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Lithuanian Etymological Dictionary

by Wojciech Smoczynski (Author)
Monographs 2726 Pages

Summary

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This dictionary offers up-to-date and often novel etymological accounts for the basic lexicon of Modern Lithuanian. Building on the achievements of earlier etymological research but fully exploiting the new insights afforded by the current paradigm of Indo-European reconstruction, this dictionary presents numerous items of the dialectal, Old Lithuanian and borrowed vocabulary. The author shows the workings of historical derivational morphology, highlighting the importance of analogy, reanalysis and innovative ablaut derivation. He covers alternative proposals and exhaustive bibliographical references for this tool of research and study in Lithuanian, Baltic and Indo-European etymology.

Table Of Contents


| ix →

Preface

The history of this dictionary begins around the year 2000 with a set of lecture notes called A Small Lithuanian Etymological Dictionary, which I wrote for students of Lithuanian studies at the University of Warsaw. At first it numbered about 100 pages, later about 200, and was conceived as a teaching aid for a course on the historical grammar of Lithuanian. The course consisted of lectures and exercises, the latter based on reading Old Lithuanian texts and interpreting the forms of these texts, on the one hand from a philological standpoint, and on the other from a comparative-historical and in fact etymological standpoint. The sole Lithuanian etymological dictionary at the time was Ernst Fraenkel’s Litauisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1955–1965, abbreviated LEW). Since it was available at the university library in only a single copy and was written moreover in German, a language not very popular among the students, it became necessary to remedy this difficult situation. Hence the above-mentioned lecture notes. Regular consulting of Fraenkel’s dictionary naturally led me to reflection and prompted a critical analysis of the author’s explanations. However much I may have initially lacked the makings of an etymologist, I became one willy-nilly: I began incorporating into the lecture notes explanations which differed from those of Fraenkel, at first occasionally, but over time ever more frequently. By late 2006, the lecture notes had ceased to be lecture notes; they had taken on the shape of a dictionary numbering nearly 800 pages. The etymological analysis now encompassed the main word-stock of Lithuanian recorded in the academy dictionary, Lietuvių kalbos žodynas (1941–2002, abbreviated L), including the oldest Slavic borrowings. Thanks to the kindly interest of Lithuanian linguists, this work (abbreviated SEJL) appeared in print in late 2007, as a publication of Vilnius University.1 I subsequently continued the work, and with a second edition of the dictionary in mind greatly expanded its scope, writing etymologies for many words of Old Lithuanian, as well as for dialectal words which had recently appeared in dictionaries published in Lithuania. At the same time, I sought to improve the dictionary text, responding to issues raised by reviewers of SEJL. Alongside my own morphological and etymological dictum, there now appeared interpretations proposed by other etymologists, as well as bibliographic references for individual words. In 2011, I submitted this new version of SEJL, now numbering 1,600 pages, to the National Programme for the Development of the Humanities, a governmental competition, and was awarded funding sufficient to produce an English version of the dictionary. It took four years to realize this task, although the original plan anticipated only two years. This was due to two circumstances. First, the large scale ← ix | x → of difficulties encountered by translators not familiar with the realia of everyday Lithuanian life, especially the specifics of rural life, farming, customs, beliefs, folklore, etc. The second reason for the delay was that immediately after the publication of SEJL, there appeared on the market a whole series of comprehensive dictionaries, produced within the framework of Leiden University’s Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series project under the direction of Alexander Lubotsky, cf. de Vaan (Latin, 2008), Kloekhorst (Hittite, 2008), Derksen (Slavic, 2008), Martirosyan (Armenian, 2009), Matasović (Proto-Celtic, 2009), Beekes (Greek, 2010), Kroonen (Proto-Germanic, 2013). In this situation, it became imperative to check all these works for their treatment of Lithuanian examples — no easy task. 2015 brought further delay, as there appeared two more dictionaries, dealing this time with precisely the same material as in my field of interest. These were the Altlitauisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (ALEW), ed. W. Hock (Hamburg 2015), and Derksen’s Baltic Inherited Lexicon (BIL, Leiden-Boston 2015). ALEW analyzes lexical material from before 1700, termed Old Lithuanian, a large part of which are Slavic borrowings from Old Belarusian, Belarusian, and Polish. BIL, in turn, focuses on singling out from the lexicon of the three Baltic languages the inherited Indo-European elements, that is, what is left after eliminating Balto-Slavic or “Northern Indo-European” innovations, secondary derivatives, borrowings, and onomatopoeia. These two works can be said to complement LED, since the latter encompasses the entirety of the Lithuanian lexicon, irrespective of its historical (16th–21st cc). or dialectal differentiation (dialecal words are treated on a par with the standard), and without regard for a distinction between “primary words” and “secondary words.” In addition, LED records a large number of borrowings (mainly Slavic, but also German) and a considerable selection of onomatopoeic words. Reference to previous etymological works has been kept to an absolute minimum in LED, in view of the online database developed on the initiative of Prof. Vincas Urbutis at Vilnius University’s Department of Baltic Studies (see http://etimologija.baltnexus.lt).

In some ways, LED differs from the pioneering work of Fraenkel (LEW): 1 ° It gives priority to “word” etymologies over so-called “root” etymologies (Wurzeletymologie). 2 ° It does not subscribe to the theory of root extensions (Wurzelerweiterungen), and thus does not seek, for example, a common denominator for forms as diverse as briáutis, braũkti, Latv. bružât and RuCS brŭsnuti (LEW 54 f., s.v. braũkti). 3 ° In analyzing lexemes inherited from PIE, LED adheres to the current model of vocalic alternations, which assumes a theory of three PIE laryngeal consonants (see Smoczyński 2006). 4 ° Lexical material characterized by ablaut alternations is broken down in LED into ablaut grades (e-grade, o-grade, zero-grade, lengthened zero-grade, etc.); the aim of this stratification is to reveal preserved features of Lithuanian morphonology. 5 ° More often than in LEW, the entries in LED end with the statements “Unclear,” “No etymology,” “Without good etymology.” The aim of this practice is to clearly demarcate uncertain material, requiring further research, from material which has been positively (or at least to some extent) etymologized.

Of course the quality of an etymological dictionary is determined not so much by the competence of its author, as by the quantity and quality of the works used to prepare a synthesis of this kind. I have in mind, on the one hand, lexical monographs, especially monographs devoted to close-knit semantic fields, such as terms for parts of the body, both human and animal, farm buildings (and their structural details), human activities, including crafts (together with terms for tools), village festivities, plants ← x | xi → and trees, wild and domestic animals, farming, fishing, and weaving terminology, onomatopoeic words, etc.; and, on the other hand, historical-comparative monographs in various areas of morphology and word formation (e.g. ablaut in conjunction with affixation, compounding, the genesis of particles). There is at present a dearth of such works for Lithuanian lexicography; the exceptions can be counted on the fingers of one hand. In the area of ethnographic terminology, some help has recently been provided by the LEEŽ dictionary, although for purely linguistic purposes it is not sufficient.

On the structure of lexical entries in LED:

1.0. Nouns are cited in the nominative sg.

1.1. If the nom.sg. ends in -is, which is ambiguous, the gen. sg. is also given, namely -io (m.) or -ies (f.m.).

1.2. If the nom.sg. form is stressed on the ending (-à, -ìs, -ỹs, -ė̃, -), it is accompanied by a number showing which of four accent paradigms it belongs to. E.g. aušrà a.p. 4, 2, akìs, -iẽs f. a.p. 4, vagìs, -iẽs m. a.p. 4, ožỹs a.p. 3, duktė̃ a.p. 3, eilė̃ a.p. 4, akmuõ a.p. 3. In other cases, the accent paradigm is predictable from the phonological structure of the word.

1.3. If plurale tantum noun forms are stressed on the ending, an accent paradigm number is provided, e.g. atlaidaĩ a.p. 3, rugiaĩ a.p. 4.

1.4. For Slavic borrowings of feminine gender which belong to a.p. 2, the form of the genitive sg. is also noted, since it is precisely this Lithuanian form which agrees in place of stress with the Slavic original, cf. for example grūšià, gen.sg. grū̃šios ⇐ OBr. gruša, -y, Br. hrúša, -y; juškà, gen.sg. jùškos ⇐ Br. júška, -i; arbatà, gen.sg. arbãtos ⇐ Br. harbáta, -y; kakavà, gen.sg. kakãvos ⇐ Br. kakáva, Ru. colloq. kakáva; nodiejà, gen.sg. nodiẽjos ⇐ Pol. nadzieja, Br. nadzéja.

2. Adjectives are cited in the masculine form, with the addition of the feminine ending.

3. Verbs are given in three forms: infinitive, present, and preterite.

4. A Lithuanian word is followed by its Latvian and/or Old Prussian cognate. In the case of Balto-Slavic words, a Slavic cognate is noted immediately after the Lithuanian (Latvian or Old Prussian) form.

5. The derivational description of a Lithuanian word consists of a stem (root), a suffix, and an ablaut grade. For less common derivational types, structural parallels are provided.

6. A reconstructed protoform (PLith., PB, PBSl., PIE) includes, on the one hand, the morphological makeup of the word and the ablaut grade, and on the other hand, its etymological meaning.

7. For inherited words, the fact that a Lith. lexeme belongs to a particular PIE root is indicated, together with (selected) cognates in IE languages.

8. Derived words are discussed in the entries for the corresponding base words. Derived words are divided into simplex words (simplicia) and compounds (composita); those characterized by ablaut are listed in order of ablaut grade: e-grade, o-grade, zero-grade, and lengthened e-grade, lengthened o-grade, and lengthened zero-grade. The index of Lithuanian words directs the user to the entry under which a derived word is discussed.

9. When there is a need to distinguish chronological layers among derived words, reference is made to such terms as “neo-root,” “neo-stem,” and “neo-suffix” (explanations for these can be found in the Glossary). ← xi | xii →

10. Following the example of Būga (1924), onomastic derivatives are also given for certain nouns. These include, on the one hand, place names, chiefly villages,2 geographic names (rivers, lakes, swamps, meadows, forests, and hills3); and on the other hand, personal names, mainly derived from nicknames and terms for occupations.4


1 Cf. Słownik etymologiczny języka litewskiego. Lietuvių kalbos etimologinis žodynas. Wilno: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wileńskiego / Vilniaus universiteto leidykla, 2007. Vol. I: XXVII + 823. Vol. II: Indeks wyrazów litewskich, 308 pp. ISBN 978-9955-33-152-0. — Reviews: W. Mańczak, Biuletyn Polskiego Towarzystwa Językoznawczego LXIV, 2008, 289–293; W. Mańczak, Acta Baltico-Slavica 33, 2009, 289–295; W.R. Schmalstieg, Baltistica XLIII:2, 2008, 315–320; V.A. Vitkauskas, Acta Linguistica Lithuanica LX, 2009, 129–134; A. Je. Anikin, Voprosy jazykoznanija, 2009:4, 152–156; D. Petit, Kratylos 58, 2013, 74–84.

2 Selected, but without intending to be exhaustive, from the official list of Lietuvos TSR administracinio-teritorinio suskirstymo žinynas. Part II. Prepared by Z. Noreika and V. Stravinskas. Vilnius: Mintis, 1976.

3 All cited after the hydronymic dictionary of A. Vanagas (1981).

4 Selected from the dictionary Lietuvių pavardžių žodynas, see Sources, s.v. L.

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Acknowledgements

The present dictionary (LED) was translated over the years 2012–2016 from the Polish original titled Słownik etymologiczny języka litewskiego (SEJL). The translators were Michał Janowski (Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz; A-Ki), Michał Biliński (Ivan Franko National University in Lviv; Kl-R) and Mateusz Urban (Jagellonian University, Cracow; S-Ž). The English version was edited by Axel Holvoet (Vilnius University) and Steven Young (University of Maryland, Baltimore County). The entire text was given a final check for uniformity by Axel Holvoet. Those parts of the text that had not gone through the hands of a native speaker of English were additionally checked by Wayles Browne (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY), who also gave many useful comments on the manuscript. The work was funded by a programme of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Warsaw, titled National Programme for the Development of the Humanities (project no. 31H 11 0062 80).

The material of Indo-European languages cited in LED was checked by Dariusz Piwowarczyk (Cracow); Anna Daugavet (Saint Petersburg) checked the Latvian examples and Ivan I. Luchyc-Fedarec (Minsk) — the Belarusian examples. Various comments, corrections, and clarifications were provided by Aleksey V. Andronov, Aleksandr J. Anikin, †Andrzej Bańkowski, Leszek Bednarczuk, Piotr Biliński, Wayles Browne, Auksuolė Čepaitienė, Jost Gippert, Bernd Gliwa, Axel Holvoet, Svetozar Lashin, Greta Lemanaitė Deprati, †Witold Mańczak, Mikhail Oslon, Jurgis Pakerys, †Ralf-Peter Ritter, William R. Schmalstieg, Antanas Smetona, Mikita Suprunchuk, Rafał Szeptyński, †Xavier Tremblay, †Vincas Urbutis, †Vytautas Vitkauskas, Steven Young, Michael Weiss, and Zigmas Zinkevičius. My sincere thanks to all for their collaboration and assistance.

Cracow, August 2016

Wojciech Smoczyński

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Abbreviations and Symbols

A. Languages

Aeol. Aeolic

Alb. Albanian

Arc. Arcadian

Arm. Armenian

Att. Attic

Aukšt. Aukštaitian

Av. Avestan

Balt. Baltic

Bg. Bulgarian

Boeot. Boeotian

Br. Belarusian

Bret. Breton

BSl. Balto-Slavic

Čak. Čakavian

CLuw. Cuneiform Luwian

Cret. Cretan

Croat. Croatian

CS Church Slavic

Cur. Curonian

Cypr. Cypriot

Cz. Czech

Dan. Danish

Dor. Doric

Dzūk. Dzūkian

Est. Estonian

Etr. Etruscan

Fi. Finnish

Fr. French

Fris. Frisian

Gm. Germanic

Go. Gothic

Gr. Greek

Hitt. Hittite

HLuw. Hieroglyphic Luwian

Hom. Homeric

Hsch. Greek (in Hesychius)

Hung. Hungarian

Ic. Icelandic

IE Indo-European

IIr. Indo-Iranian

Ion. Ionic

Ir. Irish ← xv | xvi →

It. Italian

Kash. Kashubian

Lat. Latin

Latg. Latgalian

Latv. Latvian

Lesb. Lesbian

LG Low German

Lith. Lithuanian

Liv. Livonian

LSrb. Lower Sorbian

Luw. Luwian

Lyc. Lycian

Maced. Macedonian

MDu. Middle Dutch

MGr. Mediaeval Greek

MHG Middle High German

MIr. Middle Irish

MLat. Mediaeval Latin

MLG Middle Low German

MoDu. Modern Dutch

MoE Modern English

MoHG Modern High German

MoIr. Modern Irish

MPers. Middle Persian

MoPers. Modern Persian

MRu. Middle Russian

MWe. Middle Welsh

Myc. Mycenaean

Nw. Norwegian

OAv. Old Avestan

OBr. Old Belarusian

OBret. Old Breton

OCroat. Old Croatian

OCS Old Church Slavic

OCz. Old Czech

OE Old English

OFi. Old Finnish

OFris. Old Frisian

OHG Old High German

OIc. Old Icelandic

OInd. Old Indic

OIr. Old Irish

OLat. Old Latin

OLith. Old Lithuanian

OOtTur. Old Ottoman Turkish

OPers. Old Persian

OPol. Old Polish

OPr. Old Prussian ← xvi | xvii →

ORu. Old Russian

OS Old Saxon

Osc. Oscan

OSCr. Old Serbo-Croatian

Oss. Ossetic

OSwed. Old Swedish

OTat. Old Tatar

OtTur. Ottoman Turkish

OTur. Old Turkish

OWe. Old Welsh

PB Proto-Baltic

PBSl. Proto-Balto-Slavic

PCl. Proto-Celtic

Pers. Persian

PGm. Proto-Germanic

PGr. Proto-Greek

PIE Proto-Indo-European

PIIr. Proto-Indo-Iranian

PIr. Proto-Iranian

PIt. Proto-Italic

PLat. Proto-Latin

PLatv. Proto-Latvian

Plb. Polabian

PLith. Proto-Lithuanian

Pol. Polish

PrG Prussian-German

PSl. Proto-Slavic

Rom. Romanian

Ru. Russian

RuCS Russian Church Slavic

Ruth. Ruthenian

SCr. Serbo-Croatian

Serb. Serbian

SerbCS Serbian Church Slavic

Sl. Slavic

Slk. Slovak

Sln. Slovene

Sorb. Sorbian (Lusatian)

Span. Spanish

Swed. Swedish

SwG Swiss German

ToA Tocharian A

ToAB Tocharian A and B

ToB Tocharian B

U. Umbrian

Ukr. Ukrainian

USrb. Upper Sorbian

We. Welsh ← xvii | xviii →

Ved. Vedic

WGm. West Germanic

YAv. Young Avestan

Žem. Žemaitian

B. Reconstruction, Grammar, Text

a.p. accent paradigm

abl. ablative

abstr. abstract noun

acc. accusative

act. active

adess. adessive

adj. adjective

adv. adverb

all. allative

aor. aorist

app. active present participle

aptp. active past participle

arch. archaic

athem. athematic

bibl. biblical

bot. botanical, term of botany

c. commune (genus), also: century

card. cardinal (numeral)

caus. causative (verb)

cf. confer, compare

class. classical

coll. collective

colloq. colloquial

comp. comparative

concr. concrete noun

condit. conditional

conj. conjunctive

cp. compound

cur. curative (verb)

dat. dative

denom. denominative

der. derivative

derog. derogatory

desid. desiderative

dial. dialectal, in dialects

dim. diminutive

du. dual

dur. durative (verb)

e.g. exempli gratia, for example

ep. epic

etym. etymological ← xviii | xix →

etym. mng. etymological meaning

euph. euphemism

f. following (after a page number)

f., fem. feminine

fig. figuratively

FN family name

frq. frequentative

fut. future

gram. grammatical term

hist. historical term

i.a. inter alia, among other things

ibid. ibidem, in the same place

i.e. id est, that is

id. idem, the same

ill. illative

impers. impersonal

inch. inchoative (verb)

indecl. indeclinable

inf. infinitive

ins. instrumental

inscr. inscription

intens. intensive (verb)

interj. interjection

intr. intransitive (verb)

ipf. imperfect

ipv. imperative

iter. iterative (verb)

joc. jocular

l.c loco citato, in the passage cited

lg. language

lit. literally

LN lake name

loc. locative

lrg. laryngeal

LW loanword

m(asc). masculine

med. middle voice

n. neuter

n. note (after a page number)

n.act. action noun

n.agt. agent noun

n.instr. nomen instrumenti

n.s.m. no stress mark (for words given without stress mark in L)

neol. neologism

nom. nominative

o.c. opere citato, in the work cited

obl. oblique

obs. obsolete ← xix | xx →

ord. ordinal (numeral)

p.c. personal communication

pass. passive

patron. patronymic

pdg. paradigm

pejor. pejorative

pf. perfect

pfp. perfect participle

pfutp. passive future participle

pl. plural

pl.t. plurale tantum

PlN place name

PN personal name

postvb. postverbal

pple. participle

ppp. passive present participle

pptp. passive past participle

prep. preposition

pres. present (tense)

pret. preterite (tense)

prev. preverb

ptcle. particle

q.v. quod vide, see this entry

refl. reflexive

RN river name

s.v. sub voce, sub verbo, in the entry for this word an

scil. scilicet, namely

sg. singular

stat. stative (verb)

subst. substantivum (noun)

superl. superlative

syn. synonym

t.y. tai yra, that is (in Lithuanian examples)

them. thematic

tr. transitive (verb)

var. variant

vb. verb

vb. adj. verbal adjective

vel sim. vel simile, or the like

viz. videlicet, namely

voc. vocative

vulg. vulgar

zool. zoological term

C. Symbols

C any consonant

H any PIE laryngeal ← xx | xxi →

h1/2 h1 or h2

R any resonant (sonorant)

T any obstruent

V any vowel

> yields (develops into) by regular phonological development

< arises from (develops from) by regular phonological development

⇐ or ⇒ 1. morphological change, 2. derivation (of one lexeme from another), 3. loan/borrowing

- indicates a morphemic boundary or separates off the part of a word the reader should focus on

/X/ the phoneme X (phonological representation)

[X] phonetically realized as X (phonetic representation)

<X> spelled as X (graphemic representation)

*X a reconstructed item from an earlier stage of a language

†X a non-attested but potential or conceivable form of an attested language

(?) 1. form or meaning uncertain, 2. established connection uncertain

«…» quotation (from a written text or from an author)

: vs., relation (e.g. of ablaut, of analogy)

bu.vo syllabification sign in the word buvo

1x, 2x, etc. once, twice, etc.

| xxiii →

References

Sources

BRB = Biblia tatai esti Wissas Schwentas Raschtas Lietuwischkai pergulditas per Janą Bretkuną Lietuwos Pleboną Karaliaucziuie, 1590.

BRP = Postilla tatai esti trumpas ir prastas ischguldimas Euangeliu… per Iana Bretkuna Lietuwos Plebona Karaliaucziuie Prusůsu, 1591.

CGL = Clavis Germanico-Lithuana. Handschriftliches deutsch-litauisches Wörterbuch des 17. Jahrhunderts in vier Teilen. Ed. by Adolfas Ivaškevičius. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla, 1995–1997.

DK = Palionis, Jonas (ed.). Mikalojaus Daukšos 1595 metų katekizmas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla, 1995. (Bibliotheca Baltica. Lithuania.) Mikalojaus Daukšos 1595 metų katekizmas.

DLKŽ = Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos žodynas. 4th ed. Stasys Keinys (ed.). Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas, 2000. (Lietuvių kalbos institutas).

DP = Palionis, Jonas (ed.). Mikalojaus Daukšos 1599 metų Postilė ir jos šaltiniai. Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 2000.

EH = Endzelīns, J[ānis], Hauzenberga, E[dīte]. Papildinājumi un labojumi K. Mülenbacha Latviešu valodas vārdnīcai. Vols. 1–2. Rīga 1934–1946.

EV = Elbinger Vokabular. Cited after Vytautas Mažiulis (ed.), Prūsų kalbos paminklai. Vilnius: Mintis, 1966.

JUŠK = Litovskij slovarь A. Juškeviča sъ tolkovaniemъ slovъ na russkomъ i polьskomъ jazykaxъ. Vol. I. Sanktpeterburgъ 1904. (Izdanie Otdělenija russkago jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj Akademii Naukъ). — Vol. II:1. Petrogradъ 1922, Rossijskaja gosudarstvennaja akademičeskaja tipografija.

KN = Pociūtė, Dainora (ed.). Knyga nobažnystės krikščioniškos, 1653. Facsimile edition. Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, MMIV.

Lietuviški tradiciniai vietovardžiai Gudijos, Karaliaučiaus krašto, Latvijos ir Lenkijos. Compiled by Marija Razmukaitė, Aistė Pangonytė. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas, 2002. (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija.)

Lietuvos TSR administracinio-teritorinio suskirstymo žinynas. Part I. Prepared by Zigmuntas Noreika and Vincentas Stravinskas. Vilnius: Mintis, 1976.

L. = Linde, M. Samuel Bogumił. Słownik języka polskiego. 2nd ed., revised and expanded. Lwów: W drukarni Zakładu Ossolińskich, 1854.

LEEŽ = Lietuvių etnografijos enciklopedinis žodynas. Compiled by Birutė KULNYTĖ and Elvyda LAZAUSKAITĖ. Vilnius: Lietuvos nacionalinis muziejus, 2015.

LEX = Lexicon Lithuanicum. Prepared by Vincentas Drotvinas. Vilnius 1987.

L = Lietuvių kalbos žodynas, vols. I–XX. Vilnius 1941–2002.

L = Lietuvių pavardžių žodynas (ed. Aleksandras Vanagas), [vol. I] A-K (1985), [vol. II] L-Ž (1989). Vilnius: Mokslas. (Lietuvos TSR Mokslų Akademija. Lietuvių kalbos ir literatūros institutas.) ← xxiii | xxiv →

ME = Mühlenbachs, Karl. Latviešu valodas vārdnīca. Lettisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch, I–IV. Redigiert, ergänzt und fortgesetzt von J[ānis] Endzelīns. Hg. vom lettischen Bildungsministerium, Riga 1923–1932.

MŽ = Urbas, Dominykas. Martyno Mažvydo raštų žodynas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla, 1996.

N = Niedermann, Max & Alfred Senn, Franz Brender, Anton Salys. Wörterbuch der litauischen Schriftsprache. Litauisch-deutsch, I–V. Heidelberg: Winter, 1932–1968.

PK = Balčikonis, Juozas (ed.). 1598 metų Merkelio Petkevičiaus katechizmas. 2nd ed. (photographic). Kaunas 1939. (Švietimo ministerijos Knygų leidimo komisijos leidinys n 506.). — [Original title:] Polski z Litewskim Katechizm Abo Krotkie w iedno mieysce zebránie, wiáry y powinności Krześćiáńskiey … Nakładem Jego Mśći Páná Málcherá Pietkiewicźá, Pisarzá ziemskiego Wileńskiego. W Wilnie … roku 1598.

PV = Petrauskas, Jonas, Vidugiris, Aloyzas. 1985. Lazūnų tarmės žodynas. Vilnius: Mokslas.

SD = Dictionarium trium linguarum in usum studiosæ iuventutis, auctore R.P. Constantino Szyrwid. [3rd ed.]. Vilnae, Typis Academicis Societatis Iesu Anno Domini M.DC.XLII. Cited after the edition of Kazys Pakalka (ed.), Pirmasis lietuvių kalbos žodynas. Vilnius: Mokslas, 1979.

SD1 = K. Szyrwid’s first dictionary (without title page). Cited after the edition of Kazys Pakalka (ed.), Senasis Konstantino Sirvydo žodynas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas, 1997.

SGP = Karłowicz, Jan. Słownik gwar polskich. Vols. I–VI. Kraków: Nakładem Akademii Umiejętności, 1900–1911.

Slovník jazyka staroslověnského. Lexicon linguae palaeoslovenicae, I–IV. Ed. by Josef Kurz et al. Praha: Academia, 1966–1997.

SP = Šyrwids Punktay sakimu (Punkty kazań) Teil I: 1629, Teil II: 1644 litauisch und polnisch mit kurzer grammatischer Einleitung herausgegeben von Dr. Franz Specht. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1929.

SPXVI = Słownik polszczyzny XVI wieku. Stanisław Bąk et al. Instytut Badań Literackich, Polska Akademia Nauk. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1966-.

SRNG = Slovarь russkix narodnyx govorov. Compiled by F.P. Filin. Moskva-Leningrad: “Nauka”, 1965-.

SW = Słownik języka polskiego. Ułożony pod redakcją Jana Karłowicza, Adama Kryńskiego i Władysława Niedźwiedzkiego. Vol. I–VIII. Warszawa: Nakładem prenumeratorów i kasy im. Mianowskiego, 1900–1927 [so-called Warsaw Dictionary].

Šlapelis, Jurgis. 1940. Kirčiuotas lenkiškas lietuvių kalbos žodynas. 2nd ed. Vilnius: Spaustuvė “Raida”.

TSBM = Tlumačal’ny sloŭnik belaruskaj movy, 1–5. Ed. K.K. Atraxovič. Minsk 1977–1984.

WP = Wolfenbüttelio Postilė [1573]. Prepared with an introduction by hum. m. dr. Juozas Karaciejus. Vilnius: Vilniaus universitetas, 1995.

Vidugiris, Aloyzas. 1998. Zietelos šnektos žodynas. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas.

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WH see Walde.

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Zinkevičius, Zigmas. 1980, 1981. Lietuvių kalbos istorinė gramatika. Vols. I, II. Vilnius: Mokslas. ← xxxv | xxxvi →

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ZS see Otrębski 1932.

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Abbreviations of Journal Titles

ALL - Acta Linguistica Lithuanica. Vilnius.

Balt - Baltistica. Vilnius.

LKK - Lietuvių kalbotyros klausimai. Vilnius.

| xxxvii →

Glossary: Some Historical Linguistic Terms

Ablaut — the alternation of vowels in forms belonging to a single lexical (etymological) family, but differing grammatically. Cf. on the one hand Lith. ea: nešù : naštà, ėuo: sė́du : súodžiai, ieai: liekù : laikaũ (so-called qualitative ablaut), and on the other hand eė: nešù : nėščià, ao: platùs : plõtis, iei: liekù : likaũ (so-called quantitative ablaut). See also “Neo-ablaut.”

Ablaut grades — forms of one and the same lexeme which appear in inflectional or derivational oppositions, differing in terms of vocalism. The following types are distinguished:

1. full-grade: on the one hand e-grade (Lith. e, ei/ie), on the other hand o-grade (Lith. a, ai), cf. sekù : sakaũ, veikiù : vaikaũ, sniẽgas : snaĩgė;

2. zero-grade — lack of the vowel e or a (Lith. iR/uR, i, u; ij/y, uv/ū), cf. mirkýti : mer̃kti, mìltai : málti, likaũ : liekù, dùbti : daubà; lìjo/lýti : líeti, griùvo/griū́ti : griáuti;

3. lengthened e-grade (Lith. ėe), cf. lė́miau : lemiù, mė́tau : metù, sėkmė̃ : sekù, vėdlỹs : vedù;

4. lengthened o-grade (Lith. o < PB āa), cf. kóriau : kariù, prãmonė : manýti, žodis : žadù, grõžis : gražùs;

5. lengthened zero-grade (Lith. yi; ūu), cf. pýliau : pilù, byrė́ti : bìrti, kýboti : kìbti, są́myšis : sumišaũ, gylė̃ : gilùs. — kū́liau : kuliù, į́gūdis : įgudaũ, są́jūdis : sujudaũ, mūsaĩ : mùsos.

Ablaut rigidity — the elimination from a paradigm of an ablaut alternation (allomorphism) through generalization of a single root vocalism, cf. e.g. áusti, gaĩšti, lẽdas, mèsti, nèšti, stenė́ti, šáltas, šerdìs, širdìs.

Accent-ablaut paradigms — the classification of PIE athematic nouns from the standpoint of an opposition of strong forms (e.g. nom.sg.) and weak forms (e.g. gen.sg.). There are two criteria for this opposition: first, the ablaut grade of one of the constituent morphemes of the word (root, suffix, ending), and second, the position of stress in relation to one of these three morphemes. For Proto-Indo-European, four types of paradigms are assumed (see Fortson 2005, 107 f.):

1. acrostatic, in which the root is stressed in both strong and weak cases, with strong cases showing o-grade and weak cases, e-grade, e.g. PIE *nók-t-s ʽnightʼ, gen.sg. *nék-t-s;

2. proterokinetic, where in the strong cases the stress is on the root, which is characterized by full-grade, while in the weak cases it shifts to the suffix, which is characterized by full-grade, e.g. PIE *mén-ti-s ʽthoughtʼ, gen.sg. *mṇ-téi̯-s;

3. hysterokinetic, where in the strong cases the stress is on the suffix in full-grade, while in the weak cases it shifts to the ending in full-grade, e.g. PIE *ph2-tér-s ʽfatherʼ, gen.sg. *ph2-tr-és;

4. amphikinetic (or holokinetic), where in the strong cases the stress is on the root in full-grade, while in the weak cases it is on the ending in full-grade; the suffix usually has lengthened o-grade in the nom.sg. and regular o-grade in the acc. sg. Cf. PIE *h2éu̯s-ōs ʽdawnʼ, gen.sg. *h2us-s-és, acc.sg. *h2éu̯s-os-ṃ. ← xxxvii | xxxviii →

Acrostatic — see “Accent-ablaut paradigm.”

Acute — see “Intonation.”

Affix — a superordinate term in relation to the terms “prefix,” “suffix,” and “infix.” Designates a grammatical morpheme which attaches to a lexical morpheme in one of three positions in the word: 1. before the lexical morpheme (cf. the prefix nu- in nu-KRÌT-o), 2. after the lexical morpheme (cf. the suffix -ul- in KRIT-ul-iaĩ), 3. within the lexical morpheme; namely, by insertion of the affix before the final consonant of the morpheme (cf. the infix -n- in KRI-n-T-ùKRIT ).

Affricates — consonants consisting of a plosive and a fricative, e.g. Lith. c, dz, č, dž.

Alternant — a variant form which alternates with another in a specific pattern. See “Ablaut,” “Allomorph.”

Alternation — the replacement of vowels or consonants within a morpheme, which takes place according to a certain pattern, cf. e.g. vedù : vãdas : į́voda, martì : mar̃čiai, gaidỹs : gaidžiaĩ.

Amphikinetic — see “Accent-ablaut paradigm.”

Analogical proportion — see “Analogy.”

Analogy — a type of morphological change, as a result of which a particular grammatical form is remodelled on the pattern of another form already existing in the language. This change leads to the replacement of an irregular (exceptional) form by a regular one, according to the so-called analogical proportion: a : b = a1 : x (x = b1). Cf. MoE leg : nom.pl. legs = foot : x (x = foots, in place of feet); Pol. ojciec ‘father’ : gen.sg. ojca = syn ‘son’ : x (x = syna, in place of OPol. synu); Lith. piršlỹs : instr.sg. piršliù = vagìs : x (x = vagiù, for vagimì).

Anaptyxis — the appearance within a word of a vowel which breaks up a consonant cluster, cf. kimỹnai, šãratas and mìšios as forms transposing the sound shape of Br. kmin, šrot, and Pol. msza. The inserted vowel is termed “anaptyctic.” In these examples, the following vowels are anaptyctic: i in kim and miš, and a in šar.

Aniṭ (term from Sanskrit grammar) — said of a PIE root which did not end in a laryngeal consonant. Of aniṭ origin are the roots of such Lithuanian words as bė́gti < PIE *bʰeg -, ber̃ti < PIE *bʰer-, brendù ⇐ PIE *bʰredʰ-, eĩti < PIE *h1ei̯-, per̃ti < PIE *per-, riẽsti < PIE *u̯rei̯t-, sėdė́ti ⇐ PIE *sed-, šliẽtis < PIE *ḱlei̯-, žiẽsti < PIE *dʰei̯ǵʰ-. The opposite term is “seṭ.”

Anticipation — a too-early onset of a certain articulatory movement, an anticipatory adjustment in the articulation of a sound under the influence of a following sound. See “Assimilation.”

Antonyms — words with the opposite meaning, e.g. gẽras ʽgoodʼ : blõgas ʽbadʼ, draũgas ʽfriendʼ : príešas ʽenemyʼ, pradžià ʽbeginningʼ : gãlas ʽendʼ.

Aphaeresis — loss of the initial sound of a word; in particular, loss of an initial vowel (as a rule, unstressed): barãgas < *abarãgas, ráitis < ėráitis, žañčius < ažañčius, Žùpis < *Užupis or *Ažupis, 2. loss of an initial consonant: ė́gėrė < jė́gėrė, éndrė < néndrė, óras < vóras. ← xxxviii | xxxix →

Appellative — Lat. nomen appellativum, a common noun in contrast to a proper noun (Lat. nomen proprium). For example, gul̃bė ʽswanʼ is an appellative in relation to such proper nouns as Gul̃bė or Gul̃bis (family name), Gul̃bė (river name), Gul̃bis (lake name), Gul̃bės (village name).

Apocope, apocopation — loss of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a word, e.g. daũg < daugi, daugia; nebė̃r < nebėrà; nerst [ʽis angryʼ] < nersta; rañkoj < rañkoje; bė́k < bė́ki (*bėg-ki); màt < mataĩ; kõl < koleĩ.

Assimilation — adjustment of a sound in terms of manner or place of articulation to its environment: on the one hand, to a following sound (the most frequent case), and on the other hand, to a preceding sound (less commonly). When in a sequence AB the adjustment is conditioned by segment B, we speak of anticipatory assimilation of segment A (or the regressive direction of the adjustment). Schematically, AB > BB, e.g. mùždinti < *muš-dinti (cf. mùšti); bė́kti < *bėg-ti (cf. bė́gu); OLith. gindyvė < gimdỹvė (cf. gimdýti); im̃pilas < *in-pilas (cf. pìlti, įpìlti). — On the other hand, when in a sequence AB the adjustment is conditioned by segment A, we speak of perseverative assimilation of segment B (or the progressive direction of the adjustment). Schematically, AB > AA, e.g. *virsus > viršùs; *neš-siu > *neš-šiu > nèšiu; *mėš-slas (from *mėž-slas, cf. mė́žiu) > *mėš-šlas > mė́šlas.

Athematic — inflection of a noun (declension) or a verb (conjugation) which does without the PIE thematic suffix *-e/o- (Lith. -a-). Cf. e.g. the gen. sg. forms seser̃-s or seser-ès to sesuõ ʽsisterʼ, the 1 sg. pres. forms (OLith.) ei-mi to eĩti ʽgoʼ, duo-mi to dúoti ʽgiveʼ.

Back-formation — a derivational process in which a shortening of the derivational base serves as the formant, e.g. armàarmuõ, aušàaušrà, bùdėsbudỹnės, lãšislašišà, mė́nasmėnùlis, ríešasríešutas, šilagàšìlagėlė, OLith. žalnažalniẽriai.

Causative — a verb form which expresses the fact that the subject causes the realization of an action by its object (cf. Lat. causāre ʽcauseʼ). For example, gim-dýti ʽgive birthʼ to gìmti ʽbe bornʼ, i.e. ʽcause to be bornʼ; gý-dyti ʽcureʼ to gýti ʽreturn to healthʼ; áuš-yti ʽcool (tr.)ʼ to áušti ʽcool (intr.)ʼ; bùd-inti ʽawake (tr.)ʼ to budė́ti ʽbe awakeʼ.

Circumflex — a term denoting a lack of intonation (the opposite is “Acute”), e.g. aũkštas subst. ʽfloor, storeyʼ vs. áukštas adj. ʽhigh, tallʼ. See “Intonation.”

Calque — the borrowing of a semantic model from another language in order to create a new formation on the basis of native material, e.g. gár-laivis ⇐ MoHG Dampf-schiff; į́-spūdis ⇐ MoHG Ein-druck; juodadar̃bis ⇐ Ru. černorabóčij; garbė̃s žõdis ⇐ Pol. słowo honoru.

Conjugation — see “Inflection.”

Consonantization — the change of a high vowel i, u into a glide i̯̯, u̯ (> j, v) to avoid hiatus, e.g. apjàkti < api.àkti (cf. Pol. dojdę < do.idę). Cf. also Žem. svadìnti < *su̯odinti.

Contraction — 1º the contraction of two vowels into a single vowel, e.g. nėsù < ne.esù; pokim < *pākim from *pā.akim; PlN Póžerė < *Pāžerė, from *Pa.ažerė < Pã.ežerė; trỹs < *tri.i̯is (from *tre.i̯is < *tre.i̯es), 2º the contraction of two vowels into a diphthong, e.g. RN Žilaũpė from *Žila.upė, 3º the contraction of two consonants into a single ← xxxix | xl → consonant, e.g. giñčas < *gint.šas; vẽčas < *vet.šas (from vẽtušas); ledžingà < *led.žinga; žvãgalis < *žvak.galis (from žvakì-galis).

Curonianism – a borrowing from Curonian.

Decasuatives — derivatives of a denominal type which are derived not from nominal bases, but from inflectional forms: 1º usually from forms of oblique cases (see ŽD 66f.), 2º sometimes also from nominative or vocative forms. Regarding the term, see Weiss 2009, 269. Cf.

1. Der. from gen.sg.: diẽvojis ʽGod’s, divineʼ ⇐ diẽv-o + jìs.

2. Der. from gen.pl.: mū́sū̃jis ʽourʼ ⇐ mū́sų + jìs; jū́sūjis or jūsū̃jis ʽyourʼ ⇐ jū́sų + jìs; prūsaičiū̃jis ʽbelonging to the Prūsaičiai family, just like a P.ʼ ⇐ Prūsaičių̃ + jìs; žąsiū̃jis ʽgoose (of an egg)ʼ ⇐ žąsių̃ + jìs; žmoniū̃jis ʽhumanʼ ⇐ žmonių̃ + jìs. With suffix -inis: pietū̃ninis ʽsouth, southernʼ ⇐ pietų̃ (*pietun) + -inis.

3. Der. from loc.sg. dienoję́jis ʽdaily, daytimeʼ ⇐ *dei̯n-āi̯-ēn (cf. dienojè ʽon a day, in the dayʼ) + jìs. Resegmentation: dienoj- + -ęjis (see section 4).

4. Der. from loc.sg., formed with the neo-suffix –ę́jis (see section 3): danguję́jis ʽheavenly, eternalʼ ⇐ danguĩ ʽin heaven, in the skyʼ; viduję́jis ʽinternal, middleʼ ⇐ viduĩ ʽinsideʼ, viršuję́jis ʽupperʼ ⇐ viršuĩ ʽon topʼ. — More recent variants in this series are derived with -jis itself, cf. dangùjis, vidùjis, viršùjis. The neo-suffix -ujis, extracted from these, appears in such neologisms as laukùjis, paskùjis or pačiùjis, and ledùjai (see s.v.).

5. Der. from instr.sg. with the ending *-o-h1: ragúotas ʽhornedʼ < *rag-ō ʽwith a hornʼ + *-to-. Cf. Lat. aegrōtus ʽill, sickʼ < *aigrō-to- - ⇐ *aigr-ō ʽwith an illnessʼ, see Weiss 2009, 270.

6. Der. from nom.sg.: mėnuõlis ʽmoonʼ (in the dainas) ⇐ mė́nuo ʽmoonʼ + -lis.

7. Der. from voc.sg.: brólis ʽbrotherʼ ⇐ *bro ʽbrother!ʼ + -lis, where the hypocoristic root *bro < *brā goes back to Proto-Lith. *brāter- ʽbrotherʼ. Cf. Pol. bra-ch, brachu ‘brother (colloq.)’ ⇐ *bra (alongside the proper name Sta-ch, Stachu ⇐ *Sta ⇐ Stanisław).

Declension — see “Inflection.”

Degemination — simplification of a cluster of two identical consonants within a word or at the end of a word, e.g. šãkotis < *šak-kotis, žìrklės < žirk-klės < *žirg-klės, gę̃sta < *gens-sta (cf. gẽso, gèsti), žymė̃ < *žym-mė < *žin-mė, lìmarka < *lim-marka < lìn-marka, ràs < *ras-s < *rat-s < *rad-s (cf. rañda, rãdo), lùš < *lūš-š < *lūš-s < *lūž-s (cf. lū́žo, lū́žti).

Delabialization — loss of a sound’s bilabial articulation or lip-rounding co-articulation, cf. PIE *k, *g > Lith. k, g.

Denasalization — change of a nasalized vowel into an oral vowel, e.g. šą̃la = [ša:la] < *šanla, ąsà = [a:sa] < *ansa, gỹja = [gi:ja] from *gįja < *ginja (cf. išgìjo), bū̃va = [bu:va] < *bųva < *bunva (cf. bùvo).

Denominal — a word derived from a nominal, that is, from a noun or adjective. Examples: 1. nouns: ãpavalasãpavas, avižienójaiavižíena, giñčininkasgiñčas, aklinaĩãklinas, gudréivagudrùs, 2. verbs: grybáutigrỹbas, važiúotivãžas, skersakiúotiskersãkis. ← xl | xli →

Derivation — a morphological process involving the creation of words derived from other words or grammatical forms. See also “Morphology.”

Derivative — a derived word.

Deverbative — a word derived from a verb, e.g. gýdytojasgýdyti, gýdomasis or pagýdomasgýdo, grybáutojasgrybáuti, núogaranugarė́ti.

Dissimilation — 1º the differentiation of two sounds which were originally identical, e.g. vèsti < *vet-ti (from *ved-ti); vèzdavo < *ved-davo (cf. vedù); kambarỹs < *kam.marys (LW from MHG kammer), 2º an increase in the difference between two sounds, e.g. šim̃tas < *šintas; grámdyti < grándyti (cf. gréndžiu); dùgnas < *dubnas.

Distance assimilation — Assimilation which takes place between sounds which are not contiguous, but separated by another segment, cf. AxB > BxB, e.g. *seši > šešì; slū̃žyti > šlū̃žyti.

Distance dissimilation — dissimilation between sounds which are not contiguous, but separated by another segment, cf. dirgėlė̃ < *dilgėlė; sidãbras < *sirabras; smãkras < *smašras. — The dissimilatory loss of one of two identical consonants within a word, e.g. aguonà < *maguona; kaĩras < *krairas; kãklas < *kalklas; naũjas < *ni̯aui̯as; pìnigas < piningas; ugnìs < *ungnis.

Durative — a verb which denotes duration (cf. Lat. durāre ʽlastʼ) of an action or state, as opposed to a semelfactive or iterative verb.

Elision — loss of the final vowel of a word (or the final vowel of the first element of a compound) before the vocalic anlaut of another word (or the second element of a compound), e.g. pasìlgo < pa.si.ìlgo; neĩs < ne.eĩs; nišė̃jo < ne.išė̃jo; nė̃jo < ne.ė̃jo; nesù < ne.esù; bẽsama < be.ẽsama; tesiẽ alongside te.esiẽ ; amžinãtilsį < amžiną ãtilsį. — Loss of a vowel in the anlaut of the second element of a compound: netnèš < ne.atnèš; nérk < ne.árk; príengis < príe.angis; PlN Naujãžeris < *Naujã.ežeris; RN Užúožeris < Užúo.ežeris.

Epenthesis — the same as “Insertion.”

Etymological meaning — see “Etymology.”

Etymology — the study of the origin and original meaning of the lexemes or words of a particular language and their relations within a group (family) of related languages. The goal of etymology is the establishment, with the aid of sound laws and thus on a historical-comparative basis, of the original sound shape of word, and also the determination, on the basis of historical-comparative morphology, of the original morphological structure of a word and its original meaning (the so-called etymological meaning of the word).

Euphemism — a linguistic form which substitutes for another form which is prohibited by taboo, cf. anàs, bičiulíenė, ilgãtė or ilgóji, nelabàsis, paskutinióji.

Expressive — of a word meaning: characterized by emotion.

Folk etymology — the interpretation of an isolated or foreign word (its structure and meaning) by speakers in accordance with their Sprachgefühl. As a rule, this interpretation diverges from a linguistic etymology, reflecting an analysis of the comparative-historical ← xli | xlii → facts. Examples of forms which are “distorted” as a result of a folk-etymological interpretation are: bezdžiõnė, ketver̃gas, temptyvà.

Frequentative — a verb which denotes repeating action, reiterated action (cf. Lat. frequentāre ʽrepeat, reiterateʼ). For example, dáigstyti ʽquiltʼ to díegti ʽstickʼ; várstyti ʽstring (beads)ʼ to vérti ʽstick, stringʼ; žangstýti ʽstep (often), followʼ to žeñgti ʽstepʼ.

Germanism – a borrowing from German.

Grade (full, zero, lengthened) — see “Ablaut grades.”

Grammaticalization — the transition of a word from the lexical system to the grammatical system, e.g. dial. daiktè preposition ʽin place of ʼ ⇐ loc. sg. form ʽin (one) placeʼ.

Hapax (Gr. ἅπαξ λεγόμενον ʽsaid only onceʼ) — a word passed down philologically in only a single attestation (record). Cf. e.g. OLith. beziona mentioned under the entry beždžiõnė.

Haplological contraction — see “Haplology.”

Haplology — the loss of one of two adjacent syllables. It involves on the one hand syllables with an identical phonemic structure, e.g. gýslapis < *gysla.lapis; šė́margas < *šėma.margas; PlN Tauragė̃ < *taura.ragė; PlN Taurãvas < *taura.ravas; tė́vardis < tė́va.vardis; kasdiẽnis < kasdienì.nis. On the other hand, it involves syllables with similar, but not identical, phonemic structure, e.g. bõtkotis from *botakotis < *botaga.kotis; meškõjis < meška.kõjis; kãkligė < *kakla.ligė.

Heteroclitic — said of a type of noun declension which shows stem variation in different cases, see e.g. the entry for vanduõ.

Heterosyllabic — belonging to another (neighboring) syllable — said of a phoneme in the syllable structure of a word. Cf. “Tautosyllabic.”

Hiatus (Lat. hiatus) — a gap, the coming together of two vowels at a morpheme or word boundary. When, in the interests of ease of articulation, there appears a tendency to overcome this gap, phonetic changes such as the following may occur: 1. epenthesis of the glide (after i) or (after u), e.g. prì.jėmė < prì.ėmė, su.vė́dė < su.ė́dė, 2. elision of the vowel (see “Elision”), 3. contraction of the vowels (see “Contraction”), 4. consonantization of the vowel (see “Consonantization”).

Homophony — identity of sound shape of two words (homophones) which have distinct meanings, are of different origins, and are distinguished in spelling, cf. for example sègti and sèkti, tógti and tókti.

Hybrid — said of a derivational formation which combines a native morpheme with a foreign morpheme, e.g. kalãvėžė, kolū́kis, rankavė̃tas.

Hypocoristic — said of a form (a noun or proper name) which expresses an affectionate attitude toward the person addressed, e.g. Pol. tat-uś ‘daddy’ (from tata), Sta-ś (from Stanisław), figuratively also about things, e.g. brzu-ś ‘belly’ (from brzuch). The base of the hypocoristic form of a word is the so-called hypocoristic root, that is, a distinctive modification of the neutral word with respect to the emotional word, which does not coincide with the morphological boundary; cf. tat-, Sta-, brzu- above. See the explanations of the words brólis, brótis, lénkas, móša, preĩkšas. ← xlii | xliii →

Hysterokinetic — see “Accent-ablaut paradigms.”

Inchoative — a verb which denotes the initial moment of a state or process, e.g. įnir̃sta ʽbecomes enragedʼ, pražýsta ʽbegins to bloomʼ, sénsta ʽgrows oldʼ.

Infixed — said of a present-tense formation which contains a nasal infix (which see).

Inflection — a morphological process involving the creation of inflectional forms of a particular lexeme (word) through grammatical affixes (endings) which express functions which are primarily syntactic. Inflection includes on the one hand declension — the inflecting of nominals (nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns) according to case, number, and grammatical gender, and on the other hand, conjugation — the inflecting of verbs according to such grammatical categories as person, number, tense, voice, mood, etc.

Ingressive — see “Inchoative.”

Insertion or Epenthesis — the appearance of a consonant within a word in a position where it was previously lacking, cf. 1. in the cluster sr: nas-t-raĩ < nasraĩ, gaĩs-t-ras < gaĩsras, 2. in the cluster -ml-: im-b-lióti < imlióti, 3. before the cluster -st-: apìna-k-stris < apìnasris, 4. before the cluster -zd-: ble-g-zdinga (OLith.) < blezdingà, 5. before the cluster -št-: raĩ-k-štis < raĩštis, bó-k-štas < *boštas, 6. before the cluster -šč-: ãtvir-k-ščias < *atvirščias.

Intonation (acute) — prosodic feature realized in Lithuanian as a greater emphasis on the initial mora of a long stressed syllable. Cf. the difference between acute and lack of acute (symbol: ̃) in the following word pairs: klóstė / klõstė, týrė / tỹrė, sugáuti / sugaũs, láuk / laũk, várpą / var̃pą, gìnti / giñti. See also “Laryngeal.”

Iterative — a verb which denotes repeating action (Lat. iterāre ʽrepeatʼ) or frequentative action, e.g. lauž-ýti ʽbreakʼ (to láužti), gáu-dyti ʽcatchʼ (to gáuti), kil-óti ʽlift, raiseʼ (to kélti), raus-ióti ʽdig upʼ or raus-lióti id. (to raũsti), vìrk-čioti ʽcry off and onʼ (to ver̃kti), pirkinė́ti ʽbuyʼ (to pir̃kti), iešk-inė́ti ʽlook forʼ (to ieškóti).

Laryngeal (consonant) — one of three Proto-Indo-European fricative consonants (*h1, *h2, *h3), which disappeared almost everywhere before the appearance of the first texts of Indo-European languages (an exception is the Anatolian language group, where *h2 and *h3 were partly preserved). In the Lithuanian material, traces of the laryngeals are represented mainly by long vowels of various primary words inherited from the Indo-European proto-language. Cf. e.g. such verb forms as dė́ti < *dʰeh1-C, stóti < *stāti < *steh2-C, dúoti < *dōti < *deh3-C, which have correspondences in Gr. tʰē- (τίθημι), stā- (ἵστημι, Dor. ἵσταμι), and - (δίδωμι). — A trace specific for Lithuanian is intonation (acute), which took shape on syllables which once contained a tautosyllabic laryngeal consonant, in contrast to syllables which did not contain a laryngeal phoneme. When in the period of the loss of laryngeal consonants a vowel which had accompanied the laryngeal consonant was lengthened (so-called compensatory lengthening), there arose a phonological opposition of long and short syllables. In historical times, this manifests itself at the prosodic level, namely as an opposition of syllable intonation (old laryngeal syllable) and lack of intonation (old non-laryngeal syllable). Lithuanian words and word-forms continuing PIE prototypes involving a laryngeal consonant are collected in Smoczyński 2006. ← xliii | xliv →

Laryngeal hiatus — hiatus conditioned by the loss of a PIE laryngeal consonant, occuring in the position after a high (i or u) and before any vowel. This hiatus of the proto-language was eliminated through the insertion of the consonantal glides and as hiatus fillers; in particular, was inserted after i, and in the position after u. Examples: 1. vìjo ʽ(he) woundʼ (inf. výti) goes back to PB *u̯ii̯ā-, from PB *u̯i.ā- (hiatus), continuing PIE *u̯i.ā- from *u̯ih1-eh2- (full-grade *u̯i̯eh1-), 2. bùvo ʽ(he) wasʼ (inf. bū́ti) goes back to PB *buu̯ā-, from PB *bu.ā- (hiatus), continuing PIE *bʰu.ā- from *bʰuh2-eh2- (e-grade *bʰu̯eh2-).

Latvianism — a borrowing from Latvian.

Lexeme — a lexical morpheme in contrast to a grammatical morpheme; a lexical element common to a particular group of inflectional or derivational forms.

Lexicalization — a situation in which a particular linguistic form loses connection with a word that had previously motivated it, and becomes an independent (etymologically opaque) lexical unit. The main reasons for lexicalization are 1. loss of the motivating word (e.g. ašvíenis ⇐ *ašvas, ūdróti ⇐ *ūdros, vadõvas ⇐ *vadoti), 2. differentiation of meaning in relation to the motivating word (e.g. ragáuti : rãgas), 3. differentiation of sound shape in relation to the motivating word, usually conditioned by irregular sound change (e.g. mė́šlas : mė́žiu; sarvalaĩ : sravė́ti; sùtros : srū́ti, srùvo). The analysis of lexicalized forms is the main object of etymological investigation.

Lithuanianism — a borrowing from Lithuanian.

Metanalysis — the same as “Reanalysis.”

Metathesis — a transposition of the order of sounds within a word, e.g. kepù < *peku; sùtros < srùtos; dulsùs < duslùs; tulžìs < *žultis.

Metatony. The replacement of intonation (acute) by the lack of intonation as a characteristic of certain derived forms is called circumflex metatony, cf. bė̃gisbė́gti; stõvaistóviu; pastõvaipasistóti; šõkisšókti; il̃gisìlgas; kañdiską́sti; ger̃vinasgérvė; kur̃piuskùrpės. — The reverse process, whereby a derived form created from a non-acute base receives intonation as a supplementary characteristic, is called acute metatony, e.g. várža, váržasver̃žti; žíebasžiẽbti; žìrgasžer̃gti; dìlbadel̃bti; kìmšakim̃šti; ánkštisañkštas; vìlkėvil̃kas; dvíejau : dviẽjų.

Monophthongization — the change of a diphthong into a monophthong, e.g. ãbetas < ãbeitas; momuõ < muomuõ; Žem. vāks < vaĩks (cf. vaĩkas).

Morpheme — the smallest unit with lexical function (lexeme) or grammatical function (grammeme).

Morphology — the part of grammar which deals with morphemes and structures built from morphemes, that is, words. Morphology is traditionally divided into inflection — the study of the inflection of words (see “Inflection”) and derivation — the study of the creation of new words based on already-existing words (see “Derivation”).

Nasal infix — a grammatical morpheme inserted into a lexeme in order to form the present tense. In the Lithuanian material, the infix is an n or m segment occupying a position before the final consonant of a lexeme in such present-tense forms as e.g. kri-n-tù (pret. kritaũ), švi-ñ-ta (pret. apšvìto), li-m-pù (pret. lipaũ), pra-n-tù (pret. prataũ), ← xliv | xlv → ta-m-pù (pret. tapaũ), se-ñ-ka (pret. apsẽko). — Of infixed origin are also certain forms of the present tense which contain the vowels /ī, ū, ē, ā/, which derive from denasalization of the nasalized vowels -į-, -ų-, -ę-, -ą-, e.g. rỹja from *rįja < *ri-n-ja (cf. rìjo), kliū̃va from *kliųva < *kliu-n-va (cf. kliùvo), gę̃sa from *ge-n-s-a (cf. gèso), šą̃la from *ša-n-la (cf. užšãlo). — In the case of seṭ roots (which see), where the infix occurred before a laryngeal consonant, the Lithuanian reflex shows an infix directly before the personal ending, e.g. dial. gli-n-ù ʽmodel, mouldʼ from *gli-n-H-oh2 (root *glei̯H-), dial. si-n-ù ʽI bind, tieʼ from *si-n-H-oh2 (root *sei̯h2-). This is due to the loss of laryngeal consonants in prevocalic position.

Nasalization — the transformation of a tautosyllabic sequence of an oral vowel and a nasal consonant (two phonemes) into a nasalized vowel (one phoneme), e.g. lį̃sti < *lin.sti (from *lint-ti < *lind-ti, cf. liñdo), sių̃sti < *siun.sti (from *si̯unt-ti, cf. siuñtė), tę́vas < *tēn.u̯as, žąsìs < *žan.sis.

Neo-ablaut — innovative ablaut. Comprises two groups of morphological phenomena: 1º the renewal of inherited ablaut forms, 2º the creation of new ablaut forms. One must also consider instances of the elimination of ablaut, since this also reflects an innovative development. It appears that the main transformations observed in the Lithuanian material had their origin in a sound change: the vocalization of the PIE sonorants *ṛ, *ḷ, *ṃ, *ṇ in the zero-grade *TRT; this process led to a blurring of the distinction between roots of the *TeRT type and roots of the *TReT type. The vocalized zero-grade originally had the shape *TiRT, less often *TuRT (cf. spìrti alongside spùrti; gìrtas alongside gurklỹs). Subsequently, through paradigmatic analogy, there appeared in zero-grade the “non-phonetic” shape TriT (TRuT). Cf. the analogical proportion TeRT : TiRT = TReT : x; x = TRiT (Kuryłowicz 1956a, 220f.). Such roots as bred-, dreb-, krek-, trek- acquired in the zero-grade the forms brid-, drib-, krik-, trik-, and these supplanted the phonetic reflexes *bird-, *dirb-, *kirk-, *tirk-.

1.0. Examples of renewed ablaut:

1.1. After the merger of the PIE vowel timbres *o and *a into PB *a, the PIE ablaut full-grade *e ⇒ o-grade *o (*bhred- ⇒ *bhrod-) acquired the shape *e ⇒ *a (PB *bred- ⇒ *brad-), i.e. the o-grade began to be expressed by the vowel *a. Roots with the vocalism *ē adjusted themselves to this situation, so that their o-grade, hitherto with the shape *ō (whence Lith.-Latv. uo), was now replaced by *ā (whence Lith. o, Latv. ā). Examples of the new o-grade from roots with *ē: bogìnti (earlier Latv. buôdzinât ⇐ *bēg-, bė́gti); bróžti (cf. brúožasbrė́žti); slógti in place of *sluog- ⇐ slė́gti (cf. slúogas); sodìnti in place of *suodyti ⇐ sė́du (cf. OCS saditi; subst. súodžiai). — The spread of the Lith. ablaut ėo at the expense of Lith. ėuo occasionally has as a side effect the hypercorrect replacement of uo by o and, conversely, o by uo. Secondary o in place of etymological uo (*ō) can be seen for example in seser̃kopiai in place of *seserkuopiai (cf. kúopa). Secondary uo in place of etymological o (*ā) appears i.a. in búožė, druõžti, kuõlas, stuogas, stuomuõ, and žúobris.

1.2. The inherited pattern of full-grade eo-grade a (bred- ⇒ brad-) was renewed as zero-grade io-grade ai (brid- ⇒ braid-). This resulted in the partial replacement of o-grade a by o-grade ai in such categories as causatives (kraikýti, raitýti), iteratives (braidýti) and intensives (bráidžioti). ← xlv | xlvi →

1.3. The full-grade form adjusts to the form of the zero-grade, which was characterized by the innovative sequence irC:
pres. peršù (inf. piršti) in place of *prešu < PIE *preḱ-, cf. iter. prašýti.
pres. perkù (inf. pirkti) in place of *preku < PIE *prek-, cf. Latv. prece, Lith. prãkė (lack of an iter. †prakyti).

2.0. Examples of newly-created ablaut grades:

2.1. Zero-grade of the type TRiTTReT: see above.

2.2. Zero-grade of the type TRīTTRēT, e.g. plīš- ⇐ plēš-, cf. plýšta (*plīš-sta) : plė́šti; ryž- ⇐ rēž-, cf. parýžta (*rīž-sta) : rė́žti; brīž- ⇐ brēž-, cf. *brýžta (*brīž-sta) : brė́žti (cf. the der. bráižyti in section 2.7).

2.3. Zero-grade of the type TiT, resulting from the analogical proportion TReT : TRiT = TeT : x; x = TiT, e.g. gis-ges-, cf. gìsti : gèsti, kib-keb-, cf. kìbti : kèbti, kiš-keš-, cf. kìšti : kèšti, šik-*šek-, cf. šìkti : *šekti, tiž-tež-, cf. tìžti : tèžti.

2.4. o-grade of the type TRaiT, formed from the zero-grade TRiT, e.g. braid-brid-(bred-), cf. braidýti, bráidžioti : bridaũ, brìsti (old o-grade: bradýti, cf. OCS broditi); draib-drib- (dreb-), cf. draibstýti : drìbti (old o-grade: drabstýti); krait-krit- (kret-), cf. kráičioti, kraitýti : krìsti (old o-grade: kratýti); maizg-mizg- (mezg-), cf. (su)maizgýti : (su)mìgzti (old o-grade: mazgýti, magztýti);

2.5. o-grade of the type TaiT, formed from the zero-grade TiT (⇐ TeT), e.g. kaiš-kiš- (keš-), cf. káišioti : kìšti (old o-grade: kãšė, kãšenė); paiš-piš- (peš-), cf. páišioti : pišà (old o-grade: pašýti); staip-stip- (step-), cf. staipýtis : stìpti (old o-grade: stapýti, stapìnti); šaik-šik- (šek-), cf. šáikioti : šìkti (lack of an old o-grade *šak-); taiž-tiž- (tež-), cf. táižytis : tìžti (old o-grade: taž-, cf. ištažė́ti).

2.6. o-grade of the type TaiR, formed from the zero-grade TiR (⇐ TeR), e.g. gaim-gim- (gem-), cf. gaimìnti : gìmti (old o-grade: gamìnti); gain-gin- (gen-), cf. gáinioti : giñti (old o-grade: ganýti, gãnas); dail-dil- (del-), cf. dáilyti : dìlti (old o-grade: dalýti, -aũ; dalìs, dalià); tair-tir- (*ter-), cf. tairáutis : týriau (tìrti), tyrė́ti (old o-grade: tárdyti); žair-žir- (*žer-), cf. žairijà, žairià : žìrti (old o-grade: žarstýti). — Such derivations as 1º tvain-tvin- (tven-), cf. tvaĩnyti : tvìnti (old o-grade: tvãnas), 2º gaiv-gyv-, cf. gaivìnti : gývas also find support in this type. — As a result of innovations 2.4–2.6, there arose new diphthongal paradigms, which took their place alongside the older monophthongal paradigms with vowel e.

2.7. o-grade of the type TRāiT, based on the zero-grade of the type TRīTTRēT (section 2.2), e.g. plaiš- ⇐ plīš-, cf. pláišyti : plýšta (old o-grade: plúoštas < *ploh1ḱ-); raiž- ⇐ ryž-, cf. ráižyti : rýžta (old o-grade: rúožas < *u̯roh1ǵ-); braiž- ⇐ brīž-, cf. bráižyti : *brýžta (old o-grade: brúožas < *bʰroh1ǵʰ-). — The new diphthongal paradigms with acuted ai came to stand alongside the older monophthongal paradigms with long acuted ī.

2.8. e-grade of the type TReiT, based on the zero-grade of the type TRiT, while the old e-grade has a threefold shape: TRieT, TReT, or TRēT. Examples: 1° skleid- ⇐ sklid-, cf. skleĩsti : sklìsti (old e-grade: skliedžiù); geiž- ⇐ giž-, cf. géižėtigìžti (old e-grade: giežti); sneig- ⇐ snig-, cf. snéigėtisnìgti (old e-grade: sniẽgti). — 2° pleit- ⇐ plit-, cf. pleĩsti : plìsti (old e-grade: plet-); reiž- ⇐ riž-, cf. réižtis : *riž- (cf. rýžtis, OCS rĭznǫti; old e-grade: *rež-, cf. rãžas). — 3° pleiš- ⇐ plyš-, cf. pléišėtiplýšti (old e-grade: *plēš-, plė́šti). — The diphthong ei in the above forms is the product of an ablaut process (RiTReiT), and as such has nothing ← xlvi | xlvii → in common with the *ei of the proto-language, which we reconstruct for the roots *lei̯p-, *mei̯ž-, *šu̯ei̯t-, etc. (cf. section 2.9).

2.9. e-grade of the type TReT, based on the zero-grade TRiT (⇐ TRei̯T), e.g. lep- ⇐ lip- (*lei̯p-), cf. lempù : lìpti I; mež- ⇐ miž- (*mei̯ž-), cf. męžù : mìžti, minžù; red- ⇐ rid- (*rei̯d-), cf. rendù, rèsti : rìdinti; skred- ⇐ skrid- (*skrei̯d-), cf. skrendù, skrìsti; švet- ⇐ švit- (*šu̯ei̯t-), cf. šventù, švèsti : švintù, švìsti. As a consequence of this innovation, diphthongal paradigms with inherited *ei were renewed by monophthongal paradigms with the vocalism e.

2.10. e-grade of the type TRieT, based on the zero-grade TRiT (⇐ TRei̯T), e.g. liep- ⇐ lip- (*lei̯p-), cf. liempù : limpù, lìpti I; briezg- ⇐ brizg- (*brei̯zg-), cf. atsibriẽgzti : brìgzti, brizgė́ti; skried- ⇐ skrid- (*skrei̯d-), cf. skriedžiù : skrindù, skridaũ; riet- ⇐ rit- (*rei̯t-), cf. riečiù : ritù. As a consequence of this innovation, diphthongal paradigms with *ei were renewed by diphthongal paradigms with ie.

2.11. e-grade of the type eR, based on the zero-grade iR (spread of the pattern vejù : vijaũ), e.g. dial. delù : dilaũ (dìlti); pelù : pilaũ (pìlti); skenù : skinaũ (skìnti), see Zinkevičius 1966, § 597.

2.12. e-grade of the type eN spreads in infixed presents at the expense of iN, on the model of the relation skrendù : skridaũ, cf. dial. lempù in place of limpù to lipaũ; stempù in place of stimpù to stipaũ, see Zinkevičius 1966, § 597.

2.13. Aniṭ zero-grade CăC, created to the seṭ full-grade *CāC, Lith. CoC (PIE *Ceh2C), e.g. - ⇐ -, cf. lajùs : lóti; plăk- ⇐ plāk-, cf. plàkti : *plok- (plókščias); šăk- ⇐ šāk-, cf. šakùs : šókti; văg- ⇐ vāg-, cf. vagiù : võgti; Lith. bãžmas : Latv. bāzt. The ablaut *ā ⇒ ă is based on a reversal of the relation ă ⇒ *ā (lengthened grade).

2.14. Aniṭ zero-grade CŭC, created to the seṭ full-grade CáuC, e.g. ug- ⇐ aug-, cf. ugdýti : áugti; čiud- ⇐ čiaud-, cf. čiùdinti : čiáudėti; pju- ⇐ pjau-, cf. pjudýti : pjáuti; spju- ⇐ spjau-, cf. spjùdoti : spjáudyti (older variant spjūdáuti). Here also kiur- ⇐ kiaur-, cf. kiùrdyti, kiùrė, kiùrėlis : kiáuras. This ablaut is based on a reversal of the relation zero-grade *u ⇒ o-grade *au, occurring in aniṭ roots. — The forms lùktelėti, lùktelti are ambiguous, since they may have as a base láukti as well as lūkė́ti (cf. section 2.15).

2.15. Aniṭ zero-grade CŭC, created to the seṭ zero-grade Cū́C, e.g. bu- ⇐ -, cf. bùtas : bū́ti; gruž- ⇐ grūž-, cf. gružénti, gružìnti : grūžinė́ti, grū́žtis (cf. OCS gryzǫ); kliu- ⇐ kliū-, cf. kliudýti : kliū́ti; um- ⇐ ūm-, cf. ùmaras : ū́mas; žu- ⇐ žū-, cf. žudýti : žū́ti (older variant žū́dyti). This ablaut is based on a reversal of the relation zero-grade *u ⇒ lengthened zero-grade *ū, occurring in aniṭ roots. — An analogical CŭC in a circumflex root: pluk- ⇐ plūk-, cf. plùkti : plū̃kti.

2.16. Aniṭ zero-grade CĭC, created to the seṭ zero-grade CīC, e.g. dig- ⇐ dīg-, cf. digčióti, digsė́ti, dìgtelėti : dýgti; mig- ⇐ mīg-, cf. migsė́ti, mìgsterėti : mýgti; rid- ⇐ rīd-, cf. ridýti : rýdyti (ríeti). This ablaut is based on a reversal of the relation zero-grade *i ⇒ lengthened zero-grade *ī, occurring in aniṭ roots.

2.17. The zero-grade of the saṃprasāraṇa type (from roots of the type ReT, TReT ) is renewed by a form adjusted to the full-grade, e.g. dvis- ⇐ dves-, dvìsti alongside older dùsti (full-grade dves-), žvil- ⇐ *žvel-, cf. žvìlti alongside įžulnùs (full-grade *žvel-, Latv. zvel̂t), tvir- ⇐ tver-, cf. tvìrtas alongside turė́ti (full-grade tver-), virk- ⇐ verk-, cf. vir̃kti alongside ur̃kti (full-grade verk-), virp- ⇐ verp-, cf. vir̃pti alongside ur̃pti (full-grade verp-), virž- ⇐ verž-, cf. vir̃žti alongside ur̃žti (full-grade verž-). ← xlvii | xlviii →

2.18. The sense of a parallelism between the diphthongs ie (front) : ai (back) led to the establishment of the analogical proportion ai̯ : i̯e = au̯ : x, where x = *u̯a > u̯o. On the model of the diphthong ie, which characterizes productive formations in comparison with unproductive ones (with ai), uo likewise becomes the exponent of productive forms in comparison with unproductive (with ai). Examples: kaũpti : kuõpti; raũpti : ruõpti; šlaviaũ : šlúoti; taupýti : tuopýti. Nouns: daubà : duobė̃; kaũpas : kúopa. On the entire issue, see Kuryłowicz 1956b, 123f. — In a further development, the relation zero-grade u ⇒ full-grade au (sùptisaũpti; dùbtidaubà) leads to the analogical ablaut uuo, where uo is a morphological substitute for the diphthong au, cf. dùbtidúobti, duobė̃; grùbtigruoblė̃; šliū́žti : šliuõžti (šliaũžti); stùburasstuõbras. N.B. Relations such as in the nouns šuõ : šùnį; žmuõ : žmùnį are better characterized as suppletivism.

5.0. Some examples of the limiting of ablaut alternation in derivation:

5.1. Lack of o-grade in iteratives and causatives in -yti: gesýti, dial. gisýti (rather than *gas-, cf. ORu. ugasiti), lipýti (rather than *laip-, cf. OCS prilěpiti, Ru. ← xlviii | xlix → lepítь), grìdyti (rather than *graid-), žìndyti (rather than *žand-, cf. grándyti, mánkyti). — Lexical split of zero-grade vs. o-grade: mìnkyti ‘knead’ : mánkyti ‘crumple’; spìrgyti ‘fry, roast’ : spargýti ‘scald’; vìlgyti ‘moisten’ : válgyti ‘eat’ (i.e. ‘moisten with saliva’). Cf. also pir̃šti ‘propose as wife/husband, serve as matchmaker’ : prašýti ‘request’.

5.2. Lack of reflexes of o-grade in the seṭ series plė́šyti, rė́žyti, slė́gyti, vė́tyti. This is most likely due to the vowel ė of these verbs being interpreted as lengthened e-grade, namely on the basis of the aniṭ type mė́tytimetù. But the fact that Latvian preserves the forms pluôsît and sluôdzît, and moreover that the o-grade reflex *ō ⇐ *ē appears in the Lith. deverbal nouns plúoštas and rúožas (see ŽD 534, Stang 1966, 326), allows us to reconstruct the lost iterative forms *plúošyti, *rúožyti, *slúogyti, and *vúotyti.

5.3. Lack of o-grade in causatives in -dyti: gimdýti (rather than *gam-, cf. gamìnti and the type lámdyti), gìrdyti (rather than *gar-, cf. nárdyti), kìldyti (rather than *kal-, cf. táldyti), plukdýti (rather than *plauk-, cf. plaukýti), vìrkdyti (rather than *vark-). — Lexical split of zero-grade vs. o-grade: trimdyti DP ‘frighten’ : trámdyti ‘calm; restrain’.

5.4. Lack of o-grade in intensives in -dyti: mìndyti (rather than *man-), pìldyti (rather than *pal-, cf. skáldyti), skirdýti (rather than *skar-, cf. tárdyti), mìndyti (rather than *man-, cf. mánkyti).

Neo-root — the product of a synchronic reanalysis (which see) of various forms of a primary verb.

2.0. Reanalysis of present-tense forms:

2.1. with suffix -sta-, e.g. root bir-: bìrsta ⇒ 1º bìrst(a) ⇒ der. birst-énti, bìrst-inti, birst-ùs, 2º bìrs(ta) ⇒ der. birs-nóti, with o-grade bars-: barstýti (*bars-sty-); root -: bū́sta ⇒ 1º bū́st(a) ⇒ der. bū́st-inė, 2º bū́s(ta) ⇒ der. bū́s-ena; root dulk-: dùlkstadulks(ta) ⇒ der. dul̃ks-mas, dulks-nà; root kil-: 1º kìlst(a) ⇒ der. kìlst-elėti, 2º kìls(ta) ⇒ der. kils-nóti; root blės-: blė́stablėst(a) ⇒ der. blė́st-auti; root sal-: sálstasáls(ta) ⇒ der. sal̃z-ganas (*sals-ganas); root varg-: var̃gstavar̃gst(a) ⇒ der. vargst-áuti.

2.2. with suffix -na-, e.g. root ei-: eĩnaeĩn(a) ⇒ der. ein-ùs, atein-inė́ti; root gau-: gáunagáun(a) ⇒ der. į́gaun-is; root skil-: skil̃naskil̃n(a) ⇒ der. skiln-ùs.

2.3. with suffix -da-, e.g. root -: dẽdadẽd(a) ⇒ der. dẽd-inti, ìšded-is, also in o-grade dad-: ìšdad-a; root duo-: dúodadúod(a) ⇒ der. dúod-lioti, dúod-ingas; root ei-: *ei-da ⇒ *eida- ⇒ der. eĩda-mas; root vir-: vérdavérd(a) ⇒ der. verd-ẽnė, verd-ùlis.

2.4. with suffix -ja-, e.g. root vy-: vẽjavẽj(a) ⇒ der. vej-à, vej-õnė, also in o-grade vaj-: vaj-à; root sie- / sy-: sẽjasẽj(a) ⇒ in o-grade saj-: sai-stýti, atsaj-óti, są́saj-a.

2.5. with nasal infix, e.g. root lip-: lim̃palim̃p(a) ⇒ der. lim̃palas; root skid-: skiñdaskiñd(a) ⇒ der. skiñd-elis; root bud-: buñdabuñd(a) ⇒ der. prasibund-inė́ti; root dub-: dum̃badum̃b(a) ⇒ der. dum̃b-las, dumb-rà; root krit-: kriñta ← xlix | l →kriñt(a)o-grade krant- ⇒ der. krañt-as; root sij-V / sy-C: *si-n-ja > sỹjasỹj(a) ⇒ der. syj-ė́ti, są́syj-is.

2.6. with the athematic 3rd pers. ending -ti, e.g. root -: dė́stidė́s(ti) ⇒ der. dės-lì, dės-nì; root gied-: gíestigíes(ti) ⇒ der. gies-mė̃, gíes-ena, gies-nóti.

2.7. with the athematic 1sg. ending -mi, e.g. root es-: esmìesm(ì) ⇒ der. esm-ù, 3rd pers. ẽsm-a; root duo-: dúomidúom(i) ⇒ der. dúom-u, 3rd pers. dúom-a; root ei-: eimìeim(ì) ⇒ der. eim-ù, 3rd pers. eĩm-a.

Neo-stem — the product of a synchronic reanalysis (which see) of a form of a secondary verb.

Vb. in -yti, e.g. sakýti (to sekù) ⇒ saký(ti) ⇒ der. saky-klà, saký-tinis, įsãky-mas.

Vb. in -dyti, e.g. baidýti (to bijau(s)) ⇒ 1º baid(ýti) ⇒ der. baĩd-as; 2º baidý(ti) ⇒ der. baidỹ-klė; dìldyti (to dìlti) ⇒ dìld(yti) ⇒ der. dild-inė́ti, dìld-ė, dild-ẽklis, dildž-ià; klodýti (to klóti) ⇒ klód(yti) ⇒ der. klõd-a, klõd-as; rýdyti (to rýti) ⇒ ryd(yti) ⇒ der. ryd-énti, rýd-inti; samdýti (to sémti) ⇒ samd(ýti) ⇒ der. samd-à, sam̃d-as.

Vb. in -styti, e.g. barstýti (to bìrsta, bìrti) ⇒ barst(ýti) ⇒ der. ìšbarst-os, pabarst-aĩ; bastýti (to bedù, bèsti) ⇒ bast(ýti) ⇒ der. bast-inė́ti; dė́styti (to dė́ti) ⇒ 1º dė́sty(ti) ⇒ der. dė́sty-tojas, 2º dė́st(yti) ⇒ der. dė́st-elėti, dė́st-inėti, dė́st-is; samstýti (to sémti) ⇒ 1º sámsty(ti) ⇒ der. sámsty-mas, sámsty-tojas, 2º sámst(yti): der. sámst-erti, samst-inė́ti, sámst-is; tvárstyti (to tvérti, tvìrsta) ⇒ *tvars(styti) ⇒ der. ãtvars-lai, patvárs-lės, tvárs-lės.

Vb. in -ėti, e.g. sėdė́ti (to *sed-) ⇒ sėdė́(ti) ⇒ der. sėdė́-sena, prisėd-ė́jas.

Vb. in -oti, e.g. láidoti (to léidžiu) ⇒ láido(ti) ⇒ der. láido-tuvės; klastóti (to klesčiù) ⇒ klastó(ti) ⇒ der. klastó-tojas; miegóti (to *meig-) ⇒ miegó(ti) ⇒ der. miego-là, miegó-nys.

Vb. in -dinėti, e.g. dėdinė́ti (to dė́ti) ⇒ dėd(inė́ti) ⇒ der. dė́d-inga. ← l | li →

Vb. in -ėti, pres. -ė-ja ⇒ -ėj(a) ⇒ der. ekėj-à, ūžė́j-imas.

Vb. in -yti, pres. -ija ⇒ -ij(a) ⇒ der. bliùznij-imas, mūčij-imas.

Vb. in -inti, pres. -ina ⇒ -in(a) ⇒ der. karšiñ-čius, misliñ-čius.

domė́tis, pret. domė́jausdomė́j(aus) ⇒ der. domė́j-imasis, gedė́j-imas, ilgė́j-imasis.

miegóti, pret. miegójaumiegoj(au) ⇒ der. miegój-imas.

bastýti, pret. basčiaũbasč(iaũ) ⇒ der. basči-óti (the subsequent reanalysis: bas-čióti leads to the der. bas-nóti)

sámstyti ⇒ pret. sámsčiausámsč(iau) ⇒ der. sámsči-oti.

Vb. in -oti, pres. -o-ja, pret. -o-jo ⇒ -oj(V), e.g. láidoti, -oju, -ojauláidoj-, der. láidoj-imas.

Reanalysis is sometimes also found in nominal derivation, e.g.

prekýba (from prẽkė) ⇒ preký(ba) ⇒ der. cp. preký-stalis, preký-metis, preký-vietė.

šaudìkasšaudìk(as) ⇒ der. šaudìk-lis; velniõnasvelniõn(as) ⇒ der. velnión-iškas.

gývas (to gýti) ⇒ gýv(as) ⇒ der. gyvė́ti, gývinti and o-grade gyv- ⇒ gaiv-: der. gaiv-ìnti, atgaivà, pagáiva, gaivùs.

ketverì (der. of *ket-, cf. keturì) ⇒ ketver(ì) ⇒ der. kẽtver-tas.

Cp. kumél-dėlėkuméld(ėlė) ⇒ der. kuméld-ena; lýg-malaslýgm(alas) ⇒ der. lýgm-enas; piẽt-vėjispiẽtv(ėjis) ⇒ der. piẽtv-is or pietv-ỹs, pietv-ìkė; skar̃-malasskar̃m(alas) ⇒ der. skar̃m-atas; šìla-gėlėšìlag(ėlė) ⇒ der. šilag-à.

Cp. ats(i)ilsėti, pas(i)ilsėti(at)silsė́ti, through de-prefixation there arises the neo-stem sils-.

Cp. at-stó-tiatst(óti) ⇒ der. atst-ókas, atst-ùs.

Cp. *api-akti > apjàkti(ap)jàkti ⇒ der. jàkti.

Cp. *nu-si-kripti > *nuskripti ⇒ *(nu)skripti ⇒ der. skrìpti.

Neo-suffix — the product of a synchronic reanalysis of nominal or verbal forms, resulting in the rise of a new formant. Examples: -sena in eĩsena (cf. dvė̃s-ena ⇐ inf. dvė̃sti); -damas in nèšdamas (cf. eĩda-mas ⇐ pres. *eida to eĩti; nẽša-mas ⇐ pres. nẽša to nèšti); -dyti in stabdýti (cf. OLith. stabýti).

Nominal — a category of words inflecting for case: noun (Lat. nomen substantivum), adjective (Lat. nomen adiectivum) and numeral (Lat. nomen numerale).

Obstruents — plosive consonants (e.g. p, t, k, b, d, g), fricatives (e.g. s, z, š, ž), and affricates (c, dz, č, dž), in contrast to resonants / sonorants (r, l, m, n, i̯, u̯). They never appear in a syllabic function, that is, they never form the nucleus of a syllable. ← li | lii →

Onomatopoeic — said of a word which involves a kind of imitation of natural sounds (cf. Pol. miauczeć ‘meow’) or movements (cf. Pol. dyndać ‘dangle’, zygzak ‘zigzag’). Cf. the entries for Lith. barškė́ti, baũbti, krañkti, šlamė́ti, švil̃pti.

Opposition — a functional contrast between two linguistic units (phonemes, morphemes, tagmemes).

Palatalization — the replacement of a non-palatal (“hard”) consonant by a palatal (“soft”) consonant. This phenomenon can be observed i.a. in the transposition of Slavicisms in Lithuanian, cf. abriū̃sas ⇐ Br. obrús, siū́lyti ⇐ Br. sulítь. — Furthermore, in the case of such mutations as siur̃btisur̃bti or sniùkissnùkis, one can speak of expressive palatalization.

Paradigm — a set of forms of nominal inflection (declension) or verbal inflection (conjugation).

Patronymics are words originally denoting descent from a father, e.g. sūn-áitissūnùs ʽson of one’s son, that is, grandsonʼ, kálvaitiskálvis ʽson of a blacksmith, blacksmith’s apprenticeʼ. Likewise, family names with the suffix -aitis are patronymic in nature, e.g. Kalváitis son of someone with the last name Kálvis.

Perseveration — the extension into a following sound of a certain articulatory feature characteristic of a preceding sound. Cf. such changes as ks > ; ps > ; rp > rb. See also “Assimilation.”

Phonotactics — the set of constraints on the sequential arrangement of phonological segments in a given language. They delimit the permissible types of syllable structure and phonological words in a language. These constraints reveal themselves inter alia in the assimilation of borrowed words, when the phonotactic character of the latter is adjusted to the requirements of the assimilating language.

Polonism — a borrowing from Polish.

Prefix — a derivational morpheme added before a lexical morpheme, namely a nominal morpheme, e.g. añt-pirštis, apý-kaklė, be-prõtis, ne-są́monė, pró-senis, tarpù-karis. Cf. “Preverb.”

Preverb — a grammatical morpheme of adverbial nature, which is fused with a verb and modifies its meaning, e.g. pri-pràsti, su-pràsti with regard to the simplex pràsti.

Primary — unmotivated (of structure, function).

Pronouns (Lat. pronomina) — words with a deictic function, which are replacements for denominating words, in particular nouns (cf. jìs, tàs, anàs, šìs, kàs, kažkàs, pàts in comparison with žmogùs) and adjectives (cf. kóks, kurìs, kìtas, kitóks in comparison with gẽras).

Proterokinetic — see “Accent-ablaut paradigms.”

Prothesis — the appearance at the beginning of a word of a vowel or consonant which was previously lacking, cf. 1º atkõčius, iškadà as forms transposing the sound shape of Br. tkač, škoda, 2º jieškóti < ieškóti, vožkà < ožkà.

Proto-Balto-Slavic (PBSl.) — this term makes more precise the relative chronology of a reconstructed linguistic form. A certain form belongs to the “Proto-Balto-Slavic” ← lii | liii → branch of Indo-European if it is more recent than the Indo-European proto-language (PIE), but older than either the Baltic proto-language (PB) or Slavic proto-language (PSl.).

Biographical notes

Wojciech Smoczynski (Author)

Wojciech Smoczyński is emeritus professor of comparative Indo-European linguistics at the Jagellonian University of Cracow. His research concentrates mainly on the Baltic and Balto-Slavic languages and their Indo-European background.

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Title: Lithuanian Etymological Dictionary