Rethinking the Human Person

Moral Landscape and Ethical Literacy

by Nahal Jafroudi (Author)
Monographs 384 Pages


Recent developments in the natural and social sciences have brought great benefits to humanity, both in terms of our material wellbeing and our intellectual and conceptual capacities. Yet, despite a broad ethical consensus and highly developed innate faculties of reason and conscience, there seems to be a significant discrepancy between how we ought to behave and how we actually behave, leading to a disregard for the dignity of human persons across the globe. This book suggests that the problem arises from various misunderstandings of the nature of the self and that the solution could lie in adopting a holistic concept of the human person within the context of a carefully cultivated ethical literacy. It argues that the ideas of the Iranian philosopher Ostad Elahi (1895–1974) provide a powerful and compelling alternative to the dominant post-Enlightenment understanding of selfhood, education and morality.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgements
  • Note on References and Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Part I The Moral Landscape and Ethical Literacy
  • Chapter 1: The Moral Landscape
  • Ethical Literacy in a Diverse World
  • Deontology, Teleology and Virtue Ethics: Can Moral Principles be Objectively Valid for All?
  • Rights and Duties
  • The Golden Rule: An Example of a Quintessential Principle
  • The Moral Self
  • Chapter 2: Ethical Literacy
  • The Meaning of Ethical Literacy
  • Key Elements of Ethical Literacy
  • Ethical Literacy and Education
  • Moral Development and Character Education
  • Chapter 3: Ethical Literacy and the Education of Emotions
  • Ethical Literacy and the Education of Sound Reason
  • Ethical Literacy and the Sense of Dignity
  • Ethical Literacy and the Concept of the Self
  • Part II Self-paradigms: Descartes, Hume and Freud
  • Chapter 4: Descartes
  • The Cartesian Self
  • Commentary on Descartes’ Concept of the Self
  • Chapter 5: Hume
  • The Humean Self
  • Commentary on Hume’s Concept of the Self
  • Chapter 6: Freud
  • The Freudian Self
  • Commentary on Freud’s Concept of the Self
  • Part III Nur Ali Elahi (Ostad Elahi)
  • Chapter 7: The Life and Thought of Nur Ali Elahi (Ostad Elahi)
  • A Brief Overview
  • System of Thought and Philosophy
  • Chapter 8: Ostad Elahi’s Bi-dimensional Model of the Self
  • The Terrestrial Soul and the Celestial Soul: The Two Opposite Poles of the Self
  • Education of Thought: A Process of Assimilation and Growth
  • The Process of Spiritual Self-realisation
  • Part IV Conclusion: Ethical Literacy and the Holistic Concept of the Self
  • Chapter 9: Ethical Literacy and the Holistic Concept of the Self
  • A Brief Reflection on the Self-paradigms: The Self as Revealed in Consciousness
  • Lacking Tools of Self-Transformation and Self-Realisation: The Incoherence of the Notion of the Self as Defined by Descartes, Hume and Freud
  • In Search for a Holistic Model of the Self: Situating the Moral Perfection of the Self within Ostad Elahi’s Metaphysics of Human Nature
  • Acquisition of Virtues Central to Ethical Literacy: Ostad Elahi’s Definition of Spiritual Growth and Functional Equilibrium within the Self
  • Knowledge and Application of Divine Ethics: Key Elements of Ostad Elahi’s Thoughts and Ethical Literacy
  • The Contemporary Significance of Ostad Elahi’s Model of the Self in Education for Ethical Literacy
  • Conclusion: Contribution to Theory
  • Appendices
  • Appendix 1
  • Constants of Nature Fine-tuned for the Production of Life
  • Properties of Matter as Evidence for an Intelligent Design
  • Appendix 2
  • Epistemological Foundation of Descartes’ Metaphysics
  • Perceptions of the Mind: Impressions, Ideas and Association
  • Freud’s Topographical and Structural Models of the Mind
  • Appendix 3
  • Nur Ali Elahi: Family Lineage, Tradition and Religious Context
  • Appendix 4
  • The Quintessence of Religions: A Prayer by Ostad Elahi
  • Bibliography
  • Index

| vii →


Completion of this book has been a long process of discovery that has found its inspiration in the thoughts of Nur Ali Elahi, whose philosophy, greatly expounded by his son Prof. Baharam Elahi, sparked my initial interest in this subject and to both of whom I owe a great deal of appreciation and gratitude for my conception and realisation of this work. This book is also a culmination of perfect working relationships with those whose insightful comments, discerning guidance, positive encouragement and unflinching support have had an enormous influence on the development of my ideas and maintaining my motivation in seeing this project through to completion. I also owe a special debt to my family who have patiently believed in me and encouraged and supported me in writing this book. Not least, I should like to express sincere appreciation to all those who have shone a light on my path of self-discovery and knowledge which facilitated the fruition of this endeavour from a possibility to actuality.

| ix →

Note on References and Abbreviations

Reference to works by Descartes, Hume and Freud are made throughout by means of a system of abbreviations. References to the Persian editions of Nur Ali Elahi’s works which have been cited but have not been officially translated are also made throughout by means of a system of abbreviations.

The abbreviations to editions of Descartes’ works are as follows:

AT Oeuvres de Descartes Vols I–XII and Supplement, ed. C. Adam and P. Tannery (Paris: Vrin/CNRS 1964–1976) [References from this work are in the order of volume/page number]

CSM The Philosophical Writings of Descartes Vols I–II, ed. and tr. J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff and D. Murdoch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985) [References from this work are in the order of volume/page number]

CSMK The Philosophical Writings of Descartes Vol. III, ed. and tr. J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff, D. Murdoch and A. Kenny (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991) [References from this work are in the order of volume/page number]

The abbreviations to editions of Hume’s works are as follows:

E Enquiries Concerning the Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, 2nd edn, ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966) [References from this work are by the page number]

T A Treatise of Human Nature, 2nd edn, ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge and P. H. Nidditch (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978) [References from this work are by the page number]

The abbreviation to editions of Freud’s work is as follows:

SE I – XXIV The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud Vols I–XXIV, ed. and tr. J. Strachey in← ix | x → collaboration with A. Freud, A. Strachey and A. Tyson (London: Hogarth Press, 1886–1974) [References from this work are in the order of volume/page number]

The abbreviations to the Persian editions of Ostad Elahi’s works are as follows:

WT I Words of the Truth Volume I (Asar ol-Haqq), 3rd edn (Tehran: Jeyhoun, 1985) [Presented in the form of numerically arranged sayings, the references from this work are in the order of volume/saying/page number]

WT II Words of the Truth Volume II (Asar ol-Haqq), 2nd edn (Tehran: Jeyhoun, 1994) [Presented in the form of numerically arranged sayings in the first section and in the form of chronologically arranged dates in the second section, the references from this work are in the order of volume/saying/page number; or volume/date/page number]

DT Demonstration of the Truth (Borhan ol-Haqq), 5th edn (Tehran: Jeyhoun, 1981) [References from this work are by the page number]

| 1 →


Recent developments in both the natural and social sciences have empowered humanity, in terms of material wellbeing, as well as intellectual and conceptual capacities, yet, despite the broad global ethical consensus and humankind’s highly developed innate faculties of reason and consciousness, there seems to be a significant discrepancy between how one ought to be and how one behaves. Indeed, confronted with the consistent tension between one’s aspiration to moral ideals stemming from one’s ethical impulses on the one hand, and one’s predisposition towards gratifying one’s egoistic desires on the other, humanity stands to cultivate its ethical impulses and develop its moral virtues, or repress the very same and adopt an egoistic perspective that is rooted in a lack of moral concern and disregard of the dignity of human persons. For this reason, when faced with conflicting emotions and impulses arising from within this human embodiment of a causal character that can influence and yet at the same time be influenced, educating for ethical literacy can be deemed justifiable as a morally necessary means to the obligatory end that is the human flourishing which is inseparable from a state of moral perfection. In other words, since there is a tension within each human being between harmful impulses, systematically opposed to true ethical values, on the one hand, and the voice of conscience, transcendent will and reason, fostering values such as altruism, on the other, educating for ethical literacy can be instrumental in paving the way towards self-transformation and self-realisation, enabling individuals to reach a higher, more universal perspective about themselves and become less selfish and more compassionate and altruistic. However, in order for such a moral education to be pedagogically effective, while a universally valid system of ethical principles that constitutes a quintessence of values, and are acceptable to all, can shape the theoretical knowledge necessary for moral education, the cultivation of real humanity within one’s self is primarily contingent upon a clear understanding of what the self is. ← 1 | 2 →

Indeed, any discussion about the moral perfection of human beings necessitates the understanding of what constitutes the true nature of the self and the mechanisms that rule the self and are responsible for its progression towards self-transformation and self-realisation. For, if human life is a cycle of learning and development, then, to realise one’s innate moral potentials, only a clear topology of the self in terms of its physical, psychological and metaphysical dimensions can avail it of the knowledge of its different structural components and their tendencies, which manifest in the realm of the self’s conscious. Equipped with this knowledge, human beings can, in turn, facilitate their process of moral development by generating within themselves a desire for good, which being contingent upon diligent practice of ethics, can be undertaken in the midst of society and within the framework of a normal and balanced life.

Thus, while ethical literacy, as a means of developing the self, enables individuals gradually and efficiently to gain control over the emotions and impulses that drive them to harm others and themselves and while, in nurturing moral agents, the universal claims for ethical literacy can be invoked as a lever to effect moral empowerment, without a holistic concept of the self, ethical literacy will prove to be transient in educating individuals for whom being moral ought to be at the core of their sense of self. For, if educating for ethical literacy is to represent an irreducible moral worth that has a positive and directed interference in the development of ethically literate individuals, without a clear understanding of the self and its essential reality, its educational aims will in effect lack the essential core necessary for the self-transformation and self-realisation of the human agents. Indeed, in negating the reality of the self’s spiritual dimension and adhering solely to that which is physically measurable and quantifiable, whilst refuting the existence of objective values, humankind stands to threaten the normal development of the self, undermine the correct application of ethical values, hinder the development of moral virtues, and thus inhibit the maturation of its spiritual self.

Consequently, since ethical literacy is not about imposition or the indoctrination of a particular ideal or character, for its evaluative presuppositions of what the agents think, say and do is rooted within a holistic concept of the self and since, as an educational endeavour, ethical literacy entails reflecting, understanding and practising that which makes humans ← 2 | 3 → humane, it can therefore be deemed as the means through which humankind’s ethical empowerment can be facilitated.

Notwithstanding that living an ethical life is an achievement, one that must be cultivated, then, to nurture ethically literate individuals, the developmental process of ethical literacy involves all facets of human life, that is, its accomplishment is a feat that is essentially contingent upon understanding, applying and assimilating the correct divine principles throughout one’s life. In essence, since the objective aims of ethical literacy appeal to the evaluative nature of humankind, to the objective truths that guide one’s judgement and inspire one’s conduct, to the knowledge, skills and virtues that are instrumental in realising one’s true nature, they can therefore tap into the potential capacity inherent within each moral agent and thus facilitate their gradual maturation. That is why, in seeking (self-) knowledge of what it is to be human; in dealing with moral dilemmas that are generally complex, and often unique; in making moral decisions that are deliberate, sound and rational, the cultivation of ethical literacy, which fosters such empowerment, is an important educational aim. However, if we are to embrace ethical literacy as a possible solution that can pave the way to a harmonious and ethical global community, then, to facilitate such an ideal, a clear topology of the self in terms of its psychological, ontological and metaphysical dimensions becomes an imperative. Accordingly, in clarifying the genesis of the self, the framework in which we can reorient ourselves and give direction to our lives as moral beings can be established, and in turn serve as a premise upon which the edifice of ethical literacy conducive to the enhancement of one’s sense of dignity can be built.

The self, or in other words, consciousness that endures through time, is commonly conceived of as a metaphysical, psychological, or social scientific construct that, as a principle of subjectivity, has the capacity to reflect upon and evaluate its thoughts, emotions and actions, and yet, equally be influenced by its attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas, whilst having a mental and conceptual awareness of its own existence as a discrete and separate entity from others, capable of withholding or granting assent.1 ← 3 | 4 → Thus, in cultivating an ethical dimension to human existence, an understanding of the self is central to developing ethical literacy. As, in becoming aware of who we are and of what we are capable of, we gain a perspective and a sense of responsibility for our choices and actions. Equally, although the self is broadly defined as consisting of those essential qualities that make a person distinct from all others, it encompasses a network of terms, such as, consciousness, ego, soul, subject, person, moral agent, cogito, or the “I”, where the fundamental tension in the semantics of the self concerns the question of whether this refers to an individual with certain capacities or whether it refers to that which is the actuality of the self itself. Regardless of conceptual eclecticism and the differing semantics, the lack of a unified theory regarding the makeup of the self, which in spite of its heterogeneity, has a holistic, synthetic, and above all, a universal nature, makes urgent answering the question of “Who am I?” an imperative undertaking.

The aim of this book is therefore to bring to light the necessity of acquiring a holistic understanding of the concept of the self, as a premise for cultivating ethical literacy, which, as an educational end, postulates a positive understanding of what it means to be human, regardless of time, place and culture. To this end, a new understanding in educating for ethical literacy is developed by drawing upon the philosophy of the contemporary Eastern philosopher, Nur Ali Elahi (1895–1974), also known as Ostad Elahi, for whom spiritual undertaking is inseparable from the practice of ethics as a means of developing the soul. For, in his view, the true reality of human beings is their spirit, which, in being the principal driver of all human actions, signifies that all responsibility and accountability of human beings relates to their spirit rather than their body, and that true development and growth of the self is essentially the growth and development of that spirit. Hence, in considering the function of ethics as a tool of transformation in which the concept of “right” holds a central place, his philosophy connects strictly spiritual or eschatological issues to the ethical issues of daily life and makes relevant the concept of spirituality, which, beyond the forms and traditions of culture, milieu and religious denominations, is concerned with the natural and sequential maturation and development of the essential self. ← 4 | 5 →

This book, equally highlights Ostad Elahi’s focus on the consideration of the Transcendent Source, which, in leading to the acknowledgement of the dual nature of human beings as both spiritual and material, places an equal emphasis on the concept of the Transcendent as the motivating force underlying the principles of ethical literacy. To this end, while this work investigates, in a comparative perspective, three significant “self” paradigms (i.e. those of Descartes, Hume and Freud) within the trajectory of Western history, it also explores the model of the self presented by Ostad Elahi in the hope of developing a new approach to ethical literacy and the moral development of human beings. For, in highlighting how the conceptual implications of these three significant self-paradigms have served to reinforce the postmodern identity dilemma and may have thus contributed to the undermining of one’s sense of dignity, developing an approach to ethical literacy that finds inspiration in the thought of Ostad Elahi is advocated for efficient and holistic fostering of the moral development of individuals. It is thus by mapping connections between the concept of the self and moral empowerment that a serious dialogue with Ostad Elahi’s thought by educators is advocated to offer the potential for the enhancement of the individuals’ sense of dignity within the framework of education for ethical literacy.

The structure of the book has four main parts. In part 1, chapter 1, the context is set by providing a brief analysis of the moral landscape existing within the global community, highlighting the need for effecting an equitable and compassionate moral horizon through the pathway of a holistic education, namely, an education for ethical literacy. In chapters 2 and 3, ethical literacy, as an education that conceives the metaphysics of human nature in relation to a divine element, and which, in encouraging an active engagement in objective ethical norms, promotes the notion of agency as a capacity to act upon oneself in order to realise one’s inherent moral potentials, is explored. This type of education, in promoting a deeper reflection on the meaning and application of ethics, warrants a global consensus on the fundamental attitude towards right and wrong and the principles that should govern their practice, thus, providing an appropriate medium to accommodate a conceptual framework within which principles and practices can be reconciled. For, an ethically literate person is aware of and ← 5 | 6 → understands the fundamental principles relevant to moral thinking; is able to reflect, analyse and reason about moral issues and dilemmas; and behaves in a morally appropriate manner, and, in adopting an interior meditative attitude towards the Divine Source (namely, God), is thus able to evaluate the application of “oughts” against the dynamic context of his/her milieu in order to realise his/her intrinsic moral capacities.

Accordingly, if to be ethically literate postulates a positive understanding of what it means to be human, regardless of time, place and culture, then, the common-sense assumption indicates that to achieve who one ought to become necessitates a clear understanding of who one is. That is, while ethical literacy, as a function of a holistic education, is conceived as enabling individuals to realise their essential nature through leading morally decent lives, its self-transformative aims are deemed to be pedagogically effective if predicated upon a clear understanding of what constitutes the true nature of the self, the mechanisms that rule the self, which are responsible for its progression towards self-transformation and self-realisation. Accordingly, since this approach to moral education is predicated on understanding the reality of the self to be its soul, which, in virtue of its universality, immortality and divine origin can account for the meaning of an embodied life and the self’s spiritual maturation, the broad aim of this book is therefore to develop a holistic conception of the self in relation to the complex interplay between education for ethical literacy and the notion of an agent as an ontological reality capable of self-transformation and self-realisation. To this end, the development of this project is limited to providing a foundational groundwork for ethical literacy, and does not attend to the pedagogical and the curricular framework of this perspective. Moreover, although Ostad Elahi considers the development of the self to be an educational process that involves the active comprehension and practice of divine ethical principles, the engagement of this book is primarily concerned with his definition and construction of the model of the self, and not the pedagogical development of ethical literacy based on his thoughts and definition. Consequently, ethical literacy as an alternative approach to moral education, is defined and encapsulated in a more general and synoptic format, which, in anticipation of providing an underpinning, has the potential to pave the way for ← 6 | 7 → the next stage of development concerning the conceptual and normative structure of this moral education. In other words, while this book is concerned with developing the theoretical foundation for ethical literacy, the development of its curricular structure is anticipated to be the enterprise of a further research project.

Thus, in search for a holistic model of the self that can serve as the foundational basis to ethical literacy, in part 2, the conceptual consequences of three influential “self” paradigms within the trajectory of the concept of the self are investigated, highlighting their contribution to the postmodern humanist understanding of the self that is experienced today. Although it would be interesting to trace the historical notion of personhood from the Middle Ages through to the modern and postmodern era, for the purpose of this research we will examine three significant thinkers, namely, Descartes, Hume and Freud, whose emergent themes of the disengaged individualistic self, the sense-content illusory self, and the drive-driven fragmented self are reflected today in the prevalent confusion and ambiguity around the notion of the self in terms of relationality, continuity in time and depth. Notwithstanding that the investigation of significant “self” paradigms that have contributed to the postmodern emergent ontological dilemma of the self can equally engage with other thinkers, due to the enormity of such a project and the limitations of this book, the selection of these three is intended to be representative, not exhaustive, of case studies of a broader movement of visions of the self that has dominated since the Enlightenment. That is, Descartes, Hume and Freud’s perspectives within the rationalist, empiricist and naturalist-materialist traditions, respectively, are drawn upon as examples to illustrate how the conceptualisations and constructions of the self as an autonomous, disengaged and isolated entity that is lacking in metaphysical depth and direction, have contributed to the formation of the current moral landscape that is fundamentally driven by egoistic and narcissistic tendencies. Tracing the understanding of selfhood from Descartes, whose radical turn inward enables a unitary and de-socialised conception of the self lacking in relationality; to Hume, whose denial of the self enables a fictional conception of it that is lacking in continuity in time; to Freud, whose inner world of the conscious and unconscious mind enables a fragmented conception of the self lacking in metaphysical ← 7 | 8 → depth, uncovers the absence of the crucial link between “self”, “agency”, “relationality” and “accountability” in these conceptions. From this premise it can therefore be argued that since the effective development of ethical literacy is contingent upon an understanding of selfhood, which, beyond an ensemble of physical and psychological faculties, is constituted by a spiritual inner core that has a holistic, synthetic, and above all, a universal nature, the engagement with these thinkers can better furnish a point of induction for this research project. It is thus in the illustration of the self as an autonomous, disengaged and isolated entity that is lacking in metaphysical depth and direction that the engagement with Ostad Elahi’s concept of the self, conceived as bi-dimensional in nature, can be considered as an appropriate alternative underpinning the premise for effecting an equitable and compassionate moral horizon.

Thus, in chapter 4, an elaboration of Descartes’ concept of the self and a critical analysis of his characterisation of human subjects in terms of the mutual exclusivity of matter and thought is presented. That is, Descartes’ idea of internalisation separates or disengages the faculty of reason from an encompassing Reality and, in so doing, the self, construed as an immaterial thinking thing that is the subject of consciousness, although capturing the sense of autonomy as well as the wholeness of one’s experience of one’s self, also allows the nurturing of the sense of isolation and angst within the self. Chapter 5 investigates Hume’s concept of the self and offers a critical analysis on his refutation of an enduring metaphysical self, which is based on the empiricist premise that all knowledge must be found in sense perception. Indeed, although Hume’s concept of the self, as being nothing but a bundle of distinct, atomistic, disconnected and interrupted train of discrete perceptions, grounds the moral self as that which is constituted by activity, thus advocating practical self-understanding and self-criticism, it also allows for negating a sense of responsibility and accountability for a self that is not strictly identical through time.

In concluding the last of the three Western counterparts, in chapter 6, Freud’s model of the self, as a complex, material, composite and conflictual entity, is investigated and critiqued. In this chapter, his conception of the self, which focuses on the inner workings, and, in separating the mind and the body, divides the mind into the different components of the id, the ego ← 8 | 9 → and the superego and allocates three levels to human consciousness, viz. the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious, thereby depicting the self as multifaceted, drive-driven and fragmented. As such, although the Freudian model of the self, in advocating that the majority of our experiences are not available to us at a conscious level and that most of what drives us is buried in our unconscious, facilitates a better understanding of the nature of the self, it also advocates a fragmented self lacking in metaphysical depth and direction. In other words, the self-knowledge gained through reflection in the light of the struggle between the primitive instincts of the id and the moral conscience of the superego, due to its one-sided dimension, lacks metaphysical direction and is thus forced, for its formation, to rely on social constructions. However, if our essential reality is that we are relational creatures with a metaphysical depth, together with an identity that endures through time, then the model of the self having evolved from modernity’s isolated rationalistic self to a mere perception, and on to being a fragmented, limited and an arbitrary construction of postmodernity, can be construed as lacking a holistic and universal aspect, which it is contended is necessary for fostering the development of moral agents.

Subsequently, in part 3, chapter 7 introduces Ostad Elahi, who was an influential thinker, jurist and musician, and whose philosophical and spiritual research was made public only in his later years or in posthumous writings. Thus, to understand better his concept of the self, a discussion of some biographical facts is presented to help situate the context of his teaching and his personal experiences, observations and discoveries that informed and shaped his philosophy. In addition, prior to an in-depth inquiry into Ostad Elahi’s model of the self, an exploration of his philosophy and system of thought is presented, which, underpinned by an acute sense of the phenomenological and experiential dimensions of ethics, informs his metaphysics of human nature and situates his theory of the self, thereby revealing how his concept of the essential self as an ontological reality can facilitate education for ethical literacy. Subsequently, in chapter 8, an exploration of the model of the self attributed to Ostad Elahi through an in-depth analysis of his proposed structural components of a self, as a unique composite of two parts of different origins, viz., the celestial soul and the terrestrial soul, residing within the biological body and identified ← 9 | 10 → as a psychospiritual organism2 is presented. In this chapter, although the distinction of the two parts may at first glance be similar to that of Descartes’ distinction between the mind and the body, aside from the agreement that the spirit resides within a biological body, they are unalike in that this distinction is reflective of the bipolarity existing within the spirit due to its two components of a terrestrial and a celestial part. That is, the psychospiritual organism consists of the fusion of the celestial and the terrestrial souls residing within a biological body. The celestial soul, constituting our true existence and identity, and being the source of our moral consciousness, willpower and free will, has its origin in a Source that transcends the entire material order. The terrestrial soul, on the other hand, is of a causal origin, that being endowed with a psyche and an intellect closely corresponds to the concept of the id in psychoanalysis and is regulated by physical and social determinisms, thus enabling us to evolve in a natural environment. In practice, the bi-dimensional character of human beings manifests itself through constant tension between the terrestrial part, which is dominated by the pleasure principle, and the celestial part, which is the seat of reason and the willpower capable of transcending animal desires and impulses. This constant tension, under correct guidance and direction, enables the psychospiritual organism to attain freedom and self-control, thus evolving hand in hand with knowledge and reason. Accordingly, in defining the spirit as:


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2017 (September)
Ostad Elahi Ethical literacy Selfhood
Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Wien, 2016. X, 384 pp.

Biographical notes

Nahal Jafroudi (Author)

Nahal Jafroudi holds an MA from UCL Institute of Education and a PhD from King’s College London. Her research interests focus on ethics and education, particularly the tension between ethical impulses and egoistic desires.


Title: Rethinking the Human Person
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394 pages