Loading...

Lectures on Legal Linguistics

by Marcus Galdia (Author)
Monographs 610 Pages

Summary

This book describes law from the perspective of its language. It expands, reformulates and reshapes the author’s previous book «Legal Linguistics». The recomposed text corresponds to lectures held for students of legal linguistics and scholars interested in the fundamental legal-linguistic research. The author focuses on legal-linguistic operations such as legal argumentation and legal interpretation that steer the legal discourse. He also explains the processes in which the meaning of law emerges in discursive practices. Furthermore, he scrutinizes problems of textuality of law. This book is also an introduction into the law of linguistic communication and into legal futurology that comprises linguistic aspects of legal globalization.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents in Brief
  • Detailed Contents
  • Abbreviations
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part 1: Introducing Legal Linguistics
  • 1.1 Preliminary Questions
  • 1.1.1 Are laws made with words?
  • 1.1.2 Interdisciplinary aspirations
  • 1.1.3 Some legal-linguistic narratives
  • 1.1.4 Tasks of legal science
  • 1.1.4.1 Systematization in law
  • 1.1.4.2 Other legal-linguistically relevant criteria
  • 1.1.4.3 Knowledge of the subject matter and knowledge of law
  • 1.2 Pragmatics for Lawyers
  • 1.2.1 Pragmatic preferences
  • 1.2.2 What is pragmatics about?
  • 1.2.3 Pragmatic notions
  • 1.2.4 How pragmatics operates in legal contexts
  • 1.2.5 Environment of pragmatics
  • 1.2.6 Pragmatic vs. semantic theories of legal language
  • 1.2.7 Extension of the concept of semantics
  • 1.2.8 Is there more than language in law?
  • 1.2.9 Which conception of language to choose?
  • 1.2.10 Language in pragmatic perspective
  • 1.2.11 Linguistic turn in law
  • 1.3 Morals for Lawyers
  • 1.3.1 Law without morals?
  • 1.3.2 Some examples of morals in law
  • 1.3.3 What is the place of law in our life?
  • 1.3.4 Why law matters although it is not omnipotent?
  • 1.3.5 Material ethics and formal ethics
  • 1.3.5.1 Science shows the way?
  • 1.3.5.2 Establishing rules for social dialogue
  • 1.3.5.3 Professional ethics for lawyers
  • 1.3.5.4 Volatility in law
  • 1.3.6 How to trace ethics in law?
  • 1.4 An Introduction Must End
  • Part 2: Language and Law
  • 2.1 Foundations of Legal Linguistics
  • 2.1.1 Language and Law
  • 2.1.2 The search for the name
  • 2.1.3 Legal linguistics in the world
  • 2.1.3.1 Some tendencies and developments in Europe
  • 2.1.3.2 Legal terminology and discourse in France
  • 2.1.3.3 Polish legal theory and legal linguistics
  • 2.1.3.4 Approaches to legal Russian in Russia and abroad
  • 2.1.3.5 Greek legal linguistics
  • 2.1.3.6 Legal theory and legal language in Scandinavia
  • 2.1.3.6.1 Heikki E.S. Mattila’s comparative legal linguistics
  • 2.1.3.7 Diversity of legal Chinese and understandability of legal Japanese
  • 2.1.3.8 Tendency toward rationalization of language use in the USA
  • 2.1.3.9 A note on Latin America
  • 2.1.3.10 A glimpse of Africa
  • 2.1.3.11 Particular and international research
  • 2.1.4 Conceptions of Legal Linguistics
  • 2.1.4.1 Legal linguistics as semiotics of law
  • 2.1.4.1.1 E. Bülow’s semiotic conception of legal linguistics
  • 2.1.4.2 Legal linguistics as hermeneutics of law
  • 2.1.4.3 Legal linguistics as introduction into law
  • 2.1.4.4 Legal linguistics as part of comparative law
  • 2.1.4.5 Legal linguistics as forensic linguistics
  • 2.1.4.6 Legal linguistics as interlingual comparison
  • 2.1.5 What is legal linguistics and what it is not?
  • 2.1.5.1 Legal linguistics is not philology
  • 2.1.5.2 Legal linguistics is not philosophy of law
  • 2.1.5.3 Legal linguistics is not sociology of law (and not legal anthropology)
  • 2.1.5.4 Legal linguistics is not law
  • 2.1.5.5 Legal linguistics is not legal doctrine
  • 2.1.5.6 Legal linguistics is not logic for lawyers
  • 2.1.5.7 Unification or specialization in legal linguistics
  • 2.1.6 What is legal linguistics, then?
  • 2.1.6.1 Legal-linguistic conceptual network
  • 2.1.7 Is legal linguistics really more than legal linguistics?
  • 2.1.7.1 Family resemblances
  • 2.1.7.2 Analytical philosophy and legal linguistics
  • 2.1.7.3 Legal linguistics as legal pragmatics
  • 2.1.7.4 Legal linguistics for linguists
  • 2.1.8 Legal-linguistic education
  • 2.1.8.1 Core and peripheral legal-linguistic skills
  • 2.2 Do Lawyers Have Their Own Language?
  • 2.2.1 Paradoxical answers
  • 2.2.2 How language used in law became special?
  • 2.2.3 Text types in law
  • 2.2.3.1 Text type dependent transformations of legal language
  • 2.2.3.2 Legal language transgresses law
  • 2.2.4 Legal language as ordinary language
  • 2.2.4.1 Fictions in legal language
  • 2.3 Characteristic Features of Language Used in Law
  • 2.3.1 Descriptive models and their sense
  • 2.3.2 Linguistic levels
  • 2.3.2.1 Phonology and phonetics
  • 2.3.2.2 Morphology
  • 2.3.2.3 Syntax
  • 2.3.2.4 Semantics
  • 2.3.3 Lexicology
  • 2.3.3.1 Synonyms
  • 2.3.3.2 Definitions
  • 2.3.3.2.1 Examples of legal definitions
  • 2.3.3.3 Phraseology in law
  • 2.3.3.4 Etymology
  • 2.3.3.5 Spelling and writing
  • 2.3.4 Textual aspects
  • 2.3.5 Particular descriptive features
  • 2.3.6 Monolingual and multilingual linguistic corpus
  • 2.3.6.1 Multilinguality of the legal language
  • 2.3.6.2 Influence of legal Russian upon other legal languages
  • 2.3.7 Legal language changes
  • 2.3.7.1 Evolution of legal Spanish
  • 2.4 Legal Terminology and Legal Language
  • 2.4.1 First contact with legal terminology
  • 2.4.2 Legal concepts and legal terms
  • 2.4.3 How do terms and concepts work in law?
  • 2.4.4 Legal notions are shorthand script
  • 2.4.4.1 Implied terms and concepts
  • 2.4.5 Classification of terms
  • 2.4.6 Diachrony and synchrony in legal terminology
  • 2.4.7 Scientific terms introduced into law
  • 2.4.8 Verbs in law
  • 2.4.8.1 Verbs in Article 2 UCC and in CISG
  • 2.4.8.2 Legal ‘shall’ and legal ‘may’
  • 2.4.9 Toward modernized legal terminology
  • 2.4.9.1 Updating legal terminology
  • 2.4.9.2 Dissolution of terms or concepts?
  • 2.4.9.3 Modernized legal terminology is not unproblematic
  • 2.4.10 Legal Thesaurus
  • 2.4.10.1 Practical consequences for legal dictionaries
  • 2.4.11 What does terminology mean in terms of pragmatics?
  • Part 3: Linguistic Operations in Law
  • 3.1 Overcoming Terminological Boundaries
  • 3.1.1 Linguistic operations in law
  • 3.1.2 Is systematization a legal-linguistic operation?
  • 3.2 Legal Speech Acts and Legal Discourse
  • 3.2.1 How speech acts matter to law (from the pragmatic point of view)
  • 3.2.1.1 Following Austin
  • 3.2.2 Classification of legal speech acts
  • 3.2.2.1 Some examples
  • 3.2.2.2 Legal speech acts in comparison
  • 3.2.2.3 Mode of existence of legal speech acts
  • 3.2.3 Implementing speech acts in law
  • 3.2.3.1 Institutionalized language use
  • 3.2.3.2 Communication in hostile landscapes
  • 3.2.3.3 Legal speech acts and institutions
  • 3.2.3.4 Linguistic operations in law and legal speech acts
  • 3.2.3.5 Language games
  • 3.2.3.6 ‘Différance’ in law
  • 3.2.3.7 Discursiveness and meaning determination
  • 3.2.3.8 Externalism, inferentialism, LOTH and analytical philosophy
  • 3.3 Legal Argumentation
  • 3.3.1 Legal rhetoric
  • 3.3.1.1 Argumentation and rhetoric
  • 3.3.1.2 Argumentation in East Asian tradition
  • 3.3.1.2.1 Chinese discourse about maintenance of power
  • 3.3.1.2.2 Argumentation in India
  • 3.3.2 Are legal arguments sophisms?
  • 3.3.3 Argumentation in legal discourse
  • 3.3.4 Procedural aspects of legal argumentation
  • 3.3.4.1 Façade-argumentation
  • 3.3.5 More and less sophisticated argumentation models in law
  • 3.3.5.1 Argumentation in law can be very simple
  • 3.3.5.2 A more complicated model of legal argumentation
  • 3.3.5.3 Advanced models of legal argumentation
  • 3.4 Argumentation in Legal Practice
  • 3.4.1 Argumentation in U.S. court decisions
  • 3.4.1.1 Constitutional issues
  • 3.4.1.2 Criminal matters
  • 3.4.1.3 Business Law
  • 3.4.2 Argumentation in concurring and dissenting opinions
  • 3.4.3 Argumentation in International Law
  • 3.4.4 Argumentation in negotiations
  • 3.5 Successful Legal Argumentation
  • 3.5.1 Theoretical problems
  • 3.5.2 Elements of legal argumentation
  • 3.5.3 Toward a more convincing argumentation
  • 3.5.3.1 Quality of arguments
  • 3.5.3.2 Inferential model of linguistic communication
  • 3.6 Legal Interpretation
  • 3.6.1 Why we interpret?
  • 3.6.1.1 Interpreting statutes and precedents
  • 3.6.1.2 Exegesis, philology and hermeneutics
  • 3.6.1.2.1 Jewish hermeneutics
  • 3.6.1.2.2 Interpretation in Islamic law
  • 3.6.2 Do utterances which need not to be interpreted exist in law?
  • 3.6.3 Limits of legal interpretation
  • 3.6.3.1 The implicit in law
  • 3.6.3.2 Aporetic character of law
  • 3.6.3.3 Inferentialist explanation of meaning
  • 3.6.3.4 Parties’ intent
  • 3.6.4 Interpretation and linguistic manipulation
  • 3.6.4.1 Interpretation and misinterpretation
  • 3.6.4.2 Over-interpretation
  • 3.6.4.3 Professional errors
  • 3.6.5 Creative interpretation in legal linguistics
  • 3.6.5.1 Law as integrity
  • 3.6.5.2 Hard and routine cases
  • 3.6.5.3 Why follow Dworkin?
  • 3.6.5.4 Controversies about law or language?
  • 3.6.6 Particular problems in interpreting statutes and contracts
  • 3.6.6.1 Statutes on interpretation
  • 3.6.6.2 Interpreting statutes
  • 3.6.6.3 Contract interpretation under common law
  • 3.6.6.4 Interpretation in International Law
  • 3.6.6.5 Finalist interpretation
  • 3.6.6.6 Sociological interpretation
  • 3.6.7 Is law based on interpretive or argumentative practices?
  • 3.6.8 Interpretation in natural sciences
  • 3.7 Legal Translation
  • 3.7.1 Linguistic transformations of law
  • 3.7.2 A retrospective upon legal translation
  • 3.7.3 Terminological equivalence
  • 3.7.4 Descriptive model of legal translation
  • 3.7.5 Legal metalanguage
  • 3.7.6 Interdisciplinary aspects
  • 3.7.6.1 A new approach to legal translation
  • 3.7.7 Translating legal speech acts
  • 3.7.8 Intentionality in translation
  • 3.7.8.1 Complexity of legal translation processes as networks of skills, strategies and tools
  • 3.7.8.2 Newer translatorial strategies
  • 3.7.9 Avoiding translation
  • 3.7.10 Prospects for legal translation
  • 3.8 Other Legal-Linguistic Operations
  • 3.8.1 Justifying argumentation
  • 3.8.2 Describing facts
  • 3.8.3 Legal research
  • 3.9 Legal-Linguistic Operations in Legal Discourse
  • 3.9.1 Centrality of legal discourse
  • 3.9.2 Notion of legal discourse
  • 3.9.3 Structure of legal discourse
  • 3.9.4 Legal discourse and creativity
  • 3.9.5 How does the legal discourse work?
  • 3.9.5.1 Courtroom discourse analysis
  • 3.10 Some Tentative Results of Retrospective Viewupon Law and its Language
  • 3.10.1 What means creation in the legal language?
  • 3.10.2 Creation and interpretation in law
  • 3.10.2.1 Legislative drafting and understandability
  • 3.10.2.2 Recipients’ reliance and textual reception
  • 3.10.3 Discursive parameters
  • Part 4: Textuality of Law or Literature and Law
  • 4.1 Writing and Reading in Law and Elsewhere
  • 4.1.1 Resemblances and differences
  • 4.1.2 Rules in texts
  • 4.1.3 Reading texts and applying rules
  • 4.1.4 Complexity of literary texts
  • 4.1.5 Written legal texts
  • 4.1.6 How are good legal texts written?
  • 4.1.7 Intertextuality in law
  • 4.2 Textuality and Interpretation
  • 4.2.1 Is there only language in literature?
  • 4.2.2 Limits of legal and literary texts
  • 4.2.3 Legal and literary interpretation
  • 4.2.4 Aren’t we able to cope with narrative or textual ambiguity?
  • 4.3 Creating Laws and Creating Fiction
  • 4.3.1 Narrativity of legal texts
  • 4.3.2 Literality of legal texts
  • 4.3.3 Literality of precedents
  • 4.3.4 Reading cases as if they were stories
  • 4.3.5 Facts in law
  • 4.3.5.1 A case study
  • 4.3.6 Judges apply law and more than that
  • 4.3.7 Literality and the institutional character of judicial opinions
  • 4.3.8 What is then specific in legal texts?
  • 4.4 Literature about Law
  • 4.4.1 Legal-linguistic interest in classics
  • 4.4.2 Ancient, mainly Greek literary sources in legal linguistics
  • 4.4.2.1 Legal-linguistic issues in ancient Greek drama
  • 4.4.3 Literary law
  • 4.4.4 Aesthetic aspects of law
  • 4.5 Literature and Law as Part of Legal Linguistics
  • Part 5: Toward Global Legal Linguistics
  • 5.1 Converging Laws and Converging Languages
  • 5.1.1 Globalization of law
  • 5.1.1.1 Global law as guiding idea in legal linguistics
  • 5.1.1.2 Non-legal aspects of the language of global law
  • 5.1.1.3 Globalization of law in comparative perspective
  • 5.1.1.4 Argumentation in lex mundi
  • 5.1.1.5 Global law as American law
  • 5.1.2 Legal linguistics and comparative law
  • 5.1.3 Are laws different?
  • 5.1.3.1 Legal Traditions in the World
  • 5.1.3.2 Evolution and converging tendencies between common and civil law
  • 5.1.3.3 An exercise in functional comparative law
  • 5.1.4 Legal terminology and cultural diversity
  • 5.1.4.1 Swahili legal vocabulary
  • 5.1.5 Linguistic aspects of the E.U. law and the law in the U.S.
  • 5.1.6 Lessons learned
  • 5.2 Épistémologie of Law as Search for the OriginalLegal Language
  • 5.2.1 Épistémè in law
  • 5.2.2 Legal-linguistic aspects of the Roman Law
  • 5.2.2.1 Romans conscious of legal language
  • 5.2.2.2 Formal legal education
  • 5.2.2.3 Use of legal Latin in contemporary statutes and court decisions
  • 5.2.2.4 Incorporation of legal Latin into national legal languages
  • 5.2.2.5 Systematization in the Roman law
  • 5.2.2.5.1 Possible reconstructions
  • 5.2.2.5.2 Case study ‘res incorporales’
  • 5.2.2.5.3 The rule in Roman law
  • 5.2.3 Following ancient Greeks or Romans and their law?
  • Part 6: Law of Linguistic Communication
  • 6.1 Communication and Information in Legal Linguistics
  • 6.1.1 Legal discourse and legal communication
  • 6.1.1.1 Defining speech
  • 6.1.2 Truth and lies
  • 6.1.2.1 Half-truths
  • 6.1.2.2 Controlling lies
  • 6.1.2.3 Commercial lies
  • 6.1.3 Freedom of academic speech
  • 6.1.4 Censorship and rubbernecking
  • 6.1.5 Intellectual property and legal linguistics
  • 6.1.6 Law of Linguistic Communication and Law of New Technologies
  • 6.1.6.1 Law of Internet
  • 6.2 Legal Regulation of Language Use
  • 6.2.1 Linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.1.1 Idea of linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.1.2 Minority legislation and cultural heritage
  • 6.2.2 Social and scientific perspectives on multilingualism
  • 6.2.2.1 Minority legislation and linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.2.2 Nature of linguistic rights and their background
  • 6.2.2.3 Structure of linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.3 Linguistic policy
  • 6.2.3.1 Role of legislation in conflict prevention
  • 6.2.3.2 Soft law, recommendations and promotional measures
  • 6.2.4 Interpreting minority and linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.4.1 Specific aspects in the interpretation of linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.4.2 Interpretive methods
  • 6.2.5 Comparative language law
  • 6.2.5.1 French linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.5.2 Russian federal linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.5.3 Finnish linguistic legislation
  • 6.2.6 Global English and Global Legal English
  • 6.2.7 Conclusions on linguistic legislation
  • 6.3 Language Risk
  • 6.4 Professional Liability of Translators
  • Part 7: Conclusions: Legal-Linguistic Prospects and Limits
  • 7.1 Linguistic Turn in Law
  • 7.2 Conception of Legal Linguistics
  • 7.2.1 Methodology of legal linguistics
  • 7.3 Legal Discourse is not Autonomous
  • 7.3.1 Narratives and information in law
  • 7.3.2 Diachronic aspects of legal discourse
  • 7.3.3 Morals in law and morals of law
  • 7.3.4 Normativeness in legal linguistics
  • 7.4 Legal Futurology
  • 7.4.1 Future issues in legal linguistics
  • 7.4.2 Future of comparative research in legal linguistics
  • 7.5 Author’s Final Words
  • Part 8: Notes and Commented Materials
  • (1) On the relation between pragmatics and semantics
  • (2) Discourse and discursiveness
  • (3) Context in legal linguistics
  • (4) A. M. Honoré and P. Strawson on the way how people speak and write
  • (5) Sale contract from Mesopotamia
  • (6) Hammurabi Code
  • (7) Valerius Probus’ De Juris Notarum
  • (8) Excerpts from Corpus Iuris Civilis
  • (9) Gaius Institutiones
  • (10) Gaius on legal-linguistic origins of (LAT) obligatio
  • (11) Aulus Gellius on legal vocabulary
  • (12) Aulus Gellius on legal education
  • (13) Legal text in Old English
  • (14) Strasbourg oaths in Old Romance and Old Germanic
  • (15) Legal text in Old Portuguese
  • (16) Promissory note in English and Hawaiian
  • (17) Excerpts from Japan’s Constitutions
  • (18) Excerpts from the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China
  • (19) A translation from Turkish into ‘German’
  • (20) Abbreviated language of a German code
  • (21) Italian massime di giurisprudenza
  • (22) French court maxims
  • (23) French annotated codes
  • (24) Excerpts from the CISG
  • (25) Excerpts from the UCC
  • (26) Statutory provisions (Truth in Music Advertising Act)
  • (27) French, Italian, German, Spanish and international statutory provisions on interpretation
  • (28) French governmental instruction on counting paragraphs in legislative drafts
  • (29) Spanish Royal Decree on National Anthem
  • (30) German Presidential Order on National Anthem
  • (31) Law of the Allied Control Council (1947)
  • (32) Excerpts from OSCE Recommendations on Minority and Linguistic Rights
  • (33) Structure of French court decisions (1)
  • (34) Structure of French court decisions (2)
  • (35) Composition of French court decisions
  • (36) Composition of Italian court decisions
  • (37) Previfort S.A. c/ Banco de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (AR)
  • (38) Composition of German court decisions
  • (39) Samples of Japanese court decisions
  • (40) Plessy v. Fergusson (U.S.)
  • (41) Brown v. Board of Education (U.S.)
  • (42) Supreme Court’s order in Brown v. Board of Education (U.S)
  • (43) Racist ordinances (U.S.)
  • (44) Nazi-Germany Racist law
  • (45) Frigaliment v. B.N.S. (U.S.)
  • (46) OHG v. Kolodny (U.S.)
  • (47) U.S. v. Haggar Apparel (U.S.)
  • (48) Rollerblade v. U.S. (U.S.)
  • (49) Mark Realty v. Rogness (U.S.)
  • (50) Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition (U.S.)
  • (51) Aslam Khaki v. Syed Mohammad Hashim (Pakistan)
  • (52) Wood v. Duff-Gordon (U.S.)
  • (53) Palsgraf v. Long Island Railroad (U.S.)
  • (54) Hynes v. New York Central Railroad (U.S.)
  • (55) Torres v. Reardon (U.S.)
  • (56) Bronston v. U.S. (U.S.)
  • (57) Northeast Iowa v. Global Syndicate (U.S.)
  • (58) PGA Tour, Inc. v. Martin
  • (59) Falcoal, Inc. v. Kurumu (U.S.)
  • (60) Ramirez v. Plough, Inc. (U.S.)
  • (61) In re Maldonado (UK)
  • (62) Statutory pardon for A.M. Turing (U.K.)
  • (63) Regina v. Jackson (CAN)
  • (64) Declan O’Byrne v. Sanofi Pasteur (E.U.)
  • (65) In re Standesamt Stadt Niebüll (E.U.)
  • (66) Petro Ecuador v. Shell Oil Company (U.S. – CISG)
  • (67) MCC-Marble Ceramic Center, Inc. v. Ceramica Nuova D’Agostino (U.S. – CISG)
  • (68) V. Rydberg’s Juris Prudentia
  • Bibliography
  • Index of Issues
  • Index of Names

Marcus Galdia

Lectures on
Legal Linguistics

About the author

Marcus Galdia is teaching law, especially Comparative and International Business Law, International Taxation, Digital Law and Law of Communication at the International University of Monaco. The author’s research interests cover issues of legal theory, mainly those connected to language use in law and the law of linguistic communication.

About the book

This book describes law from the perspective of its language. It expands, reformulates and reshapes the author’s previous book Legal Linguistics. The recomposed text corresponds to lectures held for students of legal linguistics and scholars interested in the fundamental legal-linguistic research. The author focuses on legal-linguistic operations such as legal argumentation and legal interpretation that steer the legal discourse. He also explains the processes in which the meaning of law emerges in discursive practices. Furthermore, he scrutinizes problems of textuality of law. This book is also an introduction into the law of linguistic communication and into legal futurology that comprises linguistic aspects of legal globalization.

This eBook can be cited

This edition of the eBook can be cited. To enable this we have marked the start and end of a page. In cases where a word straddles a page break, the marker is placed inside the word at exactly the same position as in the physical book. This means that occasionally a word might be bifurcated by this marker.

Contents in Brief

Abbreviations

Preface

Acknowledgments

Part 1: Introducing Legal Linguistics

1.1 Preliminary Questions

1.2 Pragmatics for Lawyers

1.3 Morals for Lawyers

1.4 An Introduction Must End

Part 2: Language and Law

2.1 Foundations of Legal Linguistics

2.2 Do Lawyers Have Their Own Language?

2.3 Characteristic Features of Language Used in Law

2.4 Legal Terminology and Legal Language

Part 3: Linguistic Operations in Law

3.1 Overcoming Terminological Boundaries

3.2 Legal Speech Acts and Legal Discourse

3.3 Legal Argumentation

3.4 Argumentation in Legal Practice

3.5 Successful Legal Argumentation

3.6 Legal Interpretation

3.7 Legal Translation

3.8 Other Legal-Linguistic Operations

3.9 Legal-Linguistic Operations in Legal Discourse

3.10 Some Tentative Results of Retrospective View upon Law and its Language ←5 | 6→

Part 4: Textuality of Law or Literature and Law

4.1 Writing and Reading in Law and Elsewhere

4.2 Textuality and Interpretation

4.3 Creating Laws and Creating Fiction

4.4 Literature about Law

4.5 Literature and Law as Part of Legal Linguistics

Part 5: Toward Global Legal Linguistics

5.1 Converging Laws and Converging Languages

5.2 Épistémologie of Law as Search for the Original Legal Language

Part 6: Law of Linguistic Communication

6.1 Communication and Information in Legal Linguistics

6.2 Legal Regulation of Language Use

6.3 Language Risk

6.4 Professional Liability of Translators

Part 7: Conclusions: Legal-Linguistic Prospects and Limits

7.1 Linguistic Turn in Law

7.2 Conception of Legal Linguistics

7.3 Legal Discourse is not Autonomous

7.4 Legal Futurology

7.5 Authors Final Words

Part 8: Notes and Commented Materials

Bibliography

Index of Issues

Index of Names

←6 | 7→

Detailed Contents

Abbreviations

Preface

Acknowledgments

Part 1: Introducing Legal Linguistics

1.1Preliminary Questions

1.1.1Are laws made with words?

1.1.2Interdisciplinary aspirations

1.1.3Some legal-linguistic narratives

1.1.4Tasks of legal science

1.1.4.1Systematization in law

1.1.4.2Other legal-linguistically relevant criteria

1.1.4.3Knowledge of the subject matter and knowledge of law

1.2Pragmatics for Lawyers

1.2.1Pragmatic preferences

1.2.2What is pragmatics about?

1.2.3Pragmatic notions

1.2.4How pragmatics operates in legal contexts

1.2.5Environment of pragmatics

1.2.6Pragmatic vs. semantic theories of legal language

1.2.7Extension of the concept of semantics

1.2.8Is there more than language in law?

1.2.9Which conception of language to choose?

1.2.10Language in pragmatic perspective

1.2.11Linguistic turn in law

1.3Morals for Lawyers

1.3.1Law without morals?

1.3.2Some examples of morals in law

1.3.3What is the place of law in our life?

1.3.4Why law matters although it is not omnipotent?

1.3.5Material ethics and formal ethics

1.3.5.1Science shows the way? ←7 | 8→

1.3.5.2Establishing rules for social dialogue

1.3.5.3Professional ethics for lawyers

1.3.5.4Volatility in law

1.3.6How to trace ethics in law?

1.4An Introduction Must End

Part 2: Language and Law

2.1Foundations of Legal Linguistics

2.1.1Language and Law

2.1.2The search for the name

2.1.3Legal linguistics in the world

2.1.3.1Some tendencies and developments in Europe

2.1.3.2Legal terminology and discourse in France

2.1.3.3Polish legal theory and legal linguistics

2.1.3.4Approaches to legal Russian in Russia and abroad

2.1.3.5Greek legal linguistics

2.1.3.6Legal theory and legal language in Scandinavia

2.1.3.6.1Heikki E.S. Mattilas comparative legal linguistics

2.1.3.7Diversity of legal Chinese and understandability of legal Japanese

2.1.3.8Tendency toward rationalization of language use in the USA

2.1.3.9A note on Latin America

2.1.3.10A glimpse of Africa

2.1.3.11Particular and international research

2.1.4Conceptions of Legal Linguistics

2.1.4.1Legal linguistics as semiotics of law

2.1.4.1.1E. Bülows semiotic conception of legal linguistics

2.1.4.2Legal linguistics as hermeneutics of law

2.1.4.3Legal linguistics as introduction into law

2.1.4.4Legal linguistics as part of comparative law

2.1.4.5Legal linguistics as forensic linguistics

2.1.4.6Legal linguistics as interlingual comparison

2.1.5What is legal linguistics and what it is not?

2.1.5.1Legal linguistics is not philology

2.1.5.2Legal linguistics is not philosophy of law

2.1.5.3Legal linguistics is not sociology of law (and not legal anthropology)

2.1.5.4Legal linguistics is not law ←8 | 9→

2.1.5.5Legal linguistics is not legal doctrine

2.1.5.6Legal linguistics is not logic for lawyers

2.1.5.7Unification or specialization in legal linguistics

2.1.6What is legal linguistics, then?

2.1.6.1Legal-linguistic conceptual network

2.1.7Is legal linguistics really more than legal linguistics?

2.1.7.1Family resemblances

2.1.7.2Analytical philosophy and legal linguistics

2.1.7.3Legal linguistics as legal pragmatics

2.1.7.4Legal linguistics for linguists

2.1.8Legal-linguistic education

2.1.8.1Core and peripheral legal-linguistic skills

2.2Do Lawyers Have Their Own Language?

2.2.1Paradoxical answers

2.2.2How language used in law became special?

2.2.3Text types in law

2.2.3.1Text type dependent transformations of legal language

2.2.3.2Legal language transgresses law

2.2.4Legal language as ordinary language

2.2.4.1Fictions in legal language

2.3Characteristic Features of Language Used in Law

2.3.1Descriptive models and their sense

2.3.2Linguistic levels

2.3.2.1Phonology and phonetics

2.3.2.2Morphology

2.3.2.3Syntax

2.3.2.4Semantics

2.3.3Lexicology

2.3.3.1Synonyms

2.3.3.2Definitions

2.3.3.2.1Examples of legal definitions

2.3.3.3Phraseology in law

2.3.3.4Etymology

2.3.3.5Spelling and writing

2.3.4Textual aspects

2.3.5Particular descriptive features

2.3.6Monolingual and multilingual linguistic corpus

2.3.6.1Multilinguality of the legal language ←9 | 10→

2.3.6.2Influence of legal Russian upon other legal languages

2.3.7Legal language changes

2.3.7.1Evolution of legal Spanish

2.4Legal Terminology and Legal Language

2.4.1First contact with legal terminology

2.4.2Legal concepts and legal terms

2.4.3How do terms and concepts work in law?

2.4.4Legal notions are shorthand script

2.4.4.1Implied terms and concepts

2.4.5Classification of terms

2.4.6Diachrony and synchrony in legal terminology

2.4.7Scientific terms introduced into law

2.4.8Verbs in law

2.4.8.1Verbs in Article 2 UCC and in CISG

2.4.8.2Legal ‘shall and legal ‘may

2.4.9Toward modernized legal terminology

2.4.9.1Updating legal terminology

2.4.9.2Dissolution of terms or concepts?

2.4.9.3Modernized legal terminology is not unproblematic

2.4.10Legal Thesaurus

2.4.10.1Practical consequences for legal dictionaries

2.4.11 What does terminology mean in terms of pragmatics?

Part 3: Linguistic Operations in Law

3.1Overcoming Terminological Boundaries

3.1.1Linguistic operations in law

3.1.2Is systematization a legal-linguistic operation?

3.2Legal Speech Acts and Legal Discourse

3.2.1How speech acts matter to law (from the pragmatic point of view)

3.2.1.1Following Austin

3.2.2Classification of legal speech acts

3.2.2.1Some examples

3.2.2.2Legal speech acts in comparison

3.2.2.3Mode of existence of legal speech acts

Details

Pages
610
ISBN (PDF)
9783631727782
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631727799
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631727805
ISBN (Hardcover)
9783631725825
Language
English
Publication date
2017 (September)
Tags
Legal Linguistics Legal Argumentation Legal Interpretation Legal Translation Textuality of Law Global Law
Published
Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2017. 610 pp.

Biographical notes

Marcus Galdia (Author)

Marcus Galdia is teaching law, especially Comparative and International Business Law, International Taxation, Digital Law and Law of Communication at the International University of Monaco. The author’s research interests cover issues of legal theory, mainly those connected to language use in law and the law of linguistic communication.

Previous

Title: Lectures on Legal Linguistics