Research Methods in Africana Studies | Revised Edition

by Serie McDougal III (Author)
©2017 Textbook XX, 408 Pages


The revised edition of Research Methods in Africana Studies is a major contribution to the discipline of Africana studies and social science involving people of African descent in general. The first edition was the first of its kind, offering instruction on how to conduct culturally relevant critical research on Africana communities in the American context, in addition to the African diaspora. The revised edition contains a collection of the most widely used theories and paradigms designed for exploring, explaining, and advancing Africana communities through science. The relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of every major method of data collection are explained as they relate to the lived experiences of the Black world. It stands alone as the only textbook that details empirical methods in the service of the collective advancement of Africana peoples.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Preface: Speak To The Posterity
  • Tehuti, the “Divine Tongue”
  • The Problem
  • Acknowledgments
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Chapter by Chapter Summary of Changes
  • Chapter 1: Africana Studies and the Science of Knowing
  • What Is Meant by “Research”?
  • Why Learn Research Methods?
  • Africana Studies Domain Theory
  • Common Ways of Knowing
  • Tradition
  • Authority
  • Common Sense
  • News and Media
  • Analytical Misjudgments and Roadblocks to Critical Thought
  • Overgeneralization
  • Selective Observation
  • Inaccurate Observations
  • Illogical Reasoning
  • Mistakes in Racial/Cultural Reasoning
  • Transubstantive Error
  • Hierarchical Comparative Analysis Problem
  • Fallacy of Homogeneity
  • Problem Orientation/Solution Deprivation
  • Ethnologic Ahistoricism
  • Disregarding Social Regularities Reaction
  • Self-Censorship: The Dirty Laundry Quandary
  • Variables
  • Causality
  • Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Activity 4
  • Activity 5
  • Note
  • Chapter 2: Methodology in Africana Studies Research
  • Methodology
  • Paradigms
  • Inferiority Paradigm
  • Cultural Deficit Paradigm
  • Cultural Difference Paradigm
  • Colonial Paradigm
  • Pan-African Paradigm
  • Afrocentric Paradigm
  • African-Centered Behavioral Change Paradigm
  • Black Political Economy Paradigm
  • Kawaida Paradigm
  • Literary Pan-Africanism
  • Sacred Worldview Paradigm
  • Worldview Paradigms Analysis
  • Positivist Paradigm
  • Conflict Paradigm
  • Structural Functionalism
  • Symbolic Interactionism
  • Theory
  • Applying Theory to Social Phenomena
  • Triple Quandary Theory
  • Motivation Theory
  • Multiple Intelligence Theory
  • Teacher Expectations Theory
  • Two Cradle Theory
  • African American Family Functioning Model
  • African American Male Theory (AAMT)
  • African Self-Consciousness Theory
  • Africana Critical Theory
  • Africana Womanism
  • Africanity Model
  • African Feminism
  • Afrolatinidad
  • Agency Reduction Formation Theory
  • Anti-Life Forces Model
  • Black Consciousness Continuum
  • Black Existentialism
  • Black Feminist Theory
  • Black Queer Theory
  • Critical Race Theory
  • Eco-Bio-Communitarianism
  • Education and Schooling Model
  • Extended Self Model
  • Holistic/Solutions Framework for Studying African American Families
  • Invisibility Syndrome
  • Laissez-Faire Model of Racism
  • Lens Theory
  • Location Theory
  • The Multisystems Model
  • Nigrescence Theory
  • Nosology of African/Black Personality Disorder
  • Nzuri Theory
  • Phenomenological Variant of the Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST)
  • Post-Traumatic Slave Syndrome
  • Sudarkasa’s Seven R’s Model: Seven Cardinal Values of African Family Life
  • Social Systems Approach to the Study of Black Family Life (SSASBFL)
  • Site of Resiliency Theory
  • Situated-Mediated Identity Theory (SMIT)
  • TRIOS Model
  • Tripartite Model of Racism
  • Virtue Theory
  • Womanism
  • Womanist Identity Development Model
  • An Africana Studies Methodology
  • Sustainable Conceptual Development
  • Types of Theory: Inductive and Deductive
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Chapter 3: Ethics in Research
  • Values and Research
  • The Ethics That Emerged from a Legacy of Abuse
  • Informed Consent
  • Non-Malfeasance and Beneficence
  • Right to Privacy
  • Deception
  • Quality
  • Reporting
  • African Americans and Research Ethics
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Chapter 4: Research Design
  • Units of Analysis: The Who and What of Research
  • The Purpose of Research
  • Exploratory Research
  • Descriptive Research
  • Explanatory Research
  • Evaluative Research
  • Predictive Research
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Data Collection
  • Temporal Order and Research Design
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Panel Studies
  • Trend Study
  • Mixed Methods Research
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Chapter 5: Choosing a Topic, Writing a Question, Reviewing the Literature
  • The Intersecting Interests Theory for Research in Africana Studies
  • Developing Topics and Questions
  • Finding Topics
  • Developing Research Questions
  • Hypothesis Testing
  • Writing a Literature Review
  • Functions of the Literature Review
  • What’s Known about Your Topic?
  • Weaknesses and Gaps in the Literature
  • Helps Narrow Your Scope
  • Provides Stylistic Models
  • Provides Examples of Methods
  • Exposure to Different Theoretical Approaches
  • Greater Knowledge of Definitions
  • Exposure to Connections and Contradictions
  • Caution! A Word of Warning to Reviewers of Literature
  • What Kind of Literature Do I Review?
  • How to Find the Literature
  • Maximize Your Reading: How to Carefully Read the Literature
  • Organizing a Literature Review
  • Final Summary
  • Referencing and Citing Sources
  • The Structure of a Research Proposal and a Completed Study
  • Introduction
  • Literature Review
  • Methodology
  • Works Cited
  • Appendices
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Chapter 6: Measuring Social Reality
  • Measuring
  • Defining Variables
  • Reliability
  • Validity
  • Reliability, Validity, and Preventing Error
  • Levels of Measurement
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Chapter 7: Sampling Procedures
  • The Language of Sampling
  • Bias in Sampling
  • Coverage Bias
  • Non-Response Bias
  • Probability Sampling
  • Sampling Underrepresented Populations
  • Non-Probability Sampling
  • Random Digit Dialing
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Chapter 8: Non-reactive Methods
  • Material and Visual Culture
  • Physical Evidence
  • Limitations of Analyzing Physical Evidence
  • Content Analysis
  • Coding Manual
  • Advantages of Using Content Analysis
  • Sampling and Criteria for Inclusion in Content Analysis
  • Coding in Content Analysis
  • Coding Schedule
  • Types of Coding: Manifest and Latent
  • Units of Analysis: What to Look for in Analysis of Content
  • Significant Actors
  • Frequency
  • Subjects and Themes
  • Dispositions
  • Space and Prominence
  • Categorizing Themes
  • Reporting Themes
  • Basic Steps in Content Analysis
  • Validity and Reliability in Content Analysis
  • Limitations of Content Analysis
  • Semiotics
  • Compositional Interpretation
  • Secondary Analysis
  • Advantages of Secondary Analysis
  • Statistical Data
  • Administrative Data
  • Official Statistics
  • Published Data Tables
  • Historiography
  • Archival Research
  • Limitations of Secondary Data
  • The Problem of Missing Data
  • Means of Data Collection and Misleading Conclusions
  • The Problem of Reliability in Secondary Analysis
  • The Implications of Data Availability
  • The Problem of Validity in Secondary Analysis
  • The Inductive and Deductive Challenge
  • Why Collect Original Data?
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Chapter 9: Scales and Indexes
  • Indicators
  • The Importance of Indexes
  • Creating a Scale or Index
  • Face validity
  • Unidimensionality
  • Exhaustiveness
  • Mutual Exclusivity
  • Variance
  • Empirical Relationships
  • Scaling Formats
  • The Likert Scale
  • Social Distance Scale
  • Guttman Scale
  • Thurstone Scale
  • Semantic Differential
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Chapter 10: Survey Design: Asking Questions
  • The Survey Process
  • Practical Function of Surveys
  • Two Means of Collecting Survey Data
  • Constructing Survey Items
  • Vignette Questions
  • Avoiding Problems in Asking Questions: The Rules of Item Construction
  • Self-Administered Questionnaire Design
  • Instructions
  • Order of Questions
  • Questionnaire Format
  • Conducting the Self-Administered Questionnaire
  • Follow-Up Questionnaires and Letters
  • Cover Letter
  • Length and Appearance
  • Payment
  • Diaries
  • Advantages of Questionnaires
  • Disadvantages of Questionnaires
  • Interviews
  • Conducting Interviews
  • Know the Interview Schedule
  • Introducing the Research to the Respondent
  • Appearance of the Interviewer
  • Wording
  • Probing
  • Training Interviewers
  • Underrepresented Groups in Interviewing
  • Ending the Interview
  • Telephone Interviews
  • Computer-Assisted Interviewing
  • Online Surveys
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Activity 4
  • Chapter 11: Experimental Design
  • Classic Experimental Designs
  • Threats to Internal Validity
  • Matching and Random Selection
  • Pre-Experimental Designs
  • Quasi-Experimental Designs
  • Threats to External Validity
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of Experimental Designs
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Chapter 12: Qualitative Field Research and Data Analysis
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Field Research
  • Ethnography
  • Observation/Participant Observation
  • Taking Field Notes
  • What to Write About
  • Qualitative Interviews
  • Analysis of Cultural Documents
  • Critical Ethnography
  • Visual Ethnography
  • Virtual Ethnography
  • Autoethnography
  • Oral History
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Conversation Analysis
  • Profiling
  • Narrative Analysis
  • Case Studies
  • Focus Groups
  • Tips for Being Successful in the Field
  • Sampling in Qualitative Research
  • Validity and Reliability
  • Strengths and Limitations
  • Qualitative Data Analysis
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Chapter 13: Quantitative Data Analysis
  • Scales of Measurement for Different Types of Variables
  • Coding Quantitative Data
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Univariate Analysis
  • Types of Distributions
  • Measures of Central Tendency
  • Measures of Dispersion
  • The Normal Distribution
  • Percentiles and Percentile Ranks
  • Z-Scores
  • Bivariate Analysis
  • Strength of Association
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Inferential Statistics
  • Hypothesis Testing
  • Additional Statistical Procedures
  • Geographic Information Systems
  • Key Terms
  • Thinking about Science
  • Activity 1
  • Activity 2
  • Activity 3
  • Glossary
  • Works Cited
  • Index
  • Series index

| ix →


Speak to the Posterity

The discipline of Africana Studies’ activist-intellectual tradition goes back as far as classical African civilizations such as ancient Kemet (Egypt). As Karenga (2010) explains, the Sesh, was expected to use knowledge and skill to serve the people by doing maat in the form of “insuring justice, caring for the vulnerable and the environment, respecting persons as bearers of dignity and divinity, and working for future generations.” (p. 8) The administration of ancient Egyptian civilization was carried out with the assistance of the Sesh, who experienced decades of rigorous training consisting of:

1. schooling in the village school at a very early age;

2. the study of classical literature, which they undertook in their twelfth year;

3. instruction in reading and writing complex texts. In addition, they received instruction in various medu neter (hieroglyphs) that required the ability to draw with a pen. (Obenga, 2007)

The Sesh’s command of writing was essential in making Kemet the most highly organized and prosperous state in the ancient world. In addition to mastering the skill of writing, the Sesh was expected to master the highest standards of beauty and deep thought (Hilliard, 1998). The Sesh was not an ← ix | x → individual who was concerned with personal advancement, but instead was concerned with immortality. The discipline of the Sesh was writing in accordance with the precepts of Maat—truth and justice. In addition to truth and justice, Maat is the ancient Kemetic divine principle that represents the proper ordering and construction of the individual, society, and the universe. The ancient Kemetic sage Ptah Hotep, in his book of wise instruction, proclaimed:

Ptah Hotep’s proclamation charges one to produce enduring knowledge. Like Ptah Hotep’s wise instructions, the sacred duty of the Sesh was to speak to posterity or future generations. This goal was to be accomplished by producing writing and deep thought that was in accord with Maat. These sacred writings would endure for generations because of their truth and high standards.

Tehuti, the “Divine Tongue”

In ancient Kemet, Tehuti was the ancient neter (deity) who was the father of the written language and the patron of the Sesh. Tehuti is credited with the invention of the medu neter, the world’s oldest writing system. The name Tehu is an ancient Kemetic term meaning to measure in relation to the moon. Tehuti, or the divine tongue, was the personification of deep thought emerging from knowledge and wisdom. Most of the ancient Kemetic neter (deities) are represented by one or more animals. Tehuti is often represented by the head of an ibis or stork-like bird. He is also depicted holding a scroll and papyrus, which are symbols of the Sesh. Like the Sesh and Tehuti, the scholar in Africana Studies is charged with producing knowledge of the highest standards of deep thought that will be of benefit to future generations of people of African descent, the larger society, and the universe. This goal is achieved by the systematic study of the lived experiences and prospects of people of African descent. ← x | xi →

The Problem

What is a problem? In the context of conducting research in the social sciences, a “problem” doesn’t always have to indicate a negative situation. A problem exists whenever there is a gap between a present condition and a better condition. The role of the Sesh was to aid society in closing the distance between the two; such is also the role of the scholar in Africana Studies. The imperfection of the human condition ensures the constant presence of problems that must be addressed, and the scholar-activist in Africana Studies stands at the ready. How does a scholar-activist approach problems? W. E. B. Du Bois once said that “true lovers of humanity can only hold higher the pure ideals of science, and continue to insist that if we would solve a problem we must study it” (Du Bois, 1898, p. 23). This book attempts to help sharpen the necessary skills for the process of studying and solving problems that arise in the lived experiences of people of African descent. Mastering the information in the pages of this book does not require that the reader possess any tremendous amount of prior knowledge on the topic of research methods. All you must have to become a great researcher in general and in the context of the Africana experience is:

This text is not written for the reader as simply a consumer of information or as a student; it is written for the reader as an active agent in his or her society and as a thinking person in the world.

| xiii →


This text is dedicated to my mother, my father, my sister, my people, and the discipline of Africana Studies. Without them nothing I have ever accomplished would have been possible. Thank you mom, for teaching me resilience and that anything is possible. Thank you dad, for teaching me to be disciplined and strategic. Thank you big sister for always being supportive, for being the most multitalented person I have ever known, and for always helping me to think of things from a different perspective. A special thanks to my close friends: Orron Marshall, for being my best example of free thought; Michael Tillotson, for being my best example of relentless work and aggressive scholarship; Paul Easterling, for being my best example of a decolonized imagination; Crystal Guillory, for being my best example of victorious consciousness, and Justin Gammage, for being my best example of what a principled scholar should be. Thank you all for being the warrior scholars that you are and for always helping me sharpen my tools of analysis; steel sharpens steel. A special thanks to my mentors: Rev. John W. Brazil, for being a third parent and educator to me; Marc McConney, for seeing something in me that I didn’t see in myself; Daniel Johnson, for teaching me how to organize in the institutional setting; Marcia Sutherland, for teaching me what it means to be a scholar; Sonja Peterson-Lewis, for teaching me what research is all about; ← xiii | xiv → Molefi Asante, for teaching me what an academic discipline truly is and how to be a professional; Ama Mazama, for teaching me centeredness; Dorothy Tsuruta, for teaching me how to be a mentor to students; and Rochelle Brock, for taking an interest in my work. A special thanks to Dr. Wade Nobles and Dr. Oba T’Shaka for being mentors and helping me to sharpen my critical thinking with their wisdom and their constant availability and accessibility. A special thanks to Natalie Lewis for her constant motivation and encouragement. A special thanks to Ms. Sureshi Maduka Jayawardene for her unwavering encouragement and for helping me through every step of the editorial process. A special thanks to all of my former and current students for their challenging questions and comments. Last, thanks to my creator and my ancestors for helping me to do my best to honor you through my work

| xv →


This new edition is primarily influenced by the perspective of graduate and undergraduate students in Africana Studies. This book remains a useful tool for professionals in the discipline. The approach to this new edition was guided by two main objectives-namely, to make the text relevant to more Africana Studies scholars, and to add studies that are particularly representative of the principles of Africana Studies in innovative methods of data collection and analysis. Due to extension of research methods into the world of the internet and new developments in information technology, some new methods of data collection have been added. New Africana Studies theories have been added to guide approaches to subjects that were not previously represented, such as political economy, spirituality, and Black men’s studies. Some of the content of the chapters have been reordered so that they are more lucid.

| xvii →


Chapter 1: There is a new section on nomothetic and ideographic approaches to research. This was done to help budding researchers gain a greater appreciation for the importance and utility of identifying broad patterns across many cases or people as well as gaining in-depth knowledge of individual cases or people. New examples are also added to illustrate this point in a way that is consistent with the principles of Africana Studies.

Chapter 2: This is one of the most critical chapters in the entire text because it is meant to provide researchers with some sense of the way Africana Studies approaches investigation. This is done through a non-comprehensive sampling of theoretical and paradigmatic frameworks designed, specifically, to approach studying peoples of African descent. To make the sampling of theoretical and paradigmatic frameworks relevant to a greater range of interests, African American Male Theory, Virtue Theory, and the Black Political Economy Paradigm were added.

Chapter 4: A section on mixed methods research has been added to this section. Given that more and more research involves multiple methods of data collection and analysis, this chapter has been added to provide clear instructions on how multiple methods can be used strategically and implemented ← xvii | xviii → in a systematic way that serves the research question. Moreover, a section on trend studies was added to expand the range of approaches to doing longitudinal research, which is well suited for exploring causation and how phenomena develop over time. New studies have been added to illustrate how trend studies and other approaches in the chapter can be used to conduct research, particularly involving people of African descent.

Chapter 5: Added to this chapter is a new table (Table 5.1), designed to guide careful evaluation of publications in the literature review process. The purpose of this table is to help researchers identify the key components of studies on their topics as they go about evaluating research that has already been done. There is also an expanded section on hypothesis testing.

Chapter 6: A large section on cultural validity was added to this chapter. This section explains the systematic reproduction of research that is culturally bias. It also explains the many ways and stages that cultural validity enters the research process. Most importantly, this section presents cultural relevance as a question of validity. It also explains how to go about ensuring cultural validity at multiple levels of the research process.

Chapter 7: A section on the specific challenges of sampling people of African descent has been added to this chapter. Solutions to these challenges are also proposed so that studies can be conducted to capture more variability in Black thought and behavior.

Chapter 8: Multiple sections have been added to this chapter. Sections on material and visual culture have been added to this chapter to expand the range of topics that can be pursued using non-reactive methods. The visual and material sections may be particularly useful for those interested in artistic, historiographic, and anthropological topics. A section has been added on compositional interpretation, a method particularly suited for researchers doing art history. The section on the problem of missing data has been expanded in light of increasing awareness of the lack of accurate data on the extra-judicial police shootings of African Americans. A section on Africana historiography has been added to highlight the unique challenges historians of people of African descent are confronted with and solutions to those challenges. Multiple new examples have been added to illustrate the use of historiography with Africana peoples. A section on Africana archival research has also been added, with descriptions of the unique challenges researchers are confronted with when doing archival research involving people of African descent. ← xviii | xix →

Chapter 10: Some research in this chapter has been updated to reflect more current data on African Americans.

Chapter 12: This chapter has multiple new sections. The section on ethnography has been significantly expanded. An essential component of ethnography, a new section on analysis of cultural documents, with examples, has been added. There is also a new section on critical ethnography, which is consistent with the critical quality of Africana Studies research in general. The critical ethnography section provides guidelines and examples for how to conduct critical ethnography with samples of people of African descent. There is a new section on visual ethnography, with examples of how to employ this technique with Africana population samples. This section is particularly useful for research that involves photography, hypermedia, motion pictures, the internet, digital media, or virtual reality. A new section on virtual ethnography has been added for researchers interested in studies that involve cultures in cyberspace. A new section on autoethnography has been added to incorporate growing schools of thought in research that embrace a more reflective posture toward research.

Chapter 13: This chapter has a new section on geographic information systems. The purpose of this section is to encourage students to be more knowledgeable of methods of using quantitative data to describe social-spatial relationships.

| 1 →

· 1 ·


… the limits of knowledge in any field have never been set and no one has ever reached them.

—Ptah Hotep (cited in Hilliard, Williams, & Damali, 1987)

As long as there is room to improve the society in which we live, research will be necessary. In professional and educational settings, people are advised or required to learn methods of research. Some wonder why research methods are relevant to them, especially if they do not intend to pursue a profession that requires them to conduct research. They often ask what is meant by the word “research” and why they should learn it. This chapter first explains the relationship between research methods and Africana Studies. Second, it explains some of the most common ways of knowing and the most common errors that occur during the process of investigation. Third, this chapter identifies the best ways of avoiding common roadblocks to critical thought in scientific research. Once researchers understand the techniques of engaging in systematic research, they must begin to engage in the process of explaining variation in human thought and behavior. This chapter describes the means of explaining variation and causality in scientific research. The following sections explore some of these basic concerns. ← 1 | 2 →

What Is Meant by “Research”?

In the 25th century B.C., the African philosopher Ptah Hotep spoke of the limitless nature of knowledge. Training in scientific research is meant to prepare people for the endless pursuit of knowledge. This is of critical importance because knowledge is necessary for advancing society; thus it is relevant to enhancing the lived experiences of people of African descent. Research is something that most people are already intimately familiar with. In this book you will be gaining a deeper understanding of things you already understand to some degree, and a more complex knowledge of things that you already know to some extent. This notion of familiarity is not meant to give readers a false sense of prior knowledge; however, people should not be led to think that research methods are something totally foreign to them. They are a part of our nature. We all engage in research to some degree. The difference is that in this book you will be introduced to research in a much more deliberate, formal, and systematic way. Scientific Research has to be distinguished from casual, everyday research. Scientific research refers to systematic investigation; it involves the discovery, explanation, and description of a subject or topic. People engage in different forms of casual research on a daily basis. For example, we may need to find out the details of a new mobile phone to see if it has our desired features before making a purchase. We may need to find directions to the hotel at which we have a dinner engagement by calling and questioning some of the people we expect to be there. Before purchasing a new computer we examine those at a computer store to identify the one that works best for us. These are all forms of casual research. What happens if these forms of casual research turn out to be wrong or mistaken in any way? We might buy the wrong phone, be late to dinner, or buy a keyboard that is uncomfortable for the wrist.

Clearly, in casual research there are consequences for mistakes that we must correct or learn to live with. However, for scientific researchers, research must be systematic and methodical as opposed to casual. Being systematic and methodical is necessary because when engaging in study about social problems that affect people’s lives in an instrumental way, the stakes are much higher than what is at stake in, for instance, being late to dinner. Social research contends with issues such as unemployment, academic achievement, housing discrimination, and police brutality. The greater the problems and challenges that researchers investigate, the greater the consequences of error. In many cases Africana scholar-activists are conducting research that directly or indirectly leads to saving lives, improving people’s overall well-being, or changing ← 2 | 3 → the way people think about critical issues. Africana Studies,1 by definition, is designed to contribute to the emancipation of people of African descent and humanity by virtue of that contribution. Therefore, mistakes that are affordable in casual everyday research are hardly so in Africana Studies research. For these reasons, researchers of phenomena in the Africana world must be prepared with an adequate knowledge of scientific research.

Why Learn Research Methods?


XX, 408
ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2017 (September)
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2017. XX, 408 pp.

Biographical notes

Serie McDougal III (Author)

Serie McDougal III is Associate Professor in the Department of Africana Studies in the College of Ethnic Studies and Director of the Black Unity Center at San Francisco State University. He is a former chair of the Department of Africana Studies. He received his B.S. in sociology from Loras College, his M.A. in Africana studies from the State University of New York at Albany, and his Ph.D. in African American studies from Temple University. Dr. McDougal is also Co-director of the Afrometrics Research Institute.


Title: Research Methods in Africana Studies | Revised Edition
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