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Middle English Prepositions and Adverbs with the Prefix «be-» in Prose Texts

A Study in Their Semantics, Dialectology and Frequency

by Ewa Ciszek-Kiliszewska (Author)
Monographs 224 Pages

Summary

This book offers the first comprehensive study of Middle English prepositions and adverbs combining the prefix «be-» with a preposition, an adverb or a numeral recorded in prose texts. Six best established lexemes, i.e., «before, beyond, behind, beneath, between» and «betwixt» are analysed. The investigated aspects include the semantics of the prepositions and adverbs, their dialectal and textual distribution as well as their frequency of use viewed both from a synchronic and diachronic perspective. The study draws on the linguistic data retrieved from a collection of specially selected complete prose texts from the «Innsbruck Corpus of Middle English Prose». The description of the obtained results is enhanced with numerous tables and figures.

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
  • 0.1. Aim
  • 0.2. Material, method and tools
  • 0.3. Theoretical approach
  • 0.4. Structure
  • Chapter 1: Middle English Prepositions and Adverbs
  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Middle English period
  • 1.2.1. Middle English chronology
  • 1.2.2. Middle English dialects
  • 1.3. Middle English prepositions
  • 1.3.1. Development of Middle English prepositions from Old English case markers
  • 1.3.2. Features of Middle English prepositions
  • 1.4. Previous studies on Middle English prepositions and adverbs
  • 1.5. Prepositions and adverbs selected for the study
  • 1.6. The prefix bi-/be-
  • Chapter 2: Methodology and data collection
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. (Computerised) Corpus linguistics methodology
  • 2.2.1. Method introduction and first corpora
  • 2.2.2. Historical corpora
  • 2.2.3. Middle English corpora
  • 2.2.3.1. Middle English part of the Helsinki Corpus
  • 2.2.3.2. Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English
  • 2.2.3.3. Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse
  • 2.2.3.4. Middle English Grammar Corpus
  • 2.2.3.5. Innsbruck Corpus of Middle English Prose
  • 2.2.4. Historical dictionaries as databases
  • 2.2.4.1. Middle English Dictionary Online
  • 2.2.4.2. Oxford English Dictionary Online
  • 2.3. Innsbruck Corpus texts selected for the present study
  • 2.3.1. Texts selection method
  • 2.3.2. Temporal division
  • 2.3.3. Dialectal distribution and the number of words
  • 2.4. Semantics of prepositions and adverbs
  • Chapter 3: ME bifōre(n) (preposition/adverb/conjunction)
  • 3.1. Etymology of bifōre(n)
  • 3.2. Semantics in Middle English prose
  • 3.2.1. Preposition bifōre(n)
  • 3.2.2. Adverb bifōre(n)
  • 3.2.3. Preposition and adverb bifōre(n): a summary and comparison
  • 3.2.4. Conjunction bifōre(n)
  • 3.2.5. Preposition, adverb and conjunction bifōre(n): a summary and comparison
  • 3.3. Corpus analysis
  • 3.3.1. Temporal distribution of bifōre(n)
  • 3.3.2. Textual and dialectal distribution and token frequency of bifōre(n)
  • 3.3.2.1. Early Middle English texts
  • 3.3.2.2. Late Middle English texts
  • 3.3.2.3. Early and Late Middle English texts: a comparison
  • Chapter 4: ME biyōnd(e) (preposition/adverb)
  • 4.1. Etymology of biyōnd(e)
  • 4.2. Semantics in Middle English prose
  • 4.2.1. Preposition biyōnd(e)
  • 4.2.2. Adverb biyōnd(e)
  • 4.2.3. Preposition and adverb biyōnd(e): a summary and comparison
  • 4.3. Corpus analysis
  • 4.3.1. Temporal distribution of biyōnd(e)
  • 4.3.2. Textual and dialectal distribution and token frequency of biyōnd(e)
  • 4.3.2.1. Early Middle English texts
  • 4.3.2.2. Late Middle English texts
  • 4.3.2.3. Early and Late Middle English texts: a comparison
  • Chapter 5: ME bihīnde(n) (preposition/adverb)
  • 5.1. Etymology of bihīnde(n)
  • 5.2. Semantics in Middle English prose
  • 5.2.1. Preposition bihīnde(n)
  • 5.2.2. Adverb bihīnde(n)
  • 5.2.3. Preposition and adverb bihīnde(n): a summary and comparison
  • 5.3. Corpus analysis
  • 5.3.1. Temporal distribution of bihīnde(n)
  • 5.3.2. Textual and dialectal distribution and token frequency of bihīnde(n)
  • 5.3.2.1. Early Middle English texts
  • 5.3.2.2. Late Middle English texts
  • 5.3.2.3. Early and Late Middle English texts: a comparison
  • Chapter 6: ME binēthe(n) (preposition/adverb)
  • 6.1. Etymology of binēthe(n)
  • 6.2. Semantics in Middle English prose
  • 6.2.1. Preposition binēthe(n)
  • 6.2.2. Adverb binēthe(n)
  • 6.2.3. Preposition and adverb binēthe(n): a summary and comparison
  • 6.3. Corpus analysis
  • 6.3.1. Temporal distribution of binēthe(n)
  • 6.3.2. Textual and dialectal distribution and token frequency of binēthe(n)
  • 6.3.2.1. Early Middle English texts
  • 6.3.2.2. Late Middle English texts
  • 6.3.2.3. Early and Late Middle English texts: a comparison
  • Chapter 7: ME bitwēne (preposition/adverb)
  • 7.1. Etymology of bitwēne
  • 7.2. Semantics in the Middle English prose
  • 7.2.1. Preposition bitwēne
  • 7.2.2. Adverb bitwēne
  • 7.2.3. Preposition and adverb bitwēne: a summary and comparison
  • 7.3. Corpus analysis
  • 7.3.1. The temporal distribution of bitwēne
  • 7.3.2. Textual and dialectal distribution and token frequency of bitwēne
  • 7.3.2.1. Early Middle English texts
  • 7.3.2.2. Late Middle English texts
  • 7.3.2.3. Early and Late Middle English texts: a comparison
  • Chapter 8: ME bitwix(en) (preposition/adverb)
  • 8.1. Etymology of bitwix(en)
  • 8.2. Semantics in Middle English prose
  • 8.2.1. Preposition bitwix(en)
  • 8.2.2. Adverb bitwix(en)
  • 8.2.3. Preposition and adverb bitwix(en): a summary and comparison
  • 8.2.4. Prepositions bitwēne and bitwix(en): a comparison
  • 8.2.5. Adverbs bitwēne and bitwix(en): a comparison
  • 8.3. Corpus analysis
  • 8.3.1. Temporal distribution of bitwix(en)
  • 8.3.2. Textual and dialectal distribution and token frequency of bitwix(en)
  • 8.3.2.1. Early Middle English texts
  • 8.3.2.2. Late Middle English texts
  • 8.3.2.3. Early and Late Middle English texts: a comparison
  • 8.3.3. Bitwēne and bitwix(en): a comparison
  • 8.3.3.1. Temporal distribution of bitwēne and bitwix(en)
  • 8.3.3.2. Textual and dialectal distribution and token frequency of bitwēne and bitwix(en)
  • 8.3.3.2.1. Early Middle English texts
  • 8.3.3.2.2. Late Middle English texts
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Series index

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List of Tables

Table 1. The structure of ME1 and ME2 in the HC

Table 2. The structure of ME3 and ME4 in the HC

Table 3. Early Middle English texts: temporal division

Table 4. Late Middle English texts: temporal division

Table 5. Early Middle English texts: dialectal division

Table 6. Late Middle English texts: dialectal division

Table 7. The senses of the preposition and adverb bifōre(n) in Middle English prose

Table 8. The senses of the preposition, adverb and conjunction bifōre(n) in Middle English prose

Table 9. The tokens of bifōre(n) in Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 10. The tokens of bifōre(n) in Middle English texts: relative numbers

Table 11. The tokens of bifōre(n) in Early Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 12. The tokens of bifōre(n) in Late Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 13. The senses of the preposition and adverb biyōnd(e) in Middle English prose

Table 14. The tokens of biyōnd(e) in Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 15. The tokens of biyōnd(e) in Middle English texts: relative numbers

Table 16. The tokens of biyōnd(e) in Late Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 17. The senses of the preposition and adverb bihīnde(n) in Middle English prose

Table 18. The tokens of bihīnde(n) in Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 19. The tokens of bihīnde(n) in Middle English texts: relative numbers

Table 20. The tokens of bihīnde(n) in Early Middle English texts: absolute numbers ← 11 | 12 →

Table 21. The tokens of bihīnde(n) in Late Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 22. The senses of the preposition and adverb binēthe(n) in Middle English prose

Table 23. The number of tokens of binēthe(n) in Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 24. The tokens of binēthe(n) in Middle English texts: relative frequency per 100,000 words

Table 25. The tokens of binēthe(n) in Early Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 26. The tokens of binēthe(n) in Late Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 27. The senses of the preposition and adverb bitwēne in Middle English prose

Table 28. The tokens of bitwēne in Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 29. The tokens of bitwēne in Middle English texts: relative frequency per 100,000 words

Table 30. The tokens of bitwēne in Early Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 31. The tokens of bitwēne in Late Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 32. The senses of the preposition and the adverb bitwix(en) in Middle English prose

Table 33. The correspondence of the references of the prepositions bitwēne and bitwix(en)

Table 34. The senses of the prepositions bitwēne and bitwix(en) in Middle English prose

Table 35. The correspondence of the references of the adverbs bitwēne and bitwix(en)

Table 36. The senses of the adverbs bitwēne and bitwix(en) in Middle English prose

Table 37. The tokens of bitwix(en) in Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 38. The tokens of bitwix(en) in Middle English texts: relative frequency per 100,000 words

Table 39. The tokens of bitwix(en) in Late Middle English texts: absolute numbers ← 12 | 13 →

Table 40. The tokens of bitwēne and bitwix(en) in Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 41. The tokens of bitwēne and bitwix(en) in Middle English texts: relative frequency per 100,000 words

Table 42. The tokens of bitwēne and bitwix(en) in Early Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 43. The tokens of bitwēne and bitwix(en) in Late Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 44. The senses of the prepositions in Middle English prose

Table 45. The senses of the adverbs in Middle English prose

Table 46. The number of the tokens of bi- words: absolute numbers

Table 47. The number of tokens of bi- words: relative frequency per 100,000 words

Table 48. Analysed bi- words in Early Middle English texts: absolute numbers

Table 49. Analysed bi- words in Late Middle English texts: absolute numbers

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List of Figures

Details

Pages
224
ISBN (PDF)
9783631724828
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631724835
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631724842
ISBN (Hardcover)
9783631724811
Language
English
Publication date
2017 (June)
Tags
Corpus study Corpus linguistics Medieval English Dialects Dialectal distribution Textual distribution Subjectification Senses Grammaticalization Conjunction
Published
Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2017. 224 pp., 78 b/w ill., 49 b/w tables

Biographical notes

Ewa Ciszek-Kiliszewska (Author)

Ewa Ciszek-Kiliszewska is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of English at Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań (Poland). Her research interests focus on various aspects of English historical linguistics, in particular Old and Middle English semantics, dialectology, morphosyntax and word-formation.

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Title: Middle English Prepositions and Adverbs with the Prefix «be-» in Prose Texts