Networks of Stone

Sculpture and Society in Archaic and Classical Athens

by Helle Hochscheid (Author)
©2015 Monographs XX, 500 Pages


Networks of Stone explores the social and creative processes of sculpture production in Athens in the sixth and fifth centuries BC. Using the concept of art worlds, it analyses the contributions and interactions of all those who were in some way part of creating the sculpture set up in the sanctuaries and cemeteries of Athens. The choices that were made not only by patrons and sculptors but also by traders in various materials and a range of craftsmen all influenced the final appearance of these works of art. By looking beyond the sculptor to the network of craftsmen and patrons that constituted the art world, this study offers new insights into well-known archaeological evidence and some of the highlights of classical art history.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • List of Illustrations
  • List of Tables
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Chapter I: Introduction: Athenian sculpture in context
  • Chapter II: A city of statues
  • Chapter III: Choices in marble
  • Chapter IV: The trades of sculpture
  • Chapter V: A patron’s world
  • Epilogue
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Index
  • Series index

← viii | ix →Illustrations


Plate 1

The monument of Telesinos of Kettos, Akr. 6505. Photo by the author. Printed with permission of the Akropolis Museum.

Plate 2

Base of the grave monument of Nelon son of Nelonides signed by Endoios, EM 12870. Photo by the author. Printed with permission of the Epigraphic Museum.


Figure 2.1

Total numbers of votive and grave sculptures and bases, 600–400 BC.26

Figure 4.1

The Residential-Industrial district. Printed with permission of the American School of Classical Studies in Athens.198

Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyrighted material. The author apologises for any errors or omissions in the above list and would be grateful for notification of any corrections that should be incorporated in future reprints or editions of the book.← ix | x →

← x | xi →Tables

Table 2.1

Total numbers of votive and grave sculpture and bases, 600–400 BC

Table 2.2

Chi-square test results for all votives and votive bases

Table 2.3

Attic gravestones from the fifth and to the fourth century BC

Table 2.4

Numbers of votives, gravestones and bases by provenance

Table 2.5

Votives and bases per area of the Akropolis

Table 2.6

Comparison with terracotta plaques and figurines (after Vlassopoulou 2003)

Table 3.1

Types of marble for votive sculpture and bases

Table 3.2

Types of marble for funerary sculpture and bases

Table 4.1

Frequency of sculptors’ signatures on votive and grave monuments by material of the sculpture

Table 5.1

Frequency of patrons’ name inscriptions on votive and grave bases and sculptures

Table 5.2

Genres of votive and sepulchral sculpture

Table 5.3

Frequency of genres in votive and sepulchral sculpture

Table 5.4

Type and material of sculptures on votive and sepulchral bases

Table 5.5

Gender breakdown of mortal and divine figures on reliefs

Table 5.6

Gender breakdown of mortal and divine figures in statuary

Table 5.7

Frequency of name types and groups in inscriptions on votive and sepulchral bases and sculpture

Table 5.8

Gifts to Athena based on inscriptions and iconography ← xi | xii →

← xii | xiii →Acknowledgements

This book has benefited from much discussion, advice and support from scholars and friends, among whom I would particularly like to thank Mathieu de Bakker, Josine Blok, Herman Brijder, Vinzenz Brinkmann, Giorgos Despinis†, Floris van den Eijnde, Evelyn Harrison†, Emily Hemelrijk, Jaap Hemelrijk, Mark Janse, Catherine Keesling, Bram Kempers, Ron Leenheer, Marion Meyer, Eric Moormann, Aliki Moustaka, Onno van Nijf, Winfred van de Put, Albert Rijksbaron, Michael Scott, Peter Schultz, Ulrich Sinn, Vladimir Stissi, Folkert van Straten and Jutta Stroszeck. The curators and staff of Athenian museums have been infinitely supportive at my endless requests to see the sculpture in their care. I want to express my warmest gratitude to K. Kissas, A. Mantis, I. Trianti and Chr. Vlassopoulou at the Akropolis Museum; J. Camp, A. Choremi, S. Dumont, J. Jordan, A. Lazaridi and C. Mauzy at the Agora Museum and site; Ch. Kritsas, A. Themos and M. Tsouli of the Epigraphic Museum; I. Touratsoglou and M. Salta at the National Archaeological Museum; and Th. Kyriakou and L. Parlama of the Kerameikos site and museum. My thanks also go to those at the Akropolis Museum, the Agora Museum and the Epigraphic Museum who helped me obtain permission to reproduce images of their collections.

The staff of the Netherlands Institute at Athens, the libraries of the British School at Athens and the Scuola Italiana di Atene have been ever supportive. At Peter Lang, commissioning editor Laurel Plapp and Cultural Interactions series editor Barrie Bullen have put much appreciated effort in guiding me and the book through the stages of publication, offering excellent practical and scholarly advice. My gratitude also goes to the anonymous reviewers for their time in reading and improving the manuscript; naturally, responsibility for any remaining errors lies entirely with me.

There are many friends and family members without whose encouragement this study would not have been completed. Among them are Niki van Balen, Aad van den Berg, Albert Clement, Ronald Hamel, Jorrit Kelder, Anna Konstantinou, Janta van Lienden, Nancy Mykoff, Lidy van Oort, ← xiii | xiv →Marjan Otter, Lione du Piêd, Barbara Söhngen, Herman Tak and Welmoed Westerveld. A continuous source of support over the years, from scholarly advice to general cheering up, was and is my family, Majola Hochscheid-Mabesoone, Doris Hochscheid, Oda Hochscheid, Rolf Hochscheid, Barbara Cook, Brenda Burke, Frans van Ruth, Franco Tabiadon, Adelisa Tabiadon and Chriesta and Edmond Langezaal. Most crucial to the completion of this book and to life in general are my husband Michael Burke (without whom there would be no Networks of Stone) and our kids Oscar and Louisa. For being the sweetest, brightest and most wonderful people in the world, I dedicate this book to you.

Middelburg, 2014

← xiv | xv →Abbreviations

Throughout this study and in the database, journal abbreviations are those of the Jahresbibliographie des Deutschen archäologischen Instituts; monographs are referred to by author and year of publication, except for the abbreviations of standard works listed below. Abbreviations of ancient texts are as in H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, H. Jones and R. McKenzie, A Greek-English Lexicon, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1961.


J. D. Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters, Hacker Art Books, New York NY 1978


T. H. Carpenter, Beazley Addenda: Additional References to ABV, ARV 2 and Paralipomena, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1989


S. A. Koumanoudis, ττικς πιγραφα πιτ μβιοι , Αθναις Αρχαιολογικ Εταιρεα, Athens 1871


A. C. L. Conze, Die attischen Grabreliefs, W. Spemann, Berlin 1893


G. M. A. Richter, The Archaic Gravestones of Attica, Phaidon Publishers, London 1961


H. Schrader, E. Langlotz and W. H. Schuchhardt, Die archaischen Marmorbildwerke der Akropolis, Verlag Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1939


J. K. Davies, Athenian Propertied Families, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1971


J. D. Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (2nd edn), Clarendon Press, Oxford 1963


B. S. Ridgway, The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture (2nd edn), Ares, Princeton NJ 1993

← xv | xvi →Asmosia II

M. Waelkens, N. Herz and L. Moens eds, Ancient Stones. Quarrying, Trade and Provenance, Leuven University Press, Leuven 1992

Asmosia III

Y. Maniatis, N. Herz and Y. Basiakos eds, The Study of Marble and Other Stones Used in Antiquity. Transactions of the 3rd International Symposium of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones Used in Antiquity, Archetype Publications, London 1995

Asmosia IV

M. Schvoerer ed., Archéomatériaux: marbres et autres roches, Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 1999

Asmosia V

J. J. Hermann, N. Herz and R. Newman eds, Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity, Archetype Publications, London 2002

Asmosia VI

L. Lazzarini ed., Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity 2000, Bottega d’Erasmo, Padova 2002

Asmosia VII

Y. Maniatis ed., Actes du VIIe colloque international de l’ASMOSIA; organisé par l’École Française d’Athènes, le National Center for Scientific Research ‘DIMOKRITOS’, la 18ème Éphorie des Antiquités Préhistoriques et Classiques (Kavala) et l’Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration; 2003, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, Suppl. 51, École Française d’Athènes, Athens 2008

Asmosia VIII

Ph. Jockey ed., Leukos lithos: marbres et autres roches de la Méditerranée antique; études interdisciplinaires. Actes du 8e colloque ASMOSIA, Aix-en-Provence, 2006, Maisonneuve & Larose, Paris 2009

Asmosia IX

A. Gutiérrez Garcia-Moreno ed., Interdisciplinary studies on ancient stone: Proceedings of the IX Association for the Study of Marbles and Other Stones in Antiquity conference 2009, Institut Català d’Arqueologia Clàssica, Tarragona 2012


C. W. Clairmont, Classical Attic Tombstones, Akanthus, Kilchberg 1993–1995


P. A. Hansen, Carmina epigraphica Graeca: saeculorum VIII–V a. Chr., W. de Gruyter, Berlin 1983

← xvi | xvii →DAA

A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis: A Catalogue of the Inscriptions of the Sixth and Fifth Centuries BC, Archaeological Institute of America, Cambridge MA, 1949


J. P. Michaud, Fouilles de Delphes II: topographie et architecture, E. de Boccard, Paris 1973


T. Homolle, Fouilles de Delphes III: épigraphie, E. de Boccard, Paris 1909


B. S. Ridgway, Fifth Century Styles in Greek Sculpture, Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1981


J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: The Archaic Period, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1978


J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture: The Classical Period, Thames and Hudson, London 1985

IG ii

F. Hiller von Gaertringen ed, Inscriptiones Atticae Euclidis anno anteriores, editio minor, Ares, Chicago IL, 1974


D. Lewis and L. Jeffery eds, Inscriptiones Atticae Euclidis anno anteriores (3rd edn), W. De Gruyter, Berlin 1981–1998


Kerameikos, Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen (s.v. author), W. de Gruyter, Berlin 1939–


G. M. A. Richter, Korai: Archaic Greek Maidens, Phaidon, London 1968


G. M. A. Richter, Kouroi: Archaic Greek Youths, Phaidon, London 1970


R. Vollkommer and D. Vollkommer-Glökler eds, Künstlerlexikon der Antike, K. G. Saur, Munich 2001–2004


M. J. Osborne and S. G. Byrne, A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names: Attica, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1994


H. Chr. Ackerman et al. eds, Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae, Artemis, Zürich 1981–2009


L. H. Jeffery and A. W. Johnston, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece: A Study of the Origin of the Greek ← xvii | xviii →Alphabet and Its Development from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries BC, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1990


F. Sokolowski, Lois sacrées des cités grecques, E. de Boccard, Paris 1969


H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, H. Jones and R. McKenzie, A Greek-English Lexicon (9th edn), Clarendon Press, Oxford 1961


R. Meiggs and D. M. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions to the End of the Fifth Century BC, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1988


D. Thompson ed, Oxford Concise English Dictionary (9th edn), Oxford University Press, Oxford 1995


J. Kirchner, Prosopographia attica, Georg Reimer, Berlin 1901–1903


J. Traill, Persons of Ancient Athens, Athenians, Toronto 2001


J. D. Beazley, Paralipomena: Additions to Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters and to Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (2nd edn), Clarendon Press, Oxford 1971

Peek AG I

W. Peek, Attische Grabgedichte I, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1954

Peek AV

W. Peek, Attische Versinschriften, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1980

Peek GG

W. Peek, Griechische Grabgedichte, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1960


J. A. Overbeck, Die antiken Schriftquellen zur Geschichte der bildenden Künste bei den Griechen, Olms, Hildesheim 1959


J. Frel, Les sculpteurs attiques anonymes: 430–400, Universita Karlova, Prague 1971


G. M. A. Richter, The Sculpture and Sculptors of the Greeks (3rd edn), Yale University Press, New Haven CT 1957


B. S. Ridgway, The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture, Yale University Press, Princeton NJ, 1970



Plate 1 The monument of Telesinos of Kettos, Akr. 6505. Photo by the author. Printed with permission of the Akropolis Museum.


Plate 2 Base of the grave monument of Nelon son of Nelonides signed by Endoios, EM 12870. Photo by the author. Printed with permission of the Epigraphic Museum.


XX, 500
ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2015 (July)
antic cemetery sculptor sanctuary
Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Wien, 2015. XVIII, 506 pp., 2 b/w ill.

Biographical notes

Helle Hochscheid (Author)

Helle Hochscheid lectures in archaeology, antiquity and heritage studies at University College Roosevelt, an Honours College of Utrecht University in the Netherlands. She is co-founder of the Ancient Sculpture Association.


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