non)sequential Development of the Stoffe
  • Autobiography as “Stoff”—Documented Fragments of a Life
  • 1970
  • 1974
  • Fragments of Identity
  • Home—Geografie der Kindheit
  • Forgetting
  • The Visit “Home”
  • Genre
  • Das Schreckliche
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 3: Dürrenmatt and God
  • Religion Versus Faith
  • Dürrenmatt the Protestant
  • Dürrenmatt Biography and Religion
  • The Father
  • Father or Godfather
  • Writing Memory
  • Mother
  • Leaving Home and the Labyrinth
  • Decision—Malen, Studieren or Schreiben
  • Labyrinth and Decision
  • Philosophy and Decision
  • Leap of Faith and Decision
  • Crossing Over
  • Kierkegaard—The Single Individual
  • Hegel and Kierkegaard
  • Christian Faith—Infinite Resignation
  • Dürrenmatt and Kierkegaard—The Individual
  • Indirect Communication
  • Philosophy and Metaphysics
  • Dialectical Thinking
  • Faith and Doubt
  • Failure—Schlimmstmögliche Wendung
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 4: Labyrinth Turmbau. Stoffe I–IX
  • 4.1 Der Winterkrieg in Tibet
  • Der Winterkrieg in Tibet
  • Grotesque Metaphors of Borders
  • The Stoffe on the Wall
  • The Museum of Self-Awareness
  • Plato’s Cave
  • Nietzsche and the Self
  • Exiting the Cave
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • 4.2 Mondfinsternis: Home by Chance
  • Returning Home
  • The Village as a Grotesque Parody of Home
  • Zufallsdramaturgie
  • Memoirs of Death
  • Son of a Pastor
  • Sexuality
  • Alcohol and Sexuality
  • Religion
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • 4.3 Der Rebell
  • Early Years
  • Subjectivity Above Objectivity
  • Failure and the Lonely Individual
  • The Lonely Rebel
  • Der Rebell
  • Mother
  • The Mirror and Its Reflection
  • Reflection of God
  • Unresolved Deception
  • The Labyrinth as Mirror
  • Note
  • Bibliography
  • 4.4 Begegnungen
  • Passageways through Memories
  • Cocooned within Fiction—Primed for a Transformation
  • Illness, Death, and God
  • Begegnungen
  • Death and God
  • Death and Imagination
  • Death, Destruction, and “Glaubenswirren”
  • Encounters with Death by Association
  • The Butcher’s Shop and the Autopsy Room: The Uncanny
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • 4.5 Querfahrt
  • Forgetting and Remembering
  • Querfahrt as Labyrinth
  • Forgetting the Wallis, Jean Paul Richter, and the Resurrection
  • Impossible to Return
  • Resurrection from the Dead
  • “von Irrweg zu Irrweg”
  • Hatred for God
  • Durcheinandertal
  • Der Turmbau zu Babel
  • Grace Rejected
  • Inferiority
  • The End
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • 4.6 Die Brücke
  • The Bridge as a Metaphor
  • Die Brücke
  • Subject Versus Object
  • The Split Subject
  • Chance and Physics
  • Modern Physics
  • Truth and Hypothesis
  • Physics
  • Crossing the Bridge
  • Textual Origins and God
  • Faith: “Das Mögliche ist Ungeheuer”
  • Falling into the Abyss
  • Faith and Rationality
  • Fear and Failure—A Paradox to Reaching God
  • Two Metaphors, One Definition
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • 4.7 Das Haus
  • Failure, Schlimmstmögliche Wendung, “Hundedreck”
  • Philosophy
  • Kant’s Philosophy
  • Kant and the Limits of Logic
  • Kierkegaard and Die Stadt
  • Die Stadt as Way to Freedom
  • Section Two
  • Auto- und Eisenbahnstaaten
  • Der Tod des Sokrates
  • Section Three
  • Das Haus
  • When Logic Fails
  • Mansarde: A Religious Experience
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • 4.8 Vinter
  • Breakdown—Language
  • Physics and Language
  • Language and God
  • Religion and God
  • Karl Barth, Father, Grace, and God
  • Grace
  • Vinter: “Ein Hinausrennen ist ein Hineinrennen”
  • Trapped and Lonely
  • Becoming Stoff
  • Via Negativa—Deus Abscondicus
  • The Risk of Overcoming
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • 4.9 Das Hirn
  • Das Hirn
  • Das Hirn, the Abyss, Fear
  • Turmbau, Language and God
  • Conception of Das Hirn
  • Author as Creator
  • Enter the Divine
  • Atemwende
  • Philosophical Implications
  • Breakdown
  • Deus Incomprehensibilis
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 5: Conclusion
  • Labyrinth. Stoffe I–III
  • Turmbau: Stoffe IV–IX
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Series index

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INTRODUCTION

Searching for Home

Dichtung: das kann eine Atemwende bedeuten. Wer weiss, vielleicht legt Dichtung den Weg […] um einer solchen Atemwende willen zurück? Vielleicht gelingt es ihr […] hier, zwischen Fremd und Fremd zu unterscheiden, […] für diesen einmaligen kurzen Augenblick? Vielleicht wird hier, mit dem Ich – mit dem hier und solcherart freigesetzten befremdeten Ich, – vielleicht wird hier noch ein Anderes frei?

—Paul Celan Der Meridian (225)

EIN DRÖHNEN: es ist

die Wahrheit selbst

unter die Menschen

getreten,

mitten ins

Metapherngestöber.

—Paul Celan Atemwende (159)

In his essay Zusammenhänge. Essay über Israel: Eine Konzeption (1976), the modern Swiss dramatist and novelist Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921–1990) described a pure form of communication that reveals an inexpressible sense of the presence of the divine. While flying above the desert on his way home from Israel (1974), Dürrenmatt recalled: “Der Gott der Wüste […] lässt sich nur erleben in der Erschütterung, so dass denn Glauben nicht in Für-wahr-Halten, sondern ein Erschüttertsein bedeutet, das durch nichts bewiesen werden kann ← 1 | 2 → und das auch nicht bewiesen werden muss” (175).1 The author could not verbalize that unsettling experience. Though well known as a dramatist at that time, he realized that God needs nothing “Theatralisches” “weil, wer ist, keinen Schein braucht, um sein Sein zu beweisen” (14–15). Such comments reveal what Dürrenmatt understood already in the early 1970s: the divine does not follow manmade rules and does not need to prove its existence. The divine exists and acts outside of concepts, in “Erschütterung.” True faith does not follow rationally, is not bound by rationality, and is prelinguistic. It cannot be proven.

Dürrenmatt was a self-proclaimed atheist. Numerous examples from his countless anti-God statements, personal pronouncements, fictional, and autobiographical writings and from his critics, seem to testify to the veracity of this assertion. For example, Rudolf Probst, the well-known Dürrenmatt critic, came to the conclusion in Glauben und Wissen that Dürrenmatt of the Stoffe decided against a Christian faith, against a Kierkegaardian leap of faith and instead: “zugunsten der beschränkten, menschlichen Vernunft und vermeidet damit den Sprung in den religiösen und metaphysischen Bereich des Glaubens […]” (79). Dürrenmatt’s late works are his most personal works, and the works most distinctly representative of a life tortured by deep suffering and doubt in the world, in self, and in God. This book will focus on the late, double-volume collection of prose entitled Stoffe: Labyrinth. Stoffe I–III and Turmbau. Stoffe IV–IX (1990),2 illuminating the motivations (i.e., failures) that drove the author to write these texts as death drew near. On the very first page, Dürrenmatt admitted: “Der Tod rückt näher, das Leben verflüchtigt sich. Indem es sich verflüchtigt, will man es gestalten; indem man es gestaltet, verfälscht man es: So kommen die falschen Bilanzen zustande” (Labyrinth 11). Dürrenmatt, a self-proclaimed atheist, struggled to overcome his past experiences with his religious father by returning to those memories before death overcame him. He accomplished this by returning to his fiction: “Wenn ich trotzdem über mich schreibe, so nicht über die Geschichte meines Lebens, sondern über die Geschichte meiner Stoffe” (11). This was his reason for writing the Stoffe collection, an unusual compilation of short stories and meditations in two volumes. Dürrenmatt admitted that this late meta-project was an attempt to write his life as fiction and, thus, to arrive at a place he could call home and where he could find peace:

Daß ich mich mit dem Versuch, die Geschichte meiner ungeschriebenen Stoffe zu schreiben, auf ein Abenteuer eingelassen habe, dessen Ausgang—wenn es überhaupt einen Ausgang gibt—nur ein klägliches Scheitern sein wird—wem wäre je die ← 2 | 3 → Quadratur des Zirkels gelungen—ging mir erst nachträglich auf: als es zu spät, als ich schon im Abenteuer verstrickt war. Indem ich meine alten Fabeln aufgriff, griff ich mich selber auf, allzusehr bin ich mit meinen Stoffen verwoben. Mein Irrtum, mein Schreiben sei dem gewachsen. (Turmbau 9, emphasis mine)

Dürrenmatt quoted ninteenth century philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer as an introduction to the entire Stoffe collection. The philosopher who emphasized the importance of aesthetics to fill the pain of existence wrote here on the functionality of a book: a book can serve many functions, Schopenhauer asserts, including filling in a gap on a shelf or adorning a spot in the bathroom or the coffee table of a girlfriend. Its most important role, “das Beste von Allem,” he concludes, is “es recensiren” (8). The double function of this Stoffe collection is the same. First, and as comical and sarcastic as it sounds, the book serves as a physical object to be judged by its outer appearance, devoid of meaning or content. The second, and “best of all,” function exists in the content within, which promises a deeper analysis. Dürrenmatt gave his readers the option, while at the same time emphasizing his personal need to review (“recensiren”) his texts, his old stories, and his own life. Dürrenmatt’s works and life are reviewed by the author himself in the Stoffe to such an extent that he begins to speculate that he is becoming part of the Stoff himself. He spent enormous time, space, and energy writing out his past, “wobei sich freilich gleich die Frage stellt, ob man selbst ein Stoff zu werden vermag” (227). The author acknowledged that entering into fiction was the most difficult moment of his life.

The “schwierigste[r] Moment meines Lebens”

A particular moment to which the much older Dürrenmatt refers as the “schwierigsten Moment meines Lebens,” the most difficult moment of his life, is the “Über-den-Platz-Rennen” (Vinter 218). This is the moment the Bern University student boards a trolleybus and makes up his mind to give up his studies and become a writer. At that moment, he symbolically and subconsciously crosses over into faith in something greater than himself. The author ← 3 | 4 → brings up this moment often in the Stoffe, and a number of short stories in the Stoffe collection serve as illustrations of Dürrenmatt’s difficult transition. Then, at the peak of his literary career, Dürrenmatt reaches a point where he can no longer express himself through theater. He realizes more than ever that he is a failure, and he is devastated. If one were to use a term that his own protagonists often experience, he reaches the “schlimmstmögliche Wendung,”3 the worst possible turn of events, in the story. His most recent play is a failure.4 No one understands his works anymore. For a writer, this is devastating.

Friedrich Dürrenmatt was driven by failures. In his need to come to terms with the greatest of those failures, his loss of a voice as a writer, stemming from his desire to come to terms with his father’s God, he embarked on an adventure into his past. This book will analyze that adventure from the perspective of the Stoffe. He was driven by a desperate, unidentifiable need to experience his past anew in order to deal with loss and to find his voice. In his essay on Israel from 1976, the author expresses this need: “Es gibt Erkenntnisse, die deshalb spät kommen, weil sie Erlebnisse voraussetzen, denen wir im Erleben nicht gewachsen sind” (Zusammenhänge). Experiences of the past forced the author to relive and rewrite the past, over and over again.

Dürrenmatt struggled to locate his subjective voice in a world which he likened to a labyrinth. He could not free himself from his past, and spent great energy evoking and wrestling with its demons. His greatest was God. He spent his whole life attempting to overcome his father’s God, as a way of arriving at self-identity. Growing up in a small village in Switzerland, and being the son of a Protestant minister and a deeply religious mother, the young Dürrenmatt felt powerless against the haunting childhood reflections and traditional images and religious beliefs that surrounded him. He saw himself as a failure in his father’s eyes because he had chosen not to pursue theology or complete a doctorate on philosophy and German literature. He also knew that, though he enjoyed painting and sketching, he was nothing more than an amateur. Consequently, Dürrenmatt considered much of his life a failure. By choosing to write fiction instead of finishing his degree or becoming a pastor, he had disappointed his father and mother. He also lamented that he could not pursue his passion for art as a profession. Loss and disappointment became the motor behind his works as he became a world-renowned dramatist. For the older Dürrenmatt, memories of home were fundamental for overcoming the feeling that he was trapped in his world of failure. Remembering is the core of his later works, which reflects the extent to which Dürrenmatt’s past influenced his life and writings. Since he expressed memories, thoughts, and ideas in fiction, in his personal journal, in his paintings, and in interviews with literary critics, ← 4 | 5 → journalists, and friends, an enormous amount of material is available posthumously, in published form and in the archives.

A thorough analysis of the author’s documented thoughts and imagery reflects a certain necessary process of incubation and steady repetition as prerequisites for returning home to deal with his perceived failure. In turn, such an analysis reveals the magnitude of Dürrenmatt’s struggle with the existence of God. Ultimately, in order to understand the suffering of this distressed man, it becomes crucial to analyze the role that religion and the past played in the author’s life. Such a pursuit is undeniably not a new concept, as numerous sources and critical analyses attest to the amount of research invested in the author’s relationship to religion.5 What is new, however, is a consideration of the pursuit of the role of God and religion in the author’s late works—the Stoffe. Research in this area is minimal, at best, and yet central to understanding the author.

Rejection of Tradition

Friedrich Dürrenmatt fought incessantly against the ideology of the modern world, against rigid concepts and dogma. As a young man, he rebelled as a means of escaping the world defined by his upbringing. Later in life, that rebellion became more intellectual and universal. In a larger context, Dürrenmatt’s work is symptomatic of the suppressed necessity and longing of the subject to break free from an outdated, deceptive mode of thought, including religious tradition, into modernity. Nonetheless, Dürrenmatt simultaneously depended upon and questioned the established disciplines of philosophy, science, and theology, in what appears to be a dialectical relationship between ideas and concepts.

Dürrenmat was not a friend of Christian theology and religious tradition, and he made no secret of this. Referring to the Swiss theologian Karl Barth’s Kirchliche Dogmatik, Dürrenmatt affirms in Vinter in Turmbau: “In der Theologie vollzieht der Glaube Selbstmord” (199). One finds everywhere the author’s provocative words indicting Christianity. He even blamed Barth for making him an atheist. Stereotypical images of God are exceedingly prevalent in the Dürrenmatt fictional world, and many critics have pointed out Dürrenmatt’s stark antitheological leanings. Decadent Greek gods,6 Gods with and without beards (Das Hirn, Durcheinandertal), radically destructive divine images, or God as torturer for justice; these are just some examples among many, and all of them are devoid of what one Dürrenmatt critic, Peter Rusterholz, ← 5 | 6 → called “süsslich-konventionellen” images.7 One also finds poetry-reading, ill-informed and naive angels (Ein Engel), devils who need a vacation (Mr. X macht Ferien), a torturer God who demands justice (Der Folterknecht), and a number of undesirable resurrections (Der Meteor). One finds self-creations that unravel and deconstruct (Selbstgespräch) and, early on, even a relentless seeker of truth (Knipperdollinck) who takes the biblical commands too literally, thus leading to torture and death (Es steht geschrieben). Over time, these divine images become less frequent, and references to God more indirect as his work becomes more critical of the Church, filled with biting irony.

Dürrenmatt operated within a field of themes that are prominent in the art and literature of the twentieth century. These themes were, and still are, present in varied forms: the preacher father, inadequate parents, fatherlessness, the search for the self as the search for the father, narcissism, the struggle for identity and, most importantly, the need to come to terms with God. Dürrenmatt underwents a crisis of expression, a narcissistic crisis linked to the role of the father in all of the areas mentioned previously. This narcissistic crisis, or crisis of becoming self, as Peter von Matt called it in 2000 in “Das Geheimnis der Inspiration,” stands as a paradigm for the needy and abandoned child, in contrast to the strong yet guilt-stricken son. The narcissistic paradigm points to the blameworthy parents. Condemnation of parental guilt is prominent in literature, journalism, and psychotherapy, and Dürrenmatt seems to follow this pattern conscientiously throughout the Stoffe. Dürrenmatt suffered. He suffered under the weight of his upbringing, which led to his failures, and he made himself the focus of everything. He carried around the distressing feeling that he has always been a prisoner in his own world, always an outsider. He never felt at peace and was incessantly aware of something beyond the reality around him, “hinter den Kulissen,” that he could sense. He struggled to find what was behind the great wall of the labyrinth, desperate to escape his prison.

Atemwende

This place in Dürrenmatt’s life is a breathturn. It is, in words of the poet Paul Celan, an “Atemwende,” a turn that has the potential to bring the writer home. Danish theologian and philosopher Sören Kierkegaard makes a case in his works for risking a leap of faith when the subject reaches a personal abyss of despair. The Swiss writer’s intense preoccupation with the theologian-philosopher led him, in his later works, to switch to a subjective and introspective writing style. Kierkegaard’s reference to a “qualitative leap” from objective logic and ← 6 | 7 → reasoning into a subjective existence is echoed by Dürrenmatt throughout his work, particularly in later years. From the place of the breathturn, Dürrenmatt’s thinking, writing, and theology are governed by a subconscious paradox. Only in suffering, in extreme doubt and despair, can he enter into haunting memories. The works that follow are a turn away from the dramaturgy of the earlier successful years, and a turn toward a new type of writing. This new writing is actually rewriting. It is completely dependent on the past and focused on the self. The Stoffe collection is the outcome of the worst possible turn of events, a well-known Dürrenmattian turn of events in his fiction. It is the result of a certain “Sprachnot,” an inability to articulate meaning. The following chapters in this book focus specifically on the Stoffe since, in this final collection, Dürrenmatt is able to return to his past and (unintentionally) fall into an awareness of God at the worst possible turn of events.

The protagonist in Dürrenmatt’s early expressionistic short story “Der Tunnel” (1952) is aware of a presence that he terms “das Schreckliche” or “das Ungeheuerliche” (Tunnel 5). Only the perceptive, predisposed individual can recognize the reality behind the world and its antithesis, “das Schreckliche hinter den Kulissen” (5) as the protagonist refers to it. The protagonist here is Dürrenmatt. The background and the physiognomy of this student are identical to the author’s. As the train plunges head first into a dark abyss at breakneck speed, only the protagonist recognizes that this is happening. Only he realizes that they are plunging into God. And only he cares. The protagonist is predisposed for “das Schreckliche” and has plugged up every bodily opening in order not to let “it” in. To be “predisposed,” an individual must, claiming a Kierkegaardian philosophy, move beyond objective thinking into a subjective mode of reality. Dürrenmatt understood that certain individuals have the ability to recognize this. With a focus on the subjective, Dürrenmatt’s post-Atemwende phase brings to light that one must let go of the seemingly authentic in order to truly see. God is only possible beyond ideology. This is why he could not believe in God. God is a plunge into the abyss—a paradox—where words and abstract objectivity cannot suffice. The definition of the Christian God of modernity is turned upside down, as the word “God” in modernity can no longer serve as authentic.

Heimat

When one reads Dürrenmatt, one soon realizes the isolation—both subjective and geographical—that the author felt. Dürrenmatt experiences spatial ← 7 | 8 → confinement in his home village of Konolfingen. He often mentions the narrow-minded viewpoints and beliefs of its people, the overpowering presence of his father’s God, the simplicity and sternness of his mother and her faith, the lack of friendships, his weight problem, and his distant father. These factors contributed greatly to the author’s feelings of captivity and loneliness. Later in life, Dürrenmatt recalls: “Als wir später in die Stadt zogen, war ich schon zu sehr ein Einzelgänger geworden, um mich noch ändern zu können. Ich konnte mich keinem mehr anschließen” (Mondfinsternis 183). The contrast to all of this were the memories of the limitless, fascinating, dark universe he loved to observe at night, as well as the Greek mythology and great hero stories recounted by his father. He writes, later in life, in Theater-Schriften und Reden:

The confined village sphere shaped Dürrenmatt’s lifelong understanding of traditional religion. He came to hate its constrained, pietistic devoutness, and its “schemenhaften lieben Gott, den man anbeten, um Verzeihung bitten mußte, von dem man aber auch das Gute, das Erhoffte und das Gewünschte erwarten durfte wie von einem rätselhaften Überonkel hinter den Wolken […]” (Winterkrieg in Tibet 26). Consequently, Dürrenmatt threw off the predetermined world view of a tightly-knit “gottgewollte Ordnung” (Mondfinsternis 179). Nonetheless, it left its mark on his life. One of the lasting figures throughout all of Dürrenmatt’s writings and paintings is the Minotaur, the Greek mythological figure who is half man and half bull, imprisoned in a labyrinth.8 He lives and moves in a prison that is his world. Like the Minotaur, the author is trapped inside his personal labyrinth. He is unable to identify or communicate fully with anyone in a way that signifies the meaning he wishes to convey. Stoffe is about the Minotaur who cannot escape the labyrinth in which he is trapped. Stoffe is about returning home. It is about returning to the place of painful memories, such as the childhood home with the distant, understated father preacher, the religiously strong mother, and the overwhelming presence of God images in the midst of difficult growing-up years. Stoffe is about returning home in order to overcome a place one paradoxically never left.9 ← 8 | 9 →

The nature of such an undertaking requires at least a partial analysis of other texts, since the other texts play an important role in the development of the Stoffe. These works are: (1) the Mitmacher-Komplex (1976), an enormous undertaking, which serves as the turning point toward a new writing and the catalyst for the Stoffe, (2) Zusammenhänge. Konzeptionen, essays in which the author ponders religious notions, impressions, and Judaism, and (3) Durcheinandertal (1989), Dürrenmatt’s last novel and a blasphemous representation of the God image in modernity which might remind the reader of the bitter conceptualizations of the early prose (the original title of this novel was Weihnacht II).10

Details

Pages
VI, 288
ISBN (ePUB)
9781433139192
ISBN (PDF)
9781453919187
ISBN (MOBI)
9781433139208
ISBN (Hardcover)
9781433135262
Language
English
Publication date
2018 (October)
Published
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2017. VI, 288 pp.

Biographical notes

Olivia Gabor-Peirce (Author)

Olivia G. Gabor-Peirce is Associate Professor of German at Western Michigan University. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan with a specialization in modern German drama. Her interests are modern German theater, modern German Swiss literature, and contemporary German fiction. Her previous book, The Stage as ‘Der Spielraum Gottes’ (2006) deals with the representation of God on the stage in twentieth century German theater. She has also published on Friedrich Dürrenmatt and African theater. Dr. Gabor-Peirce has been teaching all levels of literature and language at Western Michigan University since 2002.

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Title: Becoming Fiction