Augmented Intelligence

Smart Systems and the Future of Work and Learning

by Daniel Araya (Volume editor)
©2018 Textbook XX, 256 Pages


Where the Agricultural Revolution harnessed domesticated animals for pastoral farming, and the Industrial Revolution leveraged machines for factory production, so today the Computational Revolution is advancing computers to augment human intelligence. Indeed, many now argue that the promise of exascale computing and the slow migration towards a computational society may represent a new threshold in human history. This "transcension" of earlier stages of tool-mediated work and learning foreshadows a momentous change in the kinds of cities we might build, the kinds of medicine we might practice, and the kinds of education we might provide. What is perhaps most surprising about the current Computational Revolution, however, is its expanding reach. The question that many now ask is "what is the trajectory of this human-machine symbiosis?" It would appear that we are on the cusp of a sea change in our capacities to augment human intelligence. But what is the future of work and learning? Will augmented intelligence help us in transforming a waning industrial society? These are the kinds of questions that we explore in Augmented Intelligence: Smart Systems and the Future of Work and Learning.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • Advance Praise for Augmented Intelligence
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Foreword (Ann Pendleton-Jullian / John Seely Brown)
  • Notes
  • Introduction (Daniel Araya)
  • Augmenting Human Intelligence
  • Augmenting Work and Learning
  • The Future of Augmented Intelligence
  • Organization of this Book
  • Conclusion
  • Note
  • References
  • Chapter One: Augmented Intelligence and Society (Colin G. Harrison)
  • Introduction
  • Task Definition
  • Information Capture and Acquisition
  • Integration of Information
  • Semantic Structuring
  • Modeling and Analysis
  • Learning
  • Explanation
  • Action
  • Collective Intelligence
  • Ranges of Awareness and Action
  • Societal Scale
  • Cultural Identity
  • Trust
  • Specialization
  • Power
  • Decision Making
  • Augmented Intelligence
  • Government
  • Finance and Economics
  • E-Commerce
  • Science
  • Healthcare
  • Societal Impacts
  • Progress
  • Work and Jobs
  • (Re-)Education for the Age of Information
  • The Right to Know and Understand
  • Organizational Structures
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Two: The Future of Digital Cognitive Systems: Tool, Assistant, Collaborator, Coach, Mediator (Jim Spohrer / M. Abul Kalam Siddike)
  • Introduction
  • Understanding Cognitive Mediators
  • The Future of Cognitive Mediators
  • Changes in the Global Workforce
  • Public Policy
  • Issue 1: Legal and Governance
  • Issue 2: Public Good
  • Issue 3: Safety and Control
  • Issue 4: Social and Economic
  • Issue 5: Research Questions
  • Issue 6: Research Gaps
  • Issue 7: Higher Education
  • Issue 8: Institutions
  • Issue 9: Data Sets
  • Issue 10: Prizes
  • Issue 11: Other Concerns—Trust
  • Concluding Remarks: Future Research Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Three: Augmented Intelligence: Work and Class in the Age of Machine Intelligence (Daniel Araya / Kevin Stolarick)
  • Technology and Underemployment
  • Looking at the Data
  • The Geography of Work
  • (1) Graphic Designers
  • (2) Credit Analysts
  • (3) Statisticians
  • Defining the Occupations in This Study
  • “Thinking Creatively”
  • “Interacting with Computers”
  • “Degree of Automation”
  • “Thinking Creatively”
  • The Commoditization of Creativity
  • Conclusion: Creative Work and Augmented Intelligence
  • Note about the data
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Four: This Is Your Brain on Code: Embodied Intelligence Augmentation and the Evolution of Conflict (Rodrigo Nieto-Gómez)
  • Introduction
  • Embodied Intelligence Augmentation, Explained
  • Case 1.—The Transhuman Sicario
  • Case 2.—Hacking Umwelts One Cochlear Implant at a Time
  • Conclusion: Resistance Is Futile
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Five: Intelligence Augmentation: Uploading Brain into Computer: Who First? (Yana B. Feygin / Kelly Morris / Roman V. Yampolskiy)
  • Introduction
  • Whole Brain Emulation
  • Why It Matters Whom to Upload First
  • Safety
  • Personality
  • Values
  • Previous Work/Literature Review
  • Leadership Selection
  • Xenotransplantation and the Declaration of Helsinki
  • Selection Criteria
  • Diversity
  • Disposition
  • Intelligence
  • Ethics
  • Selection Process
  • Whom Not to Upload
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Six: The Intersection of the Human Senses and Exponential Technologies: Exploring Relevant Trends and the Future of the Senses (Jovan D. Rebolledo-Mendez)
  • Introduction
  • Exponential Technologies
  • AI and Robotics
  • Digital Biology
  • Nanotechnology
  • Networks and Computer Systems
  • Senses, from Traditional Human Senses to Exotic Natural Ones
  • Neuroplasticity, Biology, and Exponential Technologies Convergence
  • Foreseeing Senses in 2045
  • Patenting Innovations of Senses
  • Predictions of Most Important Exponential Technology for Sensing Related Interfaces
  • The Rise of Artificial and Augmented Senses: Benefits and Risks
  • Acknowledgments
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Seven: Augmented Intelligence Continues to Be Embodied Intelligence (Stan Ruecker / Susan Liepert)
  • Introduction
  • The Future of the Embodied Mind
  • A Brief History of Embodiment and Technology
  • A Brief History of Bodies
  • Medieval Bodies Were Containers for Souls
  • Renaissance Bodies Were Bags of Fluids
  • Enlightenment Bodies Were Solids
  • Romantic Bodies Were Harps
  • Victorian Bodies Were Steam Engines
  • Modern Bodies Aspired to Disappear, Leaving Only Brains Behind
  • A Quiet Revolution
  • Perceptive Computing
  • Augmented Intelligence
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Eight: Augmenting the Posthuman: The Return of Humanist Discourse in Posthumanist Environments (Alix Rübsaam)
  • The Future of Humans and Technology?
  • Critical Posthumanism, Fluid Demarcations, and Distributed Subjects
  • Posthuman Artificial Intelligence
  • Artificial Intelligence as Existential Threat, Nonhuman Other, or Neither?
  • From Body-Less Information and Uploaded Minds to Embodied Human Consciousness
  • The Posthuman and Technological Environment of the Human and Artificial Intelligence
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Nine: What Augmented Intelligence? Power and Control in the Era of Open Networked Learning (Rita Kop)
  • Introduction: What Intelligence?
  • The Complexity of Information and Data on the Web
  • Working with Big Data
  • Power and Control of Algorithms
  • Who Influences the Content of Data-Driven Systems?
  • Government Control Over Data and Algorithms
  • Harnessing the Power of Algorithms for Learning and Augmenting Intelligence
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Ten: Augmented Intelligence with Human–Machine Integrity: Future-Oriented Hybrid Governance Integrating Holistic Analytics, True Cost Economics, and Open Source Everything Engineering (OSEE) (Robert David Steele)
  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals of Intelligence
  • Holistic Analytics
  • True Cost Economics
  • Open Source Everything Engineering (OSEE)
  • Where Have We Gone Wrong?
  • Computers against the Earth
  • Computers against Humanity
  • Humans, not machines, revolt when oppressed—these are the reasons why they revolt
  • What Is to Be Done?
  • Strategic Initiatives
  • End-User Initiatives
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Eleven: For Pleasure or Productivity: Divergent Paths in Intelligence Augmentation (James D. Miller)
  • Introduction
  • Productivity Enhancers
  • Rich Countries Will Have More Enhancers
  • Productivity Enhancers and Signaling
  • If Productivity Enhancers Affect Happiness
  • Happiness Boosters
  • Darwin Wins
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twelve: Building Human Character in a World of Augmented Intelligence (Darlene Damm)
  • Understanding Augmented Intelligence
  • The Coming World of Accelerating Technological Change
  • New Skills for Humans
  • A Curriculum for the Future
  • References
  • About the Contributors
  • Index
  • Series index

| vii →


Figure 1.1: Maslow proposes a hierarchy of human aspirations and motivations

Figure 2.1: TACC hierarchy (tools, assistant, collaborators, and coach)

Figure 2.2: Timeframe to impact industries

Figure 2.3: Dedication to Douglas C. Engelbart

Figure 3.1: Total employment

Figure 3.2: Employed per 1 million

Figure 3.3: Average wage (2014 $) A

Figure 3.4: Wage % of national average A

Figure 3.5: Average of regional share of employment

Figure 3.6: Share of employment in region with highest share

Figure 3.7: Total employment in region with highest employment

Figure 3.8: Interacting with computers (2014) A

Figure 3.9: Interacting with computers (2014) B

Figure 3.10: Interacting with computers C

Figure 3.11: Credit analysts A

Figure 3.12: Statisticians A

Figure 3.13: Graphic designers

Figure 3.14: Degree of automation (1–5) ← vii | viii →

Figure 3.15: Thinking creatively (2014) A

Figure 3.16: Thinking creatively (2014) B

Figure 3.17: Thinking creatively (2014) C

Figure 3.18: Thinking creatively (2014) D

Figure 3.19: Thinking creatively (2014) E

Figure 3.20: Thinking creatively (2014) F

Figure 3.21: Thinking creatively (2014) G

Figure 3.22: Thinking creatively (2014) H

Figure 3.23: Thinking creatively (2014) I

Figure 3.24: Thinking creatively (2014) J

Figure 3.25: Thinking creatively (2014) K

Figure 3.26: Credit analysis B

Figure 3.27: Statisticians B

Figure 3.28: Graphic designers

Figure 3.29: Average wage (2014 $) B

Figure 3.30: Wage % of national average B

Figure 6.1: Behavior of patent submissions per year

Figure 6.2: Plotting of number of publications in journals based on Google Scholar from 2000 to 2015 (a), and projection of to 2045 with regression model (b)

Figure 6.3: From survey to exponential technologies practitioners

Figure 6.4: Difference of expectation of usage of different human senses by 2045, compared with usage in 2016

Figure 6.5: Expectation of importance of exponential technologies by 2045

Figure 6.6: Expectation of exponential technology usage frequency in interaction with human senses

Figure 7.1: Anatomy of female reproductive system, contemporary

Figure 7.2: Anatomy of female reproductive system, late 1400s

Figure 7.3: The Aeolian Harp provided an image for how sympathetic vibrations worked in people

Figure 10.1: Whole earth analytic model

Figure 10.2: Full-spectrum human intelligence (HUMINT)

Figure 10.3: World brain concept

Figure 10.4: Earth intelligence concept

Figure 10.5: Local to global information-sharing concept

Figure 10.6: Computer-assisted tools for human intelligence

| ix →


Table 1.1: Prioritized general skills for 2015 and 2020

Table 2.1: Top skills in 2020

Table 2.2: Cognitive mediators as tool, assistant, collaborator, and coach

Table 3.1: Defining the occupations in O*Net

Table 3.2: Descriptions of O*Net data occupation content mode

Table 3.3: “Level” of work activity

Table 3.4: “Level” of work activity in 2002

Table 10.1: Eight information “tribes”

Table 10.2: Operational analytic model in three dimensions

Table 10.3: Open source everything engineering (OSEE) baseline

Table 10.4: UN sustainable development goals

Table 10.5: Preconditions of revolution

Table 10.6: Integrated local to global education, intelligence, and research

Table 10.7: True cost economics at point of sale

| xi →



The ever-accelerating progress of technology … gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.


Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended … I think it’s fair to call this event a singularity. It is a point where our models must be discarded and a new reality rules. As we move closer and closer to this point, it will loom vaster and vaster over human affairs till the notion becomes a commonplace. Yet when it finally happens it may still be a great surprise and a greater unknown.


In his introduction to this paradoxically long overdue and prescient collection of essays, Daniel Araya frames the driving question, “what is the trajectory of human-machine symbiosis?” This is an important question and one that needs to be deeply considered. In 2005, Ray Kurtzweil wrote The Singularity Is Near, more than a decade after the concept of the Singularity was popularized by the mathematician/computer scientist/science fiction writer Vernor Vinge. But these ideas trace back even further, to the late 1950s when John Von Neumann introduced the concept of a technological singularity. So this book is long overdue in the ← xi | xii → sense that the topics it addresses are necessary to make sense of the world that is emerging around us. But it is also prescient in that it brings together diverse questions that are textured and sophisticated into a single intellectual space so that we, the reader, can see them like cards laid out on a table and productively move among them, rearranging themes to wrestle with the larger question Araya asks.

There are really big questions in this book:


XX, 256
ISBN (Softcover)
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2018 (October)
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Oxford, Wien, 2018. XX, 256 pp., 49 b/w ills., 14 tables

Biographical notes

Daniel Araya (Volume editor)

Daniel Araya is a researcher and advisor to government with a special interest in technological innovation, public policy, and education. He is a Sharing Cities Policy Fellow and a regular contributor to various media outlets including Futurism, The Brookings Institution, Singularity Hub, and Medium. He has written or edited eight books overlapping public policy and technological innovation and is an alumnus of Singularity University in Silicon Valley. He is also a film producer and holds a doctorate from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


Title: Augmented Intelligence
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