# Education and Tolerance

A Comparative Quantitative Analysis of the Educational Effect on Tolerance

## Summary

## Excerpt

## Table Of Contents

- Cover
- Title
- Copyright
- About the author(s)/editor(s)
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- Table of Contents
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- Acknowledgements
- 1. Introduction: Education and Tolerance
- 1.1 The Concept of Tolerance
- 1.2 Literature, Data, Methods and Models: What to Expect
- 1.3 Structure of the Book
- 2. Theories Explaining the “Liberalising” Effect of Education on Attitudes and Values
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 The Effect of Education on Tolerance
- 2.3 Competing Explanations for the Effect of Education on Tolerance
- 2.3.1 Individual-level Explanations
- 2.3.2 Contextual-level Explanations
- 2.4 Other Sources of Tolerance
- 3. Models of the Effects of Education on Political and Social Tolerance
- 3.1 Data
- 3.1.1 Micro-level Data
- 3.1.2 Macro-level Data
- 3.2 Political and Social Tolerance
- 3.2.1 Political Tolerance
- 3.2.2 Social Tolerance
- 3.3 Sources of Tolerance
- 3.3.1 Individual-level Sources of Tolerance
- 3.3.2 Contextual-level Sources of Tolerance
- 3.4 Empirical Strategy: Model Specification
- 4. What Links Education to Tolerance? Psychological Predispositions and Socio-economic Conditions
- 4.1 Introduction and Research Questions
- 4.2 Political Tolerance
- 4.2.1 The Conditional Effect of Education on Political Tolerance
- 4.3 Social Tolerance
- 4.3.1 The Conditional Effect of Education on Social Tolerance
- 4.4 Discussion
- 5. Education and Tolerance Around the World: What Factors Lead to Differences Between Countries?
- 5.1 Introduction and Research Questions
- 5.2 Political Tolerance
- 5.2.1 Macro-level Characteristics Moderating the Effect of Education on Political Tolerance
- 5.3 Social Tolerance
- 5.3.1 Macro-level Characteristics Moderating the Effect of Education on Social Tolerance
- 5.4 Discussion
- 6. Conclusion: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice
- 6.1 Overview
- 6.2 Summary of Findings: Answering the Research Questions
- 6.3 Limitations of the Study and Directions for Future Research
- 6.4 Final Remarks
- A. Tables
- B. Figures
- Bibliography
- Series index

2.1 Theoretical Model: Moderating Effects of Individual-level Variables on the Effect of Education on Tolerance

2.2 Theoretical Model: Effect of Contextual-Level Variables on Individuals’ Tolerance Levels and Moderating Effects of Contextual-Level Variables on the Effect of Education on Tolerance

2.3 Theoretical Model: Integrated Effects of Individual-Level and Contextual-Level Variables on the Effect of Education on Tolerance

3.1 Least-liked Groups in the Sample of Twenty-Four Countries in WVS 1995–1998

3.2 Percentages of Respondents in Different Educational Categories From the Full Sample in WVS 1995–1998

3.3 Percentages of Respondents in Different Educational Categories From the Full Sample in WVS 2005–2008

3.4 Least-liked Groups According to Educational Level in the Sample of Twenty-Four Countries in WVS 1995–1998

4.1 Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance at Different Values of Authoritarianism

4.2 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Political Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Authoritarianism

4.3 Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance at Different Values of Autonomy

4.4 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Political Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Autonomy

4.5 Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance at Different Values of Perception of Control Over One’s Life

4.6 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Political Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Control Over One’s Life

4.7 Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance at Different Values of Interpersonal Trust ← 11 | 12 →

4.8 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Political Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) for Interpersonal Distrust vs Interpersonal Trust

4.9 Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance at Different Values of Economic Satisfaction

4.10 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Political Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Economic Satisfaction

4.11 Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance at Different Values of Upper-Middle Class

4.12 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Political Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) for Upper-Middle Class vs Other Socio-Economic Class

4.13 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Authoritarianism (1995–1998)

4.14 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Authoritarianism (2005–2008)

4.15 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Authoritarianism (1995–1998)

4.16 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Authoritarianism (2005–2008)

4.17 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Autonomy (1995–1998)

4.18 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Autonomy (2005–2008)

4.19 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Autonomy (1995–1998) ← 12 | 13 →

4.20 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Autonomy (2005–2008)

4.21 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Perception of Control over One’s Life (1995–1998)

4.22 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Perception of Control over One’s Life (2005–2008)

4.23 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Perception of Control over One’s Life (1995–1998)

4.24 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Perception of Control over One’s Life (2005–2008)

4.25 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Interpersonal Trust (1995–1998)

4.26 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Interpersonal Trust (2005–2008)

4.27 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) for Interpersonal Distrust vs Interpersonal Trust (1995–1998)

4.28 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) for Interpersonal Distrust vs Interpersonal Trust (2005–2008)

4.29 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Economic Satisfaction (1995–1998)

4.30 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Economic Satisfaction (2005–2008)

4.31 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Economic Satisfaction (1995–1998) ← 13 | 14 →

4.32 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) at Different Values of Economic Satisfaction (2005–2008)

4.33 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Upper-Middle Class (1995–1998)

4.34 Predicted Probability of Social Tolerance at Different Values of Upper-Middle Class (2005–2008)

4.35 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) for Upper-Middle Class vs Other Socio-Economic Class (1995–1998)

4.36 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Social Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Who Attended University (right) for Upper-Middle Class vs Other Socio-Economic Class (2005–2008)

5.1 Caterpillar Plot Showing Country Residuals with 95 % Confidence Intervals for Log-odds of Political Tolerance

5.2 Bar Plot Showing Mean Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance for Each Educational Category

5.3 Estimated Intercept and Slope Residuals for the Relationship Between the Log-odds of Political Tolerance and Attending University

5.4 Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance at Different Years of Democracy

5.5 Average Marginal Effects of University on the Probability of Political Tolerance (left) and Percentage Distribution of Respondents in Countries (right) at Different Years of Democracy

5.6 Predicted Probability of Political Tolerance at Different Values of Ethnic Heterogeneity

## Details

- Pages
- 288
- Year
- 2017
- ISBN (PDF)
- 9783631718650
- ISBN (ePUB)
- 9783631718667
- ISBN (MOBI)
- 9783631718674
- ISBN (Hardcover)
- 9783631718643
- DOI
- 10.3726/b10889
- Language
- English
- Publication date
- 2017 (June)
- Keywords
- Political tolerance Social tolerance Educational effect Multilevel modelling Attitudes formation Comparative studies
- Published
- Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2017. 288 pp., 91 b/w ill., 1 coloured ill., 18 tables