Southern Hemisphere Ethnographies of Space, Place, and Time

by Robert E. Rinehart (Volume editor) Jacquie Kidd (Volume editor) Antonio Garcia Quiroga (Volume editor)
Edited Collection XIV, 396 Pages


This book is about exciting ethnographic happenings in the Global South. It brings together a wide range of authors who explore the spatial and temporal forms of various ethnographic projects, examining how individuals relate to their homes, their nation-states and their «moments» and trajectories. It also seeks to contest the twenty-first-century hegemonic colonialist project: to this end, the book includes a number of shorter chapters that are presented in both English and non-English versions. Finally, a clear contemporary Indigenous voice runs through the volume, reminding us of non-dominant ways of being in the world.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1: Encountering Space, Place and Time: Selections from the Global South (Robert E. Rinehart / Jacquie Kidd)
  • Ubuntu Welcoming
  • References
  • Part I: Emerging Methods
  • Chapter 2: Qualitative Inquiry and Creative Subversion: Challenges in the Context of Terror (César A. Cisneros-Puebla)
  • Postcolonial Thinking
  • Qualitative Inquiry
  • Creative Subversion
  • Final Remarks: Poetics of Rage Around the World
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Sense of Place and Space in Military Life: Ethnographic Snapshots (María Teresa Salcedo)
  • A Military Quarter Located to the North in Bogotá
  • The Military Police: How They Deal with Illegal Actions in the Heart of the City
  • Uniforms: ‘Pride’ and the Sense of Place
  • Sartorial Spaces: Affections and Disaffections
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Revitalizing Niue: A Joint Mission (Jennifer Anayo)
  • Introduction
  • Niue and Niueans
  • A Transnational Network of Nationhood
  • Treasuring Culture
  • Bridging Niuean Nation-Making Initiatives
  • Treasuring Language
  • Being Niuean in Auckland
  • #KiMuaNiue (Niue to the Front)
  • Carrying a Transnational Burden
  • References
  • Part II: Praxis: Space, Place and Time in Lived Worlds
  • Chapter 5: Rethinking Research Relations, Rethinking Research or Just Rethinking (Keyan G. Tomaselli)
  • Just Rethinking
  • De-westernizing Ethics
  • De-Colonization
  • Regime-ification: Going Backwards, Not Forwards
  • Transgressive Methods: Consequences
  • Just Rethinking
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 6: In ‘Our Place’ At This Time: Sense-Making of Identity, Community and Future(s) (Kerry Earl / Jacquie Kidd)
  • Introduction
  • Taking Off
  • First responses
  • Out of the trees
  • Patterns of Flight
  • The emergence of methodology
  • Continuity and interaction
  • A letter later emailed, undated:
  • Responding to Literature
  • bell hooks (2008) Belonging: A Culture of Place
  • ‘X is where you are’ exhibition
  • Tom Inglis (2008) Local Belonging, Identities and Sense of Place in Contemporary Ireland
  • Alighting
  • CEAD presentation 2016
  • The challenge of the question
  • Looking over our shoulder
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Reawakening Spiritual Roots in Nursing Practice: Sacred Places and Sacred Spaces (Jennifer Carter / Melissa Carey)
  • Introduction
  • Spirituality and Nursing Practice
  • Case Study One: Gary
  • Gary: Conversations at the deathbed
  • Cartesian Dualism and Medical Dominance
  • Case Study Two: Peter
  • Peter: Understanding the quality of life at the end of life
  • Case Study Three: Elsie
  • Elsie: Awareness of being mortal
  • Sacred Spaces in Western Cultures
  • Case Study Four: Eric
  • Eric: Last days
  • Reawakening Spirituality in Nursing Practice
  • In Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 8: The Intermittent Researcher and the Marginalized Research Community: Reflections of Research Praxis from Two Studies Conducted Amongst the !Xun and Khwe San (Shanade Bianca Barnabas)
  • Doing Research among the !Xun and Khwe
  • Relationship Building and Ethical Concerns
  • Some Final Observations
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Part III: Social Justice and Transformation: Theoretically Embodied Visions
  • Chapter 9: Relational Commitments of Narrative Inquirers (D. Jean Clandinin)
  • Beginning in the Midst of Lives
  • Understanding Experience as a Narrative Phenomenon: Only Part of Narrative Inquiry
  • Coming to terms: What do we mean by narrative inquiry?
  • Narrative Inquiry: Shaped by Particular Ontological and Epistemological Commitments
  • Twelve Elements of Design by Narrative Inquiry
  • 1. Four key terms in narrative inquiry: Shaping design considerations
  • 2. The three-dimensional space of narrative inquiry: Shaping design considerations
  • 3. Imagining a narrative inquiry from field to field texts to research texts: Shaping design considerations
  • 4. Writing ourselves into narrative inquiries: Shaping design considerations
  • 5. Framing research puzzles: Shaping design considerations
  • 6. Positioning an inquiry within the scholarly literature: Shaping design considerations
  • 7. Justifying our work: Shaping design considerations
  • 8. Finding participants and co-composing an inquiry field: Shaping design considerations
  • 9. Moving from field to co-composing field texts: Shaping design considerations
  • 10. Response communities: Shaping design considerations
  • 11. Moving from field texts to interim and final research texts: Shaping design considerations
  • 12. Relational ethics: Shaping design considerations
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Social Justice and Transformation: Why Does Ethnography Matter? (Nolwazi Mkhwanazi)
  • Different from the Past?
  • The Trouble with Representation
  • Steps towards an Ethic of Care: An Intervention of Teenaged Pregnancy Research
  • Social Justice and Transformation: Why Does Ethnography Matter?
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Whose Voice Is It Anyway? Identification, Representation and Narrative in Ethnographic Practice (Nosipho Mngomezulu)
  • Starting
  • Entangled Narratives
  • Mirror Mask: Beyond Insider and Outsider
  • Conclusion: Not Just Smoke and Mirrors
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Training under Uncertainty: Tempography of Underdog Filipino Pugilists (Tomonori Ishioka)
  • Introduction
  • Weight Reduction under Uncertainty
  • Methods
  • Bout Postponements and Withdrawing from Boxing Gyms
  • Scheduling of Bouts and Weight Reduction
  • Remaking the Body
  • Structural Disparity in Arrangement of Bouts
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Part IV: Indigenous Ways of Being
  • Chapter 13: Vetkat’s Cinematic: Oneironauts of Critique in the Kalahari (William Ellis)
  • A Note on the Method of the Chapter
  • Background and Setting
  • Flash 1: Breakfast at … the Molopo
  • Flash 2: Artist as Ethnographer
  • Flash 3: The Dreamscape of Makai and Regopstaan
  • Flash 4: Motions, Vehicles and Travellers
  • Flash 5: Motion in Vetkat’s Panels
  • Flash 6: Oneironauts of Critique in the Kalahari
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Kimihia Te Kura Huna: Seeking an Authentic Māori Identity through Autoethnography (Pauline Adams)
  • Introduction
  • Understanding Māori Identity
  • Internalizing a False Identity
  • Reconciling an Authentic Identity
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Encountering the Bushmen Who Looked Like Me: Field Note Reflections on Doing Research among the !Xun and Khwe of Platfontein, South Africa (Itunu Bodunrin)
  • Introduction
  • Encountering the Bushmen Who Looked Like Me
  • Reverse Gaze and Reciprocal Field Experience
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Unapologetically Te Arawa: In Pursuit of a Tribally Specific Research Approach (Melinda Webber)
  • Introduction
  • The Moral and Political Nature of Research with Indigenous Communities
  • Ka Awatea: An Iwi Case Study of Māori Student Success
  • Rangatiratanga: Undoing Notions of Research Leadership and Honouring the Iwi Participants’ Inherent Right to Self-Determination
  • Mōhiotanga and Whakapapa: Undoing Western Knowledge Hierarchies and Revisioning Iwi Knowledge Systems and Genealogy as Both ‘Method’ and ‘Data’
  • He Whakaaro Whakamutunga: Concluding Thoughts
  • References
  • Part V: Space, Place and Time in Portuguese and Spanish
  • Chapter 17: Searching ‘Zones of Contact’ in the Southern Hemisphere (Antonio García Quiroga)
  • Building Southern Perspectives
  • CEAD as a Space of Southern Epistemologies
  • The Chapters
  • References
  • Chapter 18a: The Other Month of the Sea: Claiming the Coastal Territory in the South of Chile (Cristóbal Bravo Ferretti)
  • Introduction
  • Community and Sense of Place
  • Official Discourses of the Chilean Sea
  • The Other Month of the Sea
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 18b: El otro mes del mar: Reivindicando el territorio costero en el sur de Chile (Cristóbal Bravo Ferretti)
  • Introducción
  • Comunidad y sentido de lugar
  • Los discursos oficiales del mar chileno
  • El ‘otro’ mes del mar
  • Discusión
  • Referencias
  • Chapter 19a: Reproductive Disruption, Bodily Experiences (Esmeralda Mariano)
  • Introduction
  • Representation of Body and Bodily Processes
  • Nyoka: The Bodily Vital Force
  • Severe Cramps (xilume)
  • Female Bodies Rejecting Semen (xithetho)
  • References
  • Chapter 19b: Transtornos reprodutivos, experiências corporais (Esmeralda Mariano)
  • Introducción
  • Representação do corpo e dos processos corporais
  • Nyoka: a força vital do corpo
  • Dor menstrual (xilume)
  • Corpos femininos que rejeitam o sémen (xithetho)
  • Referencias
  • Chapter 20a: Indigenous Language and Identity inside Social Movements among Mapuche People Today (Elisa del Carmen Loncon Antileo)
  • Introduction
  • Double Rationality: Mapuche Education and School Education
  • The Subjects of Double Rationality
  • The Vision of the Urban Mapuche of Their Own World and the Other
  • Intercultural Dialogue
  • Community Values
  • School Experience
  • Social Practices
  • Mapuche Kimvn ‘Mapuche Knowledge’
  • References
  • Chapter 20b: Lengua indígena e identidad en los movimentos sociales mapuche (Elisa del Carmen Loncon Antileo)
  • Introducción
  • La doble racionalidad: educación mapuche y educación escolar
  • Los sujectos de doble racionalidad del estudio
  • La vision de los mapuche urbanos sobre el mundo proprio y el otro
  • El diálogo intercultural
  • Los valores comunitarios
  • Experiencia escolar
  • Prácticas sociales
  • Mapuche kimvn ‘conocimiento mapuche’
  • Referencias
  • Chapter 21: Postscript: Place, Space and Time in Ethnographic Research (Robert E. Rinehart / Jacquie Kidd / Toni Bruce / D. Jean Clandinin / Nolwazi Mkhwanazi / César A. Cisneros-Puebla / Keyan G. Tomaselli)
  • Notes on Contributors
  • Index

| ix →


Figure 2.1. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 … 43: Justice! Ay! Ay! Ayotzinapa: A challenge for new critical qualitative inquiry. ICQI 2015 Urbana-Champaign.

Figure 2.2. Poetics of rage in Mexico City, 2015.

Figure 2.3. Poetics of rage: EZLN 1994–2016.

Figure 3.1. ‘El Bronx’ behind the recruitment battalion, 2016. By María Teresa Salcedo.

Figure 3.2. Recruitment one, 2016. By María Teresa Salcedo.

Figure 3.3. Recruitment two, 2016. By María Teresa Salcedo.

Figure 3.4. Lectern one, 2016. By María Teresa Salcedo.

Figure 12.1. A boxer during regular training.

Figure 12.2. The same boxer during the weight reduction period.

Figure 13.1. Figures dancing off the page.

Figure 13.2. Man with the flowering penis, detail page 3.

Figure 13.3. The national chimeric cyborg vomits, urinates and excretes. It is sick and its illness echoes the land claim.

| xi →


Table 12.1. Number of overseas bouts including Filipino boxers by country held in (January–August 2007).

Table 12.2. Number of bouts in the Philippines by overseas boxers (January–August 2007).

Table 16.1. The eight qualities of successful Te Arawa students: Ngā Pūmanawa e Waru.

| xiii →


We want to acknowledge the generosity and enthusiasm of the authors as we grappled with editing this book. Honouring the diversity of voices while achieving consistency in the appearance of the chapters has been a work of compromise and trust. Thank you all for trusting and working with us!

We also need to acknowledge the effort and good humour of Caitlin and Matthew Putnam, our extraordinary formatters and proofreaders. Thank you!

We also acknowledge the San and KhoeKhoen People, embracing the Khoi, San, Bushmen, Khoikhoi and !Kung people and we wish to acknowledge them as Traditional Owners of the lands upon which the CEAD 2018 hui was held. We would also like to pay our respects to their Elders, past, present (and future).

| 1 →


1 Encountering Space, Place and Time: Selections from the Global South


In this chapter, we discuss some of the parameters of space, place and time. Drawing on an eclectic tradition of scholarship that includes Franz Fanon, Homi Bhabha, Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Edward Soja, Gaston Bachelard and Henri Lefebvre, we range across indeterminate space, conceptualizations of thirdspace, hillocks, streams, seashores and time-centred practices of remembrance and reification. We contextualize and introduce the chapters of the book, providing an opening overture of sorts for the reader.

Space, place and time. We know what they mean, but do we know how they mean? How we situate these three abstractions – how we locate them by metaphor or storying, how we localize them in terms of stories found in space, or individuals situated in place, or figures constrained or freed by their time – works to effectively create our knowledges about these three terms. Thus, the chapters within this book serve as meeting points between and among people. They show us possibilities of and for hope; locations and, with varying degrees, precisely situated, embodied spatialities which aid in determinations of what could or ought to happen; and temporalities that may provide – and birth – interpretations of historical context. To unpack the three terms is to open up a plethora of ‘takes’ on them, but as an introductory chapter for this book, we shall ‘paint the edges’ to unpack some of the recent lines of thinking about space, place and time.

As well, ‘unpacking’ is a decidedly Western, rational, scientific strategy. Space, place and time configure simultaneously, co-exist, form synergistic relationships to and with each other. As the thoughtful American author Wallace Stegner, drawing from Shoshone experiences, writes,

They live mainly in Utah and Nevada, the two driest states in the Union, and in those regions water is safety, home, life, place. All around those precious watered places is ← 1 | 2 → only space, forbidding and unlivable, what one must travel through between places of safety. (2002[1992], 73)

In the past twenty-five years, the aridity of those lands has only increased, and been exacerbated, by transnational corporate water bottlers taking that life-giving commodity for profit.

Space can be seen as an ‘as-yet’, a hoped-for, a possibility – and has sometimes been characterized by its modifiers. For example, there is ‘sexy space’ (Prickett 2011); ‘counterpublic space, gay safe space, free market safe space, space is an organ of God’ (Hodkinson 2015, 147); ‘mathematical, physical, socioeconomic, behavioral, experiential’ (Couclelis 1992, 216): the modifiers, in some ways, become determinants of place within those spaces of possibility. Space has also been disambiguated as a ‘third’ space, ‘[…] where initial divisions, tensions, and boundaries become emplaced in nascent theories of space’ (Hodkinson 2015, 149).

Castree, Kitchen and Rogers (2013) pose a definition for that third space, following Bhabha (1994), as ‘An indeterminate, fluid, mutable, liminal space that is neither dominated by one group or another’ (188). This definition hints at the purposes to which space can be put – to its usefulness in the contested space of equity and justice – and locates it as moving towards a peopled space, or a place. This third space serves as a space of negotiation or enunciation, a meeting space between colonized and colonizer, of dominant and other. It is clearly an energetic and contested space, one with pre-existing contexts, recrimination and angst. But it is also a space where possibilities continue to exist. In fact, as opposed to outright belligerent behaviour, this negotiated space is likely one of the lasting hopeful possibilities for co-existence.

Not unlike Smith’s (1999; 2014) characterization of the marae [communal or sacred meeting place] and the powhiri [welcoming ceremony], where Māori welcome visitors into their space (as well as onto their place and within their time), this liminal space only provides a context or setting for possibilities. Smith’s depiction of the powhiri as a ritualistic, liminal space relates closely to the Edward Soja (1996) and Henri Lefebvre-derived sense of thirdspace, which ‘is neither solid material space nor imagined mental space’ (Castree, Kitchen & Rogers 2013, 188); this characterization works to destabilize the simplistic binary inherent in the idea of a singular ‘third space’. ← 2 | 3 →

This is where Homi Bhabha’s thinking may assist. His interpretation of Franz Fanon’s metaphor of ‘revolutionary cultural and political change as a “fluctuating movement” of occult instability’ (1994, 37) leads us to understand the deliberately destabilizing force of a third space that may serve as a liberatory tool for postcolonial social justice. Bhabha explains that the very fact of speaking and being heard (two ‘reference[s] to a present time and a specific space’ (36)) indicates a disruptive force which somehow meets in either a liminal or liminoidal space (cf., Turner 1987; Rinehart and Caudwell 2014) to create a third space:

So this third space is a non-tangible, negotiated meeting ‘ground’ where power relations may be reconsidered by both (or all) parties. It may be fraught with power imbalances, but it is relationship-in-the-making, it is hope. It is, as Bachelard points out, a dance where rhythms and marked-out spaces co-perform an ‘Orpheus complex […] [which] correspond[s] to our first and fundamental need to give pleasure and to offer solace’ (2000[1950], 152).

‘Drifting in the possibility of third space’

As incongruous as it seems, the CEAD hui [conference] sometimes achieves its own liminality. Co-created with delegates, participants and organizers, it is an academic space that is bound by place and time. But the convergence of ideas, challenges and support for each other creates an environment of our-space. Then the magic happens. With a life of its own, during organized sessions, keynotes or lunch, the intellectual, gendered, racialized and cultural differences soften, leaving ideas and passion to connect, resonate and grow. It turns out that third space can be warm, energized and welcoming.

Within a westernized binary system of space and place, place then becomes a more specific space where, paraphrasing Hodkinson (and of course Derrida), the arrivant arrives. ‘Place for us is socially constructed and operating, including interaction between people and groups, institutionalized land uses, political and economic decisions, and the language of representation’ (Saar & Palang 2009, 7). ‘Places are enacted; they are points of embodiment, encounter, connection, and change’ (Rickly 2017, 225). They are spaces for a meant purpose.

Similar to the third space of space studies, an offer of place operates within a somewhat tenuous ‘space’, neither completely objective nor passionately subjective. It is crucially interdependent upon specificities of purpose, on human values and, of course, on its own grounded elements (for example, mountains, rivers, hillocks, seashores). Place, then, provides a midway between an objective fact and a subjective feeling, which Entrikin (1991) calls the be-tweenness of places. It appears as a combination of objects and meanings that differs somehow from its surroundings, regardless of scale. (Saar & Palang 2009, 5)

Place provides a space where interactions may occur: Saar and Palang, citing Jessop et al.’s (2008) call for a broad reach for the concept of place, assert that ‘place should be viewed as specific location, as a wider territory, as consisting of networks and finally extending over different scales’ (2009, 6–7). Place is more specific, more concrete; space is an available space, utilized for and by specific meanings and meaning-makings.

However, indigenous worldviews – and so-called ‘periphery’ views, whether they be from the global south or indigenous, first nations or aboriginal peoples – often reject that westernized, simplistically bifurcated thinking and offer instead a more tantalizing view of place. For Māori, place can ← 4 | 5 → involve geography, history, mythology, cosmology, personal health, spiritual healing and interdependent social connection. While each of these components or notions can be individually understood, the place of one’s origin and belonging is far more than the sum they represent. Understanding an indigenous view of place is akin to understanding a cake by tasting individual ingredients – you can theorize the final product but the taste – the totality, the holistic nature of ‘cakeness’ – remains elusive.

Some social geographers, teasing out the conceptual and structural meanings of space and place, have presciently added to the specific, located dimensions of place and subjective experiencing of place the salience of non-representational objects to reify certain spaces, to give them place meaning. Ethnographic study, in a large degree, is grounded in humans’ relationship to: other humans, spaces, places, non-human animals and natural objects. But fundamental to the ethnographic project is the presence of human actors.

Thus, we know that the ethnographic project is steeped in hoped-for, imagined visions of space and, more specifically, in peopled place. Stories that are told not only recount emotional and nostalgic values of place, they also teach people to live out their lives through story, in specific places and spaces and through different contextual temporal shadings:

Locating ourselves in time, space and place lends credence to our imaginations, for we can literally build places out of our recollections of emotional experiences of those spaces. We construct our places out of the metaphoric bricks and mortar of spaces, and we lock them in to changing contexts through temporal signification.

What happens, then, when we have constructed places that reify and commemorate past horrors in ways that celebrate visual and applied arts such as architecture, sculpture and design? This was the situation we found ourselves in when CEAD went to South Africa. We met in aesthetically beautiful structures that (re)presented the ugliness and divisiveness of apartheid; that celebrated white privilege and economic disparity; that served, daily, as ← 5 | 6 → reminders of a shameful past. We talked and performed in spaces that were not only inaccessible to a large part of the population, but were anathema to them. We visitors to this unique space encountered the fury of the #FeesMustFall movement, tiptoed uncomfortably through the ‘Slave Lodge’, and took our disproportionately lavish conference food to share with hungry locals. Our academic privilege was disrupted, even punctured, by the juxtaposition of the beautiful/powerful places we came to occupy and the historical and contemporary oppression that is manifestly enmeshed within the physical and emotional and temporal spaces that produced them.

The people involved in producing CEAD conferences must grapple with the inaccessibility of academia to the very people we often use to advance our careers. Ethnographies of the vulnerable are frequent in our spheres, as are compassionate researchers who are institutionally disadvantaged. How do we practice inclusion and diversity? How, when we cross the global south with our entourage of academics and sponsors, do we acknowledge and dwell with the wholeness of the places we perform in?

Time is an actuary that moves forward and backward, acts both to ‘lock in’ meaning, context and place, and to temper/modulate/wobble it, through such human acts as nostalgia, memory, power and positioning. Henri Lefebvre, in Rhythmanalysis, points one way to interpret space and time. He writes:

His writing patters the beat of time and rhythms, and shows us – instead of simply telling us – what patterned speech can do, how temporal rhythms work to delimit a space, how space and time create place for humans.

Lefebvre, drawing his inspiration from Bachelard and Soja, discusses the relationship(s) – both synchronous and asynchronous – between space and time. He writes, ‘Time and space, the cyclical and the linear, exert a reciprocal action: they measure themselves against one another; everything is cyclical repetition through linear repetitions’ (2004, 8). It is instructive that Lefebvre acknowledges that ‘cyclical repetition and the linear repetitive ← 6 | 7 → separate out under analysis, but in reality interfere with one another constantly’ (2004, 8).

Ubuntu Welcoming


XIV, 396
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2018 (March)
social justice Ethnography space, place and time Indigenous Māori Africa
Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, New York, Wien, 2018. XIV, 396 pp., 12 b/w ill.

Biographical notes

Robert E. Rinehart (Volume editor) Jacquie Kidd (Volume editor) Antonio Garcia Quiroga (Volume editor)

Robert E. Rinehart is Associate Professor of Health, Sport and Human Performance at the University of Waikato. He has published eight books, ranging in subject matter from inline skating to pleasure in sport, extreme/avant-garde sport and studies in ethnographic practice. He is a past President of the Association for Contemporary Ethnography Across the Disciplines. Jacquie Kidd is Senior Lecturer in the School of Nursing at the University of Auckland and President of the Association for Contemporary Ethnography Across the Disciplines. She is from the Ngāpuhi iwi and focuses her work on Māori health inequities. Antonio Garcia Quiroga is a lecturer in the Department of Education at the University of Santiago. He is an anthropologist specializing in education, focusing particularly on the experience of educational transition and the cultural contexts of educational institutions and learning processes, where he utilizes narrative studies and ethnographic approaches mainly based on visual methodologies.


Title: Southern Hemisphere Ethnographies of Space, Place, and Time
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