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Europe: Civilizations Clashing

From Athens to the European Union

by Piotr Jaroszyński (Author) Lindael Rolstone (Author)
Monographs 194 Pages

Summary

European culture is rich with diversity and character, developing, maturing, and emerging throughout the course of history. The authors of the book examine the complex nature and multifaceted culture of Europe, developed throughout time, through the lens of philosophy and theology. The authors cover the period from the Persians to the European Union and notice that clashes occurred and reoccurred throughout European history, which had an impact on Europe’s identity. Greece clashed against Persia. Islam clashed with Christianity. Christianity clashed within itself during the protestant reformation. The European Union now clashes with Christianity.

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Acknowledgements
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • I. Europe Beginning
  • The Word Europe: Etymology
  • Mythology: Europe Began by Force or Seduction?
  • Christianity and a Supreme God
  • Mythology, Judaism, and Christianity
  • Europe’s Historical Geography
  • Europe’s Developing Culture
  • II. Greece: Clashes, Politics, and Philosophical Thought
  • Greece and Persia Clashing
  • Self-Awareness and Culture
  • Clashes between Democracy, Despotism, and Totalitarianism
  • Pan Hellenism and Culture
  • Isocrates, Culture and Thought
  • Lysias and Freedom
  • Science, Theory, Truth, and Culture
  • Morality, Behavior, and Culture
  • Productivity, Beauty, and Culture
  • Religion and Culture
  • Mythology and Culture
  • Freedom and Culture
  • Law and Culture
  • III. Religion Influences Culture
  • Christianity Offers Culture a Living Style
  • The Christian Faith Attacked
  • Christian Europe Invaded by Islam
  • Christianity and Islam: Origins
  • Christianity and Islam: Differences
  • Conceptualizing God
  • The Human Person
  • Original Sin
  • The Holy Trinity
  • Determining Human Destiny
  • Personalism
  • Human Choice: Free Will, or Determinism
  • Divine Providence and Predestination
  • Historical Responses to Evangelization
  • A Religion to Destroy Christianity
  • IV. Europe: The Enlightened and the Backward
  • Western Christianity in Crisis
  • Toward the Ideology of Progress
  • De-Hellenization of Europe
  • De-Christianization of Europe in Process
  • V. Europe and the Enlightenment
  • The Cultural Superiority of Europe, a Myth
  • Cultural Advancement
  • Scientific Progress and Culture
  • Political Systems and Culture
  • Equality, Freedom, Belonging, and Culture
  • Society’s Role in Cultural Advancement
  • VI. Europe, Political Systems, and the European Union
  • Economics and Europe
  • Ideology and Europe
  • Nazism
  • Fascism
  • Communism
  • New Political Change
  • Christian-Democratic Movement, the European Union
  • Creating a United Europe
  • VII. The European Union Rejects Christianity
  • Treaties and the Developing European Union
  • The Impact of Changing Values upon Society
  • The European Union and Freedom
  • Gender Mainstreaming and the European Union
  • Federation or Federative Europe
  • Formulating a Constitution
  • The Agenda and Philosophy of Liberalism
  • Culture, Language and History
  • Traditions, History and Culture
  • Inter Relationships: State, Nation, Superstate
  • Autonomy versus Autonomy Loss
  • Implementing Politics and Ideologies
  • VIII. The End with No End
  • New Clashes: Geography, Religion, and No Religion
  • Europe’s Journey, A New Beginning
  • The New Losses: Identity, History, Civilization
  • Economic Challenges and Political Harmony
  • Europe United and Strong?
  • Europe Displacing Religion
  • Where Is Europe Going?
  • Attempting to Resolve Economical Problems
  • The Attractiveness of Europe
  • Europe’s Clash of Civilizations: What Is Next?
  • Bibliography
  • Internet Sources

Introduction

Europe’s Identity Shaped Through Clashes in Europe’s History

European identity was formed throughout the generations, largely because of major value clashes occurring throughout time. Europe has been a battlefield. Clashes over Europe involved geography, culture, philosophy, religion, essential values, practices of living out life… the list is ongoing. Europe, and European identity, was formed, evolved and developed because of, and in spite of these clashes between civilizations. Evaluating and examining these European clashes were, and continues to be, extremely complicated and controversial. Because these clashes are and were multifaceted, European Identity can only be evaluated through careful scrutiny of emerging etymological, geographical, political, historical, cultural, religious, civilizational and ideological aspects. Europe’s beginnings may include the inception of geographical maps, myths about gods and goddesses, the impact of inhabitants of Europe and conquerors, these all influenced the development of Europeanism cultural development. (Chapter 1)

This work addresses a select portion of European issues and concepts that have emerged in the course of history. The dissention over Europe continues into the present day. Clashes now involve the European Union. This discord is explained. The dispute is discussed in the context of Europe’s past, present, and potential future. The history of Europe’s civilization forms a context in making evaluations about the present.

Within the successive concepts of Europe, central characteristic features emerge. These traits form the basis of who and what Europe is and what it stands for. These central features emerge in opposition to non-European cultures or civilizations. In our current era, there is an internal dispute over Europe from within Europe. One thing is certain: Europe is not a ready category that can be indisputably referenced.

Europe has distinctive features, to be reached, uncovered and saved. Europe is not a fluid category that may be arbitrarily shaped. European features enrich the spectrum of cultures and civilizations of the world, and this is because they have a universal, trans-European value.

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Culture, Religion, and Science Shaping Europe’s History

European history points to three main divergent concepts of Europe, which appear in the context of clashes grounded in civilization. Dominant themes emerge, those of culture, religion, and science. The field of impact is variable and the European nations, which are involved, differ in their own unique ways.

In the most ancient times, one clash, the first concept of Europe, included the clash between the Greeks and Persians. The Greek philosophers of that time period referred to their conflict with Persia as being a clash between Europe and Asia. (Chapter 2)

Christianity was introduced into the Greek culture, and is discussed in terms of the principles of Europe’s culture and history. Christianity clashes within itself, leading to the Protestant Reformation. Christianity and Islam meeting head-on introduce the second idea. As contrasted with the peaceful philosophy of Christians, Islam had a hostile attitude towards Christians, and attempted to take Europe by force. (Chapter 3) Historically, Europe under Christianity promoted the concept of equality among people, and intellectual growth and progress. It served to unite and bond the people throughout Europe. (Chapter 4) Equality, freedom and Justice were promoted in the political dimension, emphasizing a freedom that focused upon the common good. (Chapter 5)

The third concept resulted from the European cultures intermingling with the cultures of the newly discovered people who inhabited other continents. Clashes ensued.

Confrontations shaped Europe as a phenomenon diversified in terms of both civilization and geography. European culture and civilization are unique when considered in the context of three central clashes, the Greeks and the Persians, Christianity clashing within itself and with Islam, and cultures intermingling with those from other continents.

As a result of meeting of the three afore mentioned historical concepts, three new ideas of Europe emerge. These took the form of internal conflicts. The first was opposition against the Greek Europe. During the Christian era, conflict between Catholics and Protestants emerged. Lastly, a post-Christian age emerged, a modern age, termed the Enlightenment.

Other clashes and turning points continued throughout history. The loss of Christian values and behavior promoting peace, forgiveness and ←12 | 13→tolerance, led to the rise of Nazism, Fascism, Socialism, and Communism. (Chapter 6) Although some initial aims of each of these “isms” may have been praiseworthy, the actual outcome was nothing short of horror.

To many, Europe means one of three things, each leading to a revolution of sorts. When one considers Europe by definition, one may be referring to Greece, Christianity, or Enlightenment.

The latest revolution began with the European Union (EU). The ideals of the Union that were initially formulated through the leaders of various European countries, included fellowship, peaceful human relationships and the valuing of all human life. It was hoped that these values would inevitably lead to world peace. (Chapter 6) As time progressed, these aims have been replaced with other less noble ones.

The change in Europe through the Union, has been subtle, and to the casual observer, may go unnoticed. It is essential that these changes not go unnoticed. It is essential that people, you, become educated regarding what is happening. Examine the past, be alert in the present, and be attentive to what could transpire in the future.

The current project, the European Union, aims to dismantle Europe’s culture. It rejects Europe through Anti-Hellenism (anti ancient Greece), Anti-Christianism (anti-Christian religion), and Anti-nationalism (rejecting Enlightenment). (Chapter 7) These concepts will be expanded upon as we move through this book. Briefly, there exists a planned and deliberate strategy to create a new notion of Europe. Policies have been implemented and are meant to contradict the old concepts of Europe, to turn Europe into something that may not be admirable. The history or reality of European heritage, and the concept about what makes Europe to be uniquely Europe, is being rejected in favor of a wave of new thinking and practice. That is their hallmark. Europe is ceasing to be Europe. Tools for this project are used and implemented centrally. These tools are available primarily by means of the state and international organizations, achieved by means of this European Union. (Chapters 7 and 8)

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Details

Pages
194
ISBN (PDF)
9783631799864
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631799871
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631799888
ISBN (Hardcover)
9783631764534
Language
English
Publication date
2019 (November)
Tags
Europe’s history the European Union European culture Philosophy Christianity Politics and Ethics Mythology Education Ethnology and cultural studies Political sciences
Published
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2019. 194 pp.

Biographical notes

Piotr Jaroszyński (Author) Lindael Rolstone (Author)

Piotr Jaroszyński is Professor at the Department of Philosophy of Culture and Art, University of Lublin. He is an international lecturer and author. His philosophical, art and metaphysical works have been translated into many languages. Lindael Rolstone’s professional experience includes delivering educational programs, consulting, management, editing, and therapy. She provided clinical social work, clinical counselling, and occupational therapy services in various locations. She has degrees in science, social work, and education.

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Title: Europe: Civilizations Clashing