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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

by Birte Wassenberg (Volume editor) Bernard Reitel (Volume editor)
Others 864 Pages
Series: Border Studies, Volume 1

Summary

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the editors
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Editors
  • Authors
  • Welcome Address
  • Foreword
  • Introduction
  • Articles
  • Aachen Treaty
  • Agriculture and Rural Development
  • Alzette-Belval
  • Andorra
  • Arrabona
  • Assemblage
  • Association of European Border Regions (AEBR)
  • Austria
  • Balkans
  • Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
  • Banat-Triplex Confinium (BTC)
  • Bayonne-San Sebastián Basque Eurocity
  • Benelux States: Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands
  • Bi- and Multi-Lateral Treaties for Cross-Border Cooperation
  • Border/Boundary/Frontier
  • Border and Memory
  • Border and Migration
  • Border Discontinuities
  • Border Disputes in Europe
  • Border Obstacles
  • Border Region
  • Border Resource
  • Border Security in Europe
  • Border Studies
  • Borderities
  • Borderscapes
  • Bulgaria
  • Carpathian Euroregion
  • Central European Service for Cross-Border Initiatives (CESCI)
  • Centrope Territory Euroregion
  • Channel Arc
  • Cieszyn/Czech Cieszyn (Český Těšín)
  • Citizens’ Engagement in Cross-Border Regions
  • Cohesion
  • Committee of the Regions
  • Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe
  • Cooperation Forums
  • Council of Europe and Cross-Border Cooperation
  • Croatia
  • Cross-Border Actors
  • Cross-Border Conurbations
  • Cross-Border Cooperation
  • Cross-Border Economic Cooperation
  • Cross-Border Governance
  • Cross-Border Identity
  • Cross-Border Impact Assessment
  • Cross-Border Integration
  • Cross-Border Labour Mobility
  • Cross-Border Maritime Cooperation
  • Cross-Border Mediation
  • Cross-Border Metropolitan Region
  • Cross-Border Project
  • Cross-Border Review
  • Cross-Border Spatial Planning
  • Cross-Border Territories
  • Cross-Border Workers
  • Cross-Border Working Communities
  • Culture and Interculturality
  • Cyprus
  • Czech-German-Austrian Border
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Dublin System for Asylum Seekers
  • Eastern Partnership
  • Emergency Medical Service (EMS)
  • Employment
  • Ems Dollart Region
  • Energy
  • Environment
  • Euregio (Gronau)
  • EuRegion West/Nyugat Pannonia
  • EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg
  • Eurocities on the Spanish-Portuguese Border
  • Eurocity Guben-Gubin
  • Eurodistrict (Forms)
  • Eurodistrict of Catalan Cross-Border Space
  • Eurodistrict Pamina
  • Eurodistrict SaarMoselle
  • Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau
  • Euro-Institut
  • Eurometropolis Lille-Kortrjik-Tournai
  • European City Görlitz-Zgorzelec
  • European Community (EC)/European Union (EU) and Cross-Border Cooperation
  • European Cross-Border Convention (ECBC)
  • European Development Pole Longwy
  • European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC)
  • European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)
  • European Territorial Cooperation (ETC)
  • Euroregion (Concept)
  • Euroregion (Overview)
  • Euroregion Alentejo-Algarve-Andalucia (EuroAAA)
  • Euroregion Alentejo-Centro-Extremadura (EUROACE)
  • Euroregion Baltic
  • Euroregion Beskydy
  • Euroregion Cieszyn Silesia
  • Euroregion Danube-Kriş-Mureş-Tisa (DKMT)
  • Euroregion EuroBalkans
  • Euroregion Galicia-Região Norte
  • Euroregion Glacensis
  • Euroregion Ipel’- Ipoly
  • Euroregion Krušnohoří/Erzgebirge
  • Euroregion Meuse-Rhine
  • Euroregion Nisa-Nysa-Neisse
  • Euroregion Nišava
  • Euroregion Pomerania
  • Euroregion Pomoraví/Weinviertel/Záhorie
  • Euroregion Pradziad/Praděd
  • Euroregion Pro Europa Viadrina
  • Euroregion Rhine-Waal
  • Euroregion Sajó-Rima/Slaná-Rimava
  • Euroregion Silesia
  • Euroregion Siret–Prut–Nistru
  • Euroregion Spree-Neisse-Bober
  • Euroscepticism in Cross-Border Regions
  • EU Strategy for the Adriatic-Ionian Region (EUSAIR)
  • EU Strategy for the Alpine Macro-Region (EUSALP)
  • EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR)
  • EU Strategy for the Danube Macro-Region (EUSDR)
  • Finland
  • France
  • Frankfurt-Słubice
  • French-Belgian Border
  • Frontex
  • Geopolitics of Borders
  • Germany
  • Gorizia – Nova Gorica
  • Greater Geneva – le Grand Genève
  • Greater Region
  • Greece
  • Health
  • High Rhine Commission
  • Hospital of Cerdanya
  • Hungary
  • Imatra – Svetogorsk
  • Infobest
  • Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA)
  • Interreg
  • Interregional Cooperation
  • Ireland
  • Irish Border Region
  • Ister-Granum
  • Italian-French Land Border
  • Italy
  • Lake Constance Region (Bodensee)
  • Legal Tools of Cross-Border Cooperation
  • Macro-Regional Strategies and Sea Basin Strategies
  • Madrid Outline Convention
  • Malta
  • Media
  • Mission opérationnelle transfrontalière (MOT)
  • Monitoring (Observation)
  • Mont-Blanc Space
  • Multi-Level Governance
  • Mura Region
  • Non-Central Governmants (NCGs) in International Relations
  • Nordic Cooperation
  • Nouvelle Aquitaine Euskadi Navarre Euroregion
  • Novohrad-Nógrad
  • Øresund/Greater Copenhagen Region
  • Outermost Regions
  • People-to-People Projects
  • Phantom Borders
  • Poland
  • Polish-Russian Border Region
  • Polish-Ukrainian Border
  • Pons Danubii
  • Portugal
  • Pyrenees-Mediterranean Euroregion
  • Rába-Danube-Váh
  • Regio Basiliensis/Regio TriRhena
  • Regio Insubrica
  • Regional Groupings in Europe
  • Regional Language
  • Regionalism
  • Regions of the Southwestern Europe (RESOE)
  • Research, Development & Innovation
  • Rhine-Meuse North Euregion
  • Romania
  • Schengen Area
  • Secondary Foreign Policy
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Sønderjylland-Schleswig
  • Spain
  • Spatial Planning
  • Sports
  • Straits as Cross-Border Territories
  • Subsidiarity
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland and Cross-Border Cooperation
  • Switzerland and European Integration
  • Territorial Diplomacy
  • Territorial Singularities
  • Tisza
  • Tourism
  • Town-Twinning
  • Transfrontier Euro-Institut Network (TEIN)
  • Trans-Jura Conference
  • Transnational Cooperation (TNC)
  • Transport
  • Trinational Eurodistrict of Basel
  • TRITIA
  • Tyrol – South Tyrol – Trentino Euroregion
  • United Kingdom
  • Upper Rhine Region
  • Via Carpatia
  • West-Vlaanderen/Flandre-Dunkerque-Côte d’Opale
  • Working Community of the Pyrenees
  • Youth
  • ZASNET
  • Afterword
  • Index
  • Series index

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Editors

Wassenberg, Birte

Birte Wassenberg is Professor in Contemporary History at Sciences Po Strasbourg, at the University of Strasbourg, and member of the Research Unit Dynamiques européennes (UMR). She holds a Jean Monnet Chair, is deputy director of the Franco-German Jean-Monnet Center of Excellence and director of the Master in Border Studies, International Relations. From 1993 to 2006 she was responsible for cross-border cooperation at the Région Alsace. Her research fields are: border regions, Euro-scepticism and the history of European organizations, especially the Council of Europe. She is also a former student from the College of Europe, promotion Charles IV, (19921993). Recent publications: Secondary Foreign Policy Local International Relations: Can Cross-Border Cooperation function as a Tool to Peace-Building and Reconciliation in Border Regions, Special Issue Regional and Federal Studies, vol. 27, issue 3, 2017 (with Martin Klatt); Castle-talks on Cross-Border Cooperation. Fear of Integration? The Pertinence of the Border, Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, 2018; Frontières, géopolitique et relations internationales. Mélanges pour Jean-Christophe Romer, Cahiers Fare n°16, 2019 (with Marion Aballéa).

Reitel, Bernard

Bernard Reitel is Professor in political and urban geography at Artois University since 2012 and is the director of the research unit ‘Discontinuités’ since 2019. He holds a Jean Monnet chair, is member of the French-Belgian consortium ‘Institut des Frontières et des Discontinuités’ and director of the Master in “Territorial Development, Spatial Planning and Environment”. He was assistant-professor between 1996 and 2011 at the Université of Haute-Alsace His research fields are: border regions, urban studies, territorial cooperation and European integration on different scales. He is working on urban planning and ←11 | 12→urban governance in border cities and cross-border agglomeration in Western Europe. Recent publications: “Borders and cross-border cooperation. A political and geographical point of view, in: Beck Joachim (eds), Transdisciplinary Discourses on cross-border cooperation in Europe, Bruxelles, Peter Lang, 2019, p. 83–119 (with Fabienne Leloup); “L’ambition internationale d’une métropole française: la diplomatie territoriale de Lille de 1958 à nos jours”, Relations Internationales, 179, 2019, p. 67–82; “La resémantisation de la ligne frontière dans des régions métropolitaines transfrontalières : le Jardin des 2 Rives à Strasbourg et la place Jacques Delors à Lille.” , Belgeo [En ligne], 2 | 2015, (with François Moullé).

In collaboration with:

Peyrony, Jean

Jean Peyrony is Director General of Mission Opérationnelle Transfrontalière (MOT), a non-profit organization helping local authorities to develop cross border cooperation projects. Before, he has been working in the European Commission, DG REGIO, in the Unit “Urban development, Territorial cohesion”; in DATAR (French national agency for spatial planning and regional development, now ANCT) where he was in charge of European territorial development and cooperation (ESPON, North West Europe and Alpine Space Interreg programmes), and of policy design of the EU cohesion policy; in the national agency for spatial planning in Paris region, where he was head of the Observation Unit, and he took part in the writing of the regional masterplan; in public/private partnerships for urban development in Paris agglomeration and in La Reunion island (French outermost region), where he was project manager. He is a former student from Ecole polytechnique and Ecole nationale des Ponts et Chaussées. Some recent publications: « Planning across borders: space, time and narrative », Transdisciplinary Discourses on Cross Border Cooperation in Europe, Joachim Beck ed., Brussels, Peter Lang, 2019; “New spaces for action: cross border territories for EU spatial development”, Territory and states, Joaquin Farinos Dasi (dir.), Tirant Humanidades, 2018; “Integration of Cross – Border Regions: Obstacles and Solutions”, Castle talks on cross border cooperation, Fear or integration? The pertinence of the border, Birte Wassenberg ed., Stuttgart, Steiner Verlag, 2018.

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Rubió, Jean

Jean Rubio is project manager at the Mission Opérationnnelle Transfrontalière (MOT) since 2006. He holds a master’s degree in urban and spatial planning from the University Panthéon-Sorbonne in Paris and a magister degree in cross-border agglomeration governance in Europe. He is in charge of the European development of the MOT, territorial and thematic cross-border studies and strategies, cross-border observation and cartography. He has participated in several European projects, including the URBACT project “Expertising Governance for Transfrontier Conurbations” on the governance of cross-border urban areas, 2008–2010. He has produced numerous cartographic documents in the framework of missions to support cross-border territory projects and which constitute references in terms of visual and prospective documents: cartography of the publication “Territorial Cooperation in Europe – A Historical Perspective ”, European Commission, 2015; cartography of the publication “European Cross-Border Cooperation on Health: Theory and Practice”, European Commission, 2017.

Project Management

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Authors

The authors of this critical dictionary are of multiple origin, lecturers, professors and researchers from universities and research centres specialized in Border Studies, civil servant from European Institutions, directors, secretary generals, project managers or consultants from regional groupings or cross-border structures, etc. Some authors have contributed with one and others with several articles, some have co-authored with one, two or three colleagues or even constituted a dictionary editorial team. Some sign their article in their official function or on behalf of the structure they represent, but some also sign as private authors, independently of their employer. There is thus a large diversity in the authorship of this dictionary and the following scale only mentions each author individually with the indication of his/her professional affiliation or function, which does not necessarily mean that the article represents the view of their work structure/institution.

Alderighi, Macro Professor of Economy, University of Aosta Valley

Ansa-Held, Natalia Senior Project Manager, Euro-Institut Kehl

Amilhat Szary, Anne-Laure Professor of Geography, University Grenoble Alpes

Bancod, Sylvie Professor of International Relations, University of Aosta Valley

Beck, Joachim Professor of Administrative Sciences, Rector or the University of Applied Sciences Kehl

Belkacem, Rachid Senior Lecturer in Sociology, University of Lorraine

Berrod, Frédérique Professor of Public Law, Sciences Po, University of Strasbourg

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Berzi, Matteo Professor of Geography, European Network on Territorial Cooperation, Autonomous University of Barcelona

Blondel, Cyril Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Luxembourg

Böhm, Hynek Founder, project manager and lecturer in Geography, Institut Euroschola, Cieszyn

Bohner, Ulrich Former Secretary General (2003–2009) of the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe

Botteghi, Robert Former Associate Professor, Associate researcher Nice University, Honorary Public manager – Civil engineer

Bovenlander, Jeroen Trainee, Institute for Transnational and Euregional cross border cooperation and Mobility (ITEM)

Branda, Pavel Member of the European Committee of the Regions

Brunat, Eric Professor of Economy, University Savoie Mont Blanc

Brunet-Jailly, Emmanuel Professor of Public Policy, University of Victoria

Camiade, Martine Professor and Delegate, Institute of Catalan Studies in Perpignan

Camonita, Francesco Post-doctoral Researcher, European Network on Territorial Cooperation, Autonomous University of Barcelona

Chilla, Tobias Professor of Geography, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg

Cicres, Jordi Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics, Serra Húnter Fellow, University of Girona Jordi Cicres

Dallan, Timothy J. Professor in Geography, Arizona State University

Decoville, Antoine Researcher in Urban Development and Mobility, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research

←16 |
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Dellagiacoma, Anna Cinzia Project and Communication Manager of the Association of European Border Regions (AEBR)

Demortier, Henry Territorial Strategy Director, IDELUX

Domaine, Sophie Research Assistant, University of Aosta Valley

Durá, Antoni Professor of Geography, European Network on Territorial Cooperation, Autonomous University of Barcelona

Durand, Frédéric Researcher in Urban Development and Mobility, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research

Durnik, Mitja Professor in Economic Sciences, University of Ljubjana

Duvinage, Frédéric Director, Trinational Eurodistrict Trinational of Basel

Edmeier, Vanessa Director, High Rhine Commission

Erős, Ervin Director, Central European Service for Cross-border Initiatives, Budapest

Escach, Nicolas Associate Professor of Urban Geography and Urbanism and Director of the Campus of Caen, Sciences Po Rennes

Eser, Thiemo W. Head of Division International Affairs and European Territorial Cooperation, Ministry of Energy and Spatial Planning of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg

Eskelinen, Heikki Professor in Social Sciences, Karelian Institute, University of Eastern Finland

Evrard, Estelle Research fellow in Geography, University of Luxembourg

Faludi, Andreas Professor emeritus in Spatial Sciences and Guest Researcher, Delft University of Technology

Fau, Nathalie Senior Lecturer in Geography, Paris-Diderot University

Foucher, Michel Geographer and Diplomate, Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme

←17 |
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Fourny, Marie-Christine Professor of Geography, University Grenoble Alpes

Friesecke, Manuel Secretary General, Regio Basiliensis

Fritsch, Matti Project Researcher, Karelian Institute, University of Eastern Finland

Grasland, Claude Professor in Geography, Unité Mixte de Recherche Géographie-cités, Paris Diderot University (Paris 7)

Guerois, Marianne Professor in Geography, Unité Mixte de Recherche Géographie-cités, Paris Diderot University (Paris 7)

Guillermo-Ramírez, Martin Secretary General, Association of European Border Regions

Guy, Elen Project Manager, Bureau Europe et International Recherche, PhD student in Contemporary History, University of Strasbourg

Gyelník, Teodor Research fellow, Central European Service for Cross-border Initiatives, Budapest

Halicka, Beata Professor in Contemorary History, Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan

Hamman, Philippe Professor of Sociology, University of Strasbourg

Harster, Patrice General Director, Eurodistrict Pamina

Hartz, Andrea Geographer, Urban Planner, agl Hartz – Saad – Wendl

Held, Natalia Ansa Senior Project Manager TRISAN, Euro-Institut Kehl

Hesz, Roland Strategic Planner, Central European Service for Cross-border Initiatives, Budapest

Hiepel, Claudia Senior Lecturer in Contemporary History, University Duisburg Essen

Hofmann, Anne Training Officer, Euro-Institut, Kehl

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 19→

Huggins, Christopher Senior Lecturer in Politics, University of Suffolk

Jaschitz, Mátyás Director of Planning, Central European Service for Cross-border Initiatives, Budapest

Kapetanović, Aleksandra Research fellow, Central European Service for Cross-border Initiatives, Budapest

Karadakis, Andreas Project Assistant, Association of European Border Regions (AEBR)

Klatt, Martin Associate Professor of Contemporary History, University of Southern Denmark

Koebel, Michael Professor in Sociology, University of Strasbourg

Krzymuski, Marcin Attorney-at-law, Research Associate, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder)

Lambertz, Karl-Heinz President of the European Committee of the Regions (2017–2020)

Lamour, Christian Researcher in Urban Development and Mobility, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research

Laine, Jussi Associate Professor, University of Eastern Finland

Leloup, Fabienne Professor in Political Sciences at the University of Louvain

Louwers, Ruut Director, Interreg Nort-West Europe, Lille

Mariotti, Raphaël Junior Project Manager, Euro-Institut, Kehl

Meyer, Jean-Christophe Professor in Contemporary History, German and French, University of Strasbourg

Mňuk, Tomáš Trainee, Institute for Transnational and Euregional cross border cooperation and Mobility (ITEM)

Moine, Alexandre Professor of Geography, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon

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Moisio, Johannes Chairman of the Task Force External Borders, Association of European Border Regions (AEBR)

Molema, Marijn Programme manager, Frisian Institute of Social Research, Leeuwarden

Moullé, François Senior Lecturer in Geography, Artois University

Mureşan, Paula Associate Professor in Contemporary History at Babeş-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca

Navé, Louis PhD Student, Centre d’Études Internationales et Européennes, University of Strasbourg

Németh, Sarolta Project Researcher, Karelian Institute, University of Eastern Finland

Nienaber, Birte Associate professor in Political Geography, University of Luxembourg

Nikolov, Ana Director of the Balkan Office of the Association of European Border Regions (AEBR)

Noferini, Andrea Professor of Political Sciences, European Network on Territorial Cooperation, Pompeu Fabra University

Ocskay, Gyula Secretary General, Central European Service for Cross-Border Initiatives, Budapest

Olszewski, Marek Strategy & Development Manager, The “Olza” Association of Development and Regional Cooperation

Opilowska, Elżbieta Head of the Center for Regional and Borderland Studies, Associate Professor at the Institute of Sociology, University of Wroclaw

Opiola, Wojciech Deputy Director, Assistant Professor, Institute of Political Sciences, University of Opole

Pavić, Aleksandra Research fellow, Central European Service for Cross-Border Initiatives, Budapest

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Paül, Valerià Assistant Professor and Researcher in Geography, University of Santiago de Compostela

Perrier, Benjamin Border Law Research Fellow, Center for Global Studies, University of Victoria, Canada

Perrin, Thomas Senior Lecturer in Space Planning and Urbanism, University of Lille

Peyrony, Jean Director General, Mission Opérationnelle Transfrontalière, Paris

Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle Research and Development Specialist, University of Luxemburg

Prianon, Isabelle Director, Eurodistrict SaarMoselle

Pupier, Pauline PhD Candidate in Political Geography, Laboratoire Discontinuités, Artois University

Quattrini, Francesco Secretary, Regio Insubrica

Reitel, Bernard Professor in Geography, Artois University

Rérat, Patrick Professor in Geography, University of Lausanne

Richard, Yann Professor in Geography, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne

Rouget, Nicolas Senior Lecturer, Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France

Sassano, Silvia Research Associate in Contemporary History, European University Institute, Florence

Scandola, Valentina Project Manager, Euroregion Baltic

Schiber, Jean-Baptiste Cross-Border Networks, Eurometropolis of Strasbourg

Schönlau, Justus Political adviser, European Committee of the Regions

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Scott, James Professor of Regional and Border Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu

Siebenhaar, Frédéric Project Officer, Eurodistrict Pamina

Sielker, Franziska Lecturer, Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge

Siweris, Erwin Program Director, Interreg Europe

Sohn, Christophe Researcher in urban geography and border studies, Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research

Stoklosa, Katarzyna Associate Professor in Contemporary History, Centre for Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark

Taillon, Ruth Former Director (2013–2019) Center for Cross Border Studies, Argmagh

Thevenet, Anne Deputy Director of the Euro-Institut Kehl

Tošić, Vladica Research fellow, Central European Service for Cross-Border Initiatives, Budapest

Trillo-Sanatamaría, Juan-Manuel Lecturer in Geography, University of Santiago de Compostela

Tzvetanova, Petia Legal expert, Mission Opérationnelle Transfrontalière, Paris

Ulrich, Peter Researcher, Center B/ORDERS IN MOTION, European University Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder)

Unfried, Martin Senior Researcher, Institute for Transnational and Euregional cross border cooperation and Mobility (ITEM)

Van Der Velde, Martin Associate professor of Geography, Radboud University, Nijmegen

Velea, Ramona Researcher in Sociology, Institute of International Sociology of Gorizia (ISIG)

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Verschelde, Nathalie Deputy Head of Unit and member of the Cross-border Review team, DG Regio, European, Commission

Von Hischhausen, Béatrice Research Director in Geography at the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Wassenberg, Birte Professor in Contemporary History at Sciences Po, University of Strasbourg

Weber, Lydia Engineer in Spatial Planning, agl Hartz – Saad – Wendl

Weber, Martin Head of the Department of External Affairs, State Chancellery, Canton of Basel-Landschaft

Woessner, Raymond Professor of Geography, Paris-4-Sorbonne University

Worm, Floriane Project coordinator, Eurodistrict SaarMoselle

Ysebaert, Ronan Geographic Information Science Engineer, Réseau interdisciplinaire pour l’aménagement et la cohésion des territoires de l’Europe et de ses voisinages (RIATE)

Zardi, Alfonso Former high civil servant and current expert of Council of Europe

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Welcome Address

I am delighted to introduce this edition of the “Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration”. Europe’s history is scarred by many wars and political tensions, which have directly affected many border regions that serve as barriers between countries. At certain times in history, cooperation across certain borders was not only unimaginable but simply impossible. This continent has always been characterised by an extremely dense number of national borders, and reducing their impact has always been a difficult task. Today, after 60 years of European integration, Europeans have accomplished a great deal by working together and bringing peace across our continent. Nevertheless, border regions continue to remain on the periphery of economic and social development

Border regions were the first to experience first-hand the freedom of movement following the introduction of Schengen, as well as the benefits of the Euro. Yet still many citizens living in these regions remain disillusioned by the European project. The European Union (EU) and member states must do far more to make them feel the added value of the EU – it is not enough to simply make the borders invisible. Many citizens living on border regions continue to face daily obstacles when crossing to other countries to find work, study or seek adequate public services such as healthcare, education and childcare.

The EU’s internal borders entail different structures, competencies, as well as social and fiscal laws, which today continue to fragment the EU. Despite all our accomplishments, borders are often considered as impenetrable barriers. Too often citizens, businesses or local and regional authorities do not pursue cross-border activities, which they feel would require too much time and effort. Consequently, many opportunities are wasted, keeping border regions perpetually constrained.

Border regions are crucial for the completion of the European Single Market, but they are far more than that. They are home to one-third of the entire European population and so need to be put at the heart ←25 | 26→of European integration. Border regions need to be places where the European integration starts and will be completed. We must not forget our external borders either, as cooperation with our neighbours, which in some cases could end up being future EU member states, is of crucial importance for the development of the EU as a whole. The European Committee of the Regions as well as the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe are institutions for which facilitating cross-border cooperation has always been a key objective.

Coming from the German-speaking region of Belgium which is located on the borders to the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg, I know first-hand how important cross-border cooperation is. For the European Committee of the Regions, which I have the honour to represent, and for myself personally, cross-border cooperation and strong border regions have always been essential for our future. We must insist on having cross-border cooperation as a priority for the EU – for our sake and for the sake of future generations.

It is therefore my great pleasure to have the opportunity to write the foreword for this publication, an initiative of fundamental importance for our work and of great importance for the work of the EU, its member states and local and regional authorities.

Written by many of Europe’s esteemed cross-border experts, the Critical Dictionary reflects the diversity and complexity of cross-border cooperation, the uniqueness of our many cross-border regions and the vast experience they have in connecting our continent. I am particularly impressed by the numerous maps that give a clear illustration of the phenomenon of cross-border cooperation in Europe today.

It is also a good starting point for our work on the future EU’s Multiannual Financing Framework and, importantly, with regard to European Territorial Cooperation which in the past thirty years has been essential in supporting cross-border cooperation across Europe.

The Critical Dictionary is not only essential reading for practitioners and experts in cross-border cooperation, but also for students who wish to pursue their career in this area and who want to shape the Europe of tomorrow.

Karl-Heinz Lambertz

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Foreword

The current context of the COVID 19 sanitary crisis is worrying. The pandemic which started to spread from China in January 2020, making Europe its epicentre in March/April 2020, has given rise to many fundamental questions concerning our modern society, as well as the functioning of European integration and International Relations. Whereas until now, the benefits of globalization based on growing interconnection, world-wide liberal trade and mobility were largely praised, the current situation has suddenly put an emphasis again on its disadvantages. For the spread of virus has become such a world-wide danger mainly because it was uncontrollable due to the increase of mobility of people on a global level – especially with the development of mass tourism.

For Border Studies and European integration, this situation has significant consequences. If the principle of a “Europe without borders” had already been shaken by the 2015 terrorist and migration crisis in Europe, leading to bordering processes both at the external and the internal Schengen borders of the EU, these bordering processes were not always permanent nor systematic. Instead, the coronavirus has been a “bordering earthquake”. It has resulted, one by one, and nearly in all EU member states in a reflex of complete, systematic and hermetic closure of national borders, with border controls imposed not as an exceptional measure against an identified category of people – refugees, criminals or terrorists – but as a principle protection against the “other”, i.e. the person from the other national state, who might be infected by the virus. This bordering has happened without consultation at EU level and without consultation of the European people. It has caused immediate problems in European border regions which have become – as part of the European integration process – spaces of flow, mobility and communication. Cross-border transport means, tramways, trains, etc. were interrupted, cross-border workers had difficulties to get to their work-places, being hampered by numerous (new) administrative obstacles in terms of authorization papers and physical obstacles in terms ←27 | 28→of checks at the borders, cross-border relations were cut off by the border, separating colleagues, friends and families. In short, the national border (re)became a barrier impossible to overcome.

It is true that in the sanitary crisis, borders were being imposed worldwide everywhere, also nationally, in the private sphere, between “me” and the “other”, as distancing seemed the only possibility to contain the uncontrollable spread of the pandemic. However, the non-concerted national bordering measures within the EU are dangerous: they convey the message, that the sanitary threat comes from outside the nation-state, as if the virus chooses to infect nations and not individuals. As if the virus could be stopped at a national border. This logic ends up with a new “national” bordering process in the mind of the European people which might explain why even in border regions with a long experience of cross-border cooperation, for example in the Greater Region or the Upper Rhine Region, it took at least two weeks to react and to propose that patients from the overcrowded hospitals in Alsace could also be transported to the neighbouring German regions rather than to the more than a 1000 km distance away situated City of Marseille. It also explains, why the EU and the local and regional authorities seem paralyzed by the crisis. Everything is being placed back to the national level of decision: the European Commission thus took several weeks to finally determine on 16 March 2020 that the external Community borders should be secured in terms of travel restrictions into the EU. This decision was validated by the EU Council the following day, but the Council struggled to find a solution for a financial support package to help particularly heavily affected EU member states (Italy, Spain, France). It first only came up with “second best” funding measures, as some member states refused to accept the principle of collective debts. In the end, it took until the 18 May 2020 for the Franco-German couple Merkel-Macron to propose an EU rescue fund, which led the European Commission finally, on 27 May 2020, to unveil a 750 billion euros plan to help the EU recover from the coronavirus pandemic. Why has the European solidarity waited for so long? Local and regional authorities in border regions were also absent in the discussions for the crisis resolution, although there are numerous cross-border working groups on health issues in several Euregions and there exists even a Franco-Spanish cross-border hospital in Cerdagne. The situation seems all the more paradoxical when taking into account that in border regions, the interdependencies are so strong that, for example, the health system in Luxemburg or in Geneva can ←28 | 29→only function with the contribution of cross-border workers who are employed as nurses, doctors or in other functions of the health sector. Where is the European multi-level-governance? Where is our ideal of cross-border cooperation and European integration?

Details

Pages
864
ISBN (PDF)
9782807607934
ISBN (ePUB)
9782807607941
ISBN (MOBI)
9782807607958
ISBN (Softcover)
9782807607927
Language
English
Publication date
2020 (November)
Published
Bruxelles, Berlin, Bern, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2020. 864 pp., 70 fig. col.

Biographical notes

Birte Wassenberg (Volume editor) Bernard Reitel (Volume editor)

Birte Wassenberg is Professor in Contemporary History at Sciences Po Strasbourg at the University of Strasbourg and member of the Research Unit Dynamiques européennes (UMR). She holds a Jean Monnet Chair, is deputy director of the Franco-German Jean-Monnet Center of Excellence and director of the Master in Border Studies, International Relations. From 1993 to 2006 she was responsible for cross-border cooperation at the Région Alsace. Her research fields are: border regions, Euro-scepticism and the history of European organizations, especially the Council of Europe. She is also a former student from the College of Europe, promotion Charles IV, (1992-1993). Bernard Reitel is Professor in political and urban geography at Artois University since 2012 and is the director of the research unit ‘Discontinuités’ since 2019. He holds a Jean Monnet chair, is member of the French-Belgian consortium ‘Institut des Frontières et des Discontinuités’ and director of the Master in "Territorial Development, Spatial Planning and Environment". He was assistant-professor between 1996 and 2011 at the Université of Haute-Alsace His research fields are: border regions, urban studies, territorial cooperation and European integration on different scales. He is working on urban planning and urban governance in border cities and cross-border agglomeration in Western Europe.

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Title: Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration