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Socio-Economic Impact of Special Economic Zones in Gujarat

by Shashank Shende (Author) Mehal Pandya (Author) Assis Flaviano Sequeira (Volume editor)
Monographs XXX, 422 Pages

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the authors
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • List of Appendices
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abbreviations
  • 1 Special Economic Zones: An Overview
  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.2 Definition
  • 1.3 Objectives
  • 1.4 Features
  • 1.4.1 Fiscal and Financial Incentives
  • 1.4.2 Non-Fiscal Incentives
  • 1.4.3 The Regulatory and Institutional Framework for SEZs
  • 1.4.3.1 Regulatory Framework
  • 1.4.3.2 Institutional Framework
  • 1.4.3.2.1 Key Stakeholders
  • 1.5 Theoretical Approaches to SEZs
  • 1.5.1 The Neo-Classical Approach
  • 1.5.2 The Political Economy Approach
  • 1.5.3 The Heterodox Approach
  • 1.5.4 The Global Value Chain Approach
  • 1.5.5 Agglomeration Economies Approach
  • 1.6 Socio-Economic Development
  • 1.7 Socio-Economic Impacts: Concepts
  • 1.8 Foreign Direct Investment and SEZs
  • 1.9 Regional Trade Agreements and SEZs
  • 1.10 Synopsis
  • 2 Research Methodology
  • 2.1 Aim of the Study
  • 2.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 2.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 2.4 Hypothesis
  • 2.5 Scope
  • 2.6 Research Gap
  • 2.7 Research Methodology
  • 2.7.1 Primary Data
  • 2.7.2 Tools for Data Collection
  • 2.7.3 Questionnaire
  • 2.7.3.1 Question Design
  • 2.7.3.2 Framing of Questions
  • 2.7.4 Secondary Data
  • 2.7.5 Training
  • 2.8 Sample Selection
  • 2.8.1 The Universe
  • 2.8.2 Sampling Unit
  • 2.8.3 Target Sample SEZs
  • 2.8.4 Sampling Techniques
  • 2.8.5 Reference Period
  • 2.8.6 Research Concept
  • 2.8.6.1 Socio-Economic Variables
  • 2.8.6.2 Determinants of Socio-Economic Allure in Gujarat’s SEZs
  • 2.8.6.3 SEZs-Specific Determinants
  • 2.8.7 Research Design
  • 2.9 Sample Design
  • 2.10 Statistical Techniques
  • 2.10.1 Statistical Tools for Data Analysis
  • 2.11 Pilot Study
  • 2.11.1 Introduction
  • 2.11.2 Goal
  • 2.12 Significance of the Study
  • 2.13 Research Phases and Conclusion
  • 2.14 Synopsis
  • 3 Literature Review
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Theoretical Background for Economic Development
  • 3.3 Phase I (1980–2004)
  • 3.3.1 Economic Aspects
  • 3.3.2 Social Aspects
  • 3.4 Phase II (2005–2019)
  • 3.4.1 Infrastructure Boost
  • 3.4.2 Foreign Direct Investment
  • 3.4.3 Exports
  • 3.4.4 Clusters/Agglomeration
  • 3.4.5 Land Issues
  • 3.4.6 Employment
  • 3.4.7 Women and SEZs
  • 3.4.8 Indirect Economy
  • 3.4.9 SEZs and Health Issues
  • 3.4.10 Impact of SEZs on Immediate Neighbourhood and Others
  • 3.5 SEZ Policy and Act
  • 3.6 Literature Gap and Conclusion
  • 3.7 Synopsis
  • 4 Special Economic Zones: An International Perspective
  • 4.1 SEZs: Taxonomy, Scope and Definitions
  • 4.2 SEZs: Global Distribution
  • 4.3 History of Special Economic Zones
  • 4.3.1 Evolution of Special Economic Zones
  • 4.3.1.1 Trade-Based SEZs
  • 4.3.1.2 Manufacturing-Based SEZs
  • 4.3.1.3 Comprehensive SEZs
  • 4.3.1.4 Newer Varieties of Zones
  • 4.3.1.5 Transnational Zones
  • 4.4 SEZs Development Worldwide
  • 4.5 Regional Patterns and Innovations
  • 4.5.1 Asia
  • 4.5.1.1 East and South East Asia/ASEAN Countries
  • 4.5.1.2 China
  • 4.5.1.3 South Asia
  • 4.5.1.4 West Asia
  • 4.5.2 Latin America and the Caribbean
  • 4.5.3 Africa
  • 4.5.4 Transition Economies
  • 4.5.5 Developed Economies
  • 4.6 International Cooperation and Regional Development Zones
  • 4.6.1 Foreign Partnership Zones
  • 4.6.2 Border and Cross-Border SEZs
  • 4.7 Social Impact Assessment of Special Economic Zones
  • 4.8 Economic Impact Assessment of Special Economic Zones
  • 4.8.1 Direct Economic
  • 4.8.1.1 Investment Attraction
  • 4.8.1.2 Export Generation and Diversification
  • 4.8.1.3 Direct and Indirect Employment Creation
  • 4.8.1.4 Overall Economic Growth Impact
  • 4.9 Synopsis
  • 5 Special Economic Zones: An Indian Perspective
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Special Economic Zones in India: The Journey
  • 5.2.1 The Tryst with EPZs (1965–1980)
  • 5.2.2 Growth Pangs (1981–1999)
  • 5.2.3 Consolidation Phase Spurred by Legal Framework (2000–2007)
  • 5.2.4 Exponential Growth (2008–till Date)
  • 5.3 The Regulatory and Institutional Framework
  • 5.3.1 Regulatory Framework
  • 5.3.1.1 Special Economic Zone Act, 2005
  • 5.3.1.2 SEZ Act, 2005: Objectives and Some Salient Features
  • 5.3.1.3 SEZ Rules, 2006
  • 5.3.1.4 The Special Economic Zones Rules, 2006, and Amendments Thereto
  • 5.3.1.5 Net Foreign Exchange (NFE) Criteria
  • 5.3.1.6 Monitoring of Performance
  • 5.3.2 Institutional Framework
  • 5.3.2.1 Administrative Set-Up for Indian Special Economic Zones
  • 5.3.2.2 SEZs Policy: Ease of Doing Business
  • 5.4 SEZs in India: Present Status
  • 5.4.1 Government Initiatives for State SEZs
  • 5.4.2 Ease of Doing Business Measures and Initiatives
  • 5.4.3 Sector-Wise Special Economic Zones
  • 5.4.4 State-Wise Distribution of Special Economic Zones
  • 5.5 Economic Impact
  • 5.5.1 Export Performance of SEZ Units
  • 5.5.2 Investment in SEZ Units Including FDI
  • 5.5.3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Inflows
  • 5.5.4 Employment
  • 5.6 WTO and SEZs in India
  • 5.7 Social Impact
  • 5.7.1 Impact of Environment Assessment on Sustainable Development
  • 5.8 Land Acquisition and Land Issues
  • 5.8.1 Overview of Land Acquisition
  • 5.8.2 De-Notification of SEZs
  • 5.9 Synopsis
  • 6 Special Economic Zones: Gujarat
  • 6.1 Overview of Gujarat
  • 6.1.1 Economic View
  • 6.1.2 Vision & Mission: Gujarat Industrial Policy 2020
  • 6.1.3 Primacy for Exports
  • 6.2 Principal Characteristics: All Industries
  • 6.2.1 Thrust Sectors as per Industrial Policy 2020
  • 6.3 Special Economic Zones in Gujarat
  • 6.3.1 Overview
  • 6.4 Regulatory Framework
  • 6.4.1 Gujarat Special Economic Zone Act, 2004
  • 6.4.1.1 Main Objectives
  • 6.4.1.2 Incentive Schemes
  • 6.5 Land Utilization in SEZs
  • 6.6 Highlights of SEZs
  • 6.6.1 Kandla Special Economic Zone (KASEZ)
  • 6.6.2 GIFT (Gujarat International Finance Tec-City) SEZ
  • 6.6.3 PHARMEZ: SEZ of Zydus Infrastructure Pvt Ltd
  • 6.6.4 Dahej SEZ (DSL)
  • 6.7 Performance of SEZs
  • 6.7.1 Overview
  • 6.7.2 Exports
  • 6.7.3 Units: Functional and Non-Functional
  • 6.7.4 Women Employment
  • 6.8 Synopsis
  • 7 Data Analysis and Findings
  • Part I Socio-Economic Impact of SEZs in Gujarat: From Units
  • Segment I
  • 7.1 Descriptive Statistical Analysis of Responses from SEZ Units
  • 7.1.1 Data Collection
  • 7.1.2 Item Analysis Using Cronbach’s Alpha
  • Section One: General Information of SEZ Units (Q 1.1–Q 1.6)
  • 7.1.3 SEZs Unit Details (Q 1.1)
  • 7.1.4 Unit Details: Year-Wise and Activity-Wise (Q 1.2 & 1.5)
  • 7.1.5 Commencement of Units (Q 1.2)
  • 7.1.6 Ownership Structure (Q 1.4)
  • 7.1.7 Turnover Analysis (Q 1.6)
  • 7.1.8 Comparison of Revenue Generated (Q 1.6)
  • Section Two: Direct Economic (Q 2.1–Q 2.9)
  • 7.1.9 Type of Employment (Q 2.1)
  • 7.1.10 Employment Analysis: Industry (Q 1.5 & Q 2.1)
  • 7.1.11 Gender Analysis (Q 2.2)
  • 7.1.12 Local and Non-Local Employment (Q 2.3)
  • 7.1.13 Correspondence Analysis (Q 2.4.1–Q 2.4.8)
  • 7.1.14 Human Resources Factors (Q 2.5.1–Q 2.5.5)
  • 7.1.15 Government Policies Impact (Q 2.6)
  • 7.1.16 Economic Impact (Q 2.7.1–Q 2.7.8)
  • 7.1.17 Human Capital Development (Q 2.8.1–Q 2.8.6)
  • 7.1.18 Local Economy (Q 2.9)
  • Section Three: Indirect Economic (Q 3.1–Q 3.6)
  • 7.1.19 Human Capital Factors (Q 3.2.1–Q 3.2.4)
  • 7.1.20 Benefit to Units (Q 3.3)
  • 7.1.21 SEZ: Multiplier Effects (Q 3.4.1–Q 3.4.5)
  • 7.1.22 SEZ Units: Connection with DTA (Q 3.5)
  • 7.1.23 Competition with Other Units (Q 3.6)
  • Section Four: Demographic (Q 4.1–Q 4.7)
  • 7.1.24 Average Age of Workers (Q 4.1)
  • 7.1.25 Average Number of Dependants (Q 4.2)
  • 7.1.26 Single Wage Earner (Q 4.3)
  • 7.1.27 Dwelling Place (Q 4.4)
  • 7.1.28 Population Type (Q 4.5)
  • 7.1.29 Income Level of Nearby Families (Q 4.6)
  • Section Five: Housing (Q 5.2.1–Q 5.2.7)
  • 7.1.30 Housing-Related Social Factors (Q 5.2.1–Q 5.2.7)
  • Section Six: Other Local Services (Q 6.1.1–Q 6.1.11)
  • 7.1.31 Social Factors (Q 6.1.1–Q 6.1.11)
  • Section Seven: Social Impact (Q 7.1–Q 7.15)
  • 7.1.32 Female Employees: Family Head (Q 7.1–Q 7.3)
  • 7.1.33 Female to Male Worker Ratio (Q 7.4)
  • 7.1.34 Labour Audits/Compliance (Q 7.5)
  • 7.1.35 Women Employees (Marital Status) (Q 7.6)
  • 7.1.36 Employees Absenteeism (Q 7.7)
  • 7.1.37 Women-Centric Camps/Meetings (Q 7.8)
  • 7.1.38 SEZ Impact: Social Objectives (Q 7.9.1–Q 7.9.8)
  • 7.1.39 Women Protection in SEZ (Q 7.10–Q 7.15)
  • Section Eight: Socio-Economic Impact (Q 8.1.1–Q 8.3.4)
  • 7.1.40 Impact on Socio-Economic Status (Q 8.1.1)
  • 7.1.41 Economic Drivers (Q 8.2.2)
  • 7.1.42 Industry-Type Skill Mapping (Q 8.3.1–Q 8.3.4)
  • Section Nine: Type of Drivers (Q 9.1.1–Q 9.1.10)
  • 7.1.43 Drivers: Impact on SEZs (Q 9.1.1–Q 9.1.10)
  • 7.2 Statistical Analysis of Responses from SEZs Units
  • 7.2.1 Introduction
  • 7.2.2 Analysis of Different Models
  • 7.2.2.1 Economic Impact (Q 2.7)
  • 7.2.2.2 Indirect Economic Impact (Q 3.4.–Q 3.6)
  • 7.2.2.3 Housing Impact (Q 5.2.1–Q 5.2.7)
  • 7.2.2.4 Other Local Services Impact (Q 6)
  • 7.2.2.5 Social Impact (Q 7)
  • 7.2.2.6 Type of Drivers: Impact on SEZs (Q 9)
  • 7.2.3 Models Summary
  • 7.2.4 Network
  • 7.2.5 Importance of Socio-Economic Factors
  • 7.2.6 Final Model
  • Segment II Socio-Economic Impact of SEZs in Gujarat: From the Perspective of Developers
  • 7.3 Analysis of Responses from the Developers (Descriptive and Statistical)
  • 7.3.1 Introduction
  • 7.3.2 Data Collection
  • Section One: General Information (Q 1.1–Q 1.6)
  • 7.3.3 SEZ Developer 1 (SEZD1)
  • 7.3.4 SEZ Developer 2 (SEZD2)
  • 7.3.5 SEZ Developer 3 (SEZD3)
  • 7.3.6 SEZ Developer 4 (SEZD4)
  • 7.3.7 SEZ Developer 5 (SEZD5)
  • Section Two: SEZs: Business Models (Q 2.1 & Q 2.2)
  • 7.3.8 Business Model Analysis (Q 2.1 & Q 2.2)
  • Section Three: Social Impact (Q 4.1–Q 4.4)
  • 7.3.9 Social Impact Analysis (Q 4.1–Q 4.4)
  • Section Four: Economic Impact (Q 5.1–Q 5.3)
  • 7.3.10 Economic Impact Analysis (Q 5)
  • Section Five: Micro-, Small- and Medium-Size Business (Q 7.1–Q 7.3)
  • 7.3.11 Promotion of MSME in SEZs
  • Part II Case Study
  • 7.4 Case Study: Cross Cases Contrast
  • 7.4.1 Unit A
  • 7.4.2 Unit B
  • 7.4.3 Unit C
  • 7.4.4 Unit D
  • 7.4.5 Unit E
  • 7.4.6 Unit F
  • 7.4.7 Cross Cases Contrast Analysis
  • Section One: Organization Change and SEZs
  • 7.4.7.1 Organization Culture: SEZs (Q 1.1–Q 1.2.12)
  • 7.4.7.2 Work Style (Q 1.3)
  • 7.4.7.3 Quality Programmes (Q 1.4)
  • Section Two: Opportunity Identification (Q 2.1–Q 2.6)
  • 7.4.7.4 Promising Sectors in SEZs (Q 2.1)
  • 7.4.7.5 Parameters for SEZs Opportunity (Q 2.2)
  • 7.4.7.6 Digital Technologies and SEZs (Q 2.3)
  • 7.4.7.7 Scope of New Technologies in SEZs (Q 2.4)
  • 7.4.7.8 Functional Level of Application of New Technologies (Q 2.5)
  • 7.4.7.9 Value Chain and Proposition (Q 2.6)
  • Section Three: Strategic Reforms (Q 3.1–Q 3.6)
  • 7.4.7.10 Competitive Advantage over Other SEZs Outside India (Q 3.1)
  • 7.4.7.11 Strategic Resources and Competencies (Q 3.2)
  • 7.4.7.12 SEZs and Dynamic Economics (Q 3.3)
  • 7.4.7.13 New Approaches to Strategic Management (Q 3.5)
  • Part III Validation
  • 7.5 Validation of Research Proposal Framework
  • 7.5.1 Validation of Socio-Economic Indicators
  • 7.6 Synopsis
  • 8 Conclusion and Recommendation
  • 8.1 Major Findings and Outcome
  • 8.2 Research Conclusion
  • 8.3 Research Recommendation
  • 8.3.1 Relevant to Units in SEZs
  • 8.3.2 Relevant to SEZs Developers (Stakeholders)
  • 8.3.3 Relevant to Central/Gujarat/Other State Governments
  • 8.3.3.1 Central Government
  • 8.3.3.2 Gujarat State Government
  • 8.3.3.3 Other State Governments
  • 8.3.4 Relevant to Students/Academia/Research Institutions
  • 8.3.5 Managerial Implications
  • 9 Research Limitations and Scope for Future Research
  • 9.1 Research Limitations
  • 9.2 Scope for Future Research
  • Bibliography
  • Index

List of Tables

1

Table 1.1:SEZs: General Definitions

Table 1.2:Main Stakeholders in SEZ Regimes

Table 1.3:What to Include—Types of Socio-Economic Impacts

2

Table 2.1:Summary of Questionnaire for Data Collection

Table 2.2:Characteristics of SEZs Selected for Study

Table 2.3:Variables of the Study

Table 2.4:Research Methods and the Objectives

Table 2.5:Statistical Tools for Data Analysis

Table 2.6:Skeleton of the Three Phases of Research

4

Table 4.1:A Functional Taxonomy of SEZs

Table 4.2:Special Economic Zone Typologies

Table 4.3:Number of SEZs, by Region, 2019

Table 4.4:Evolution of SEZs in Some Selected Countries

←xv | xvi→

Table 4.5:Distribution of Zones Type, by Region or Grouping (in Percentage)

Table 4.6:The SEZ Development Ladder

Table 4.7:SEZ Evolution in SouthEast Asia

Table 4.8:State-Level Zones in China

Table 4.9:Types of SEZs Developed with Foreign Partners

Table 4.10:Selected Government Partnership Zones

5

Table 5.1:Evolution of SEZs in India—Early Days

Table 5.2:SEZ India Incentive Regime

Table 5.3:Minimum Built-Up Area (Category of City-Wise)

Table 5.4:Sector-Wise SEZs in India (as on 31.12.2019)

Table 5.5:Sector-Wise Distribution of Approved SEZs (As on 31.10.2020)

Table 5.6:SEZs in India—State Category-Wise (as on 29/02/2020)

Table 5.7:Exports from SEZs from 2005–2006 Onwards

Table 5.8:Details of SEZs, SEZs Unit and Its Growth

Table 5.9:Zone-Wise SEZs Export Performance (2018–2019) (INR in Million)

Table 5.10:Export Performance of Central Government SEZs (2018–2019) (INR in Million)

Table 5.11:Investment in SEZs after MAT (01.04.2012)

Table 5.12:Financial Year-Wise FDI Inflows Data (2015–2021)

Table 5.13:Year-Wise Employment in SEZs (as on 31.12.2020)

Table 5.14:Performance of SEZs in India (2016–2017 till 2019–2020)

Table 5.15:Vacant Land Details in SEZs of Different Zones (as on 07.02.2019) (Land Area in Hectares)

Table 5.16:Position of Land Acquired for SEZs

6

Table 6.1:Gujarat State Acts/Policies and Objectives

Table 6.2:Top Five Exporting States in 2018

Table 6.3:Gujarat Economic Performance Highlights

Table 6.4:Important Economic Characteristics—Gujarat

Table 6.5:Share and All India Ranking of Gujarat—Economic Parameters (Figures in INR Million and others in Numbers)

Table 6.6:Core Sectors and Sunrise Sectors

Table 6.7:Status-Wise Presence of SEZs in Gujarat

←NaN | xvii→

Table 6.8:District-Wise Classification of Functional SEZs in Gujarat

Table 6.9:Position of Utilization of Land (As on 31.07.2020)

Table 6.10:Performance of Kasez for the Period 2015–2021

Table 6.11:Exports from Gift SEZ (2015–2016 to 2020–2021)

Table 6.12:Exports from Pharmez (2015–2016 till 2020–2021)

Table 6.13:Exports from Dahej SEZ (2015–2016 till 2020–2021)

Table 6.14:Profile of Operational SEZs in Gujarat (as on 31.07.2020)

Table 6.15:SEZs in Gujarat in Nutshell

Table 6.16: Performance of SEZs in Gujarat

Table 6.17:Exports, Employment and Investment in SEZs as on 31.07.2020 by Business Sectors

Table 6.18:Exports from Gujarat SEZs (2015–2016 till 2020–2021)

Table 6.19:Details of Exports from SEZs (2017–2018 to 2020–2021)

Table 6.20:Functional and Non-functional Units in SEZs (as on 31.07.2020)

Table 6.21:Employment by Gender in SEZs in Gujarat (as on 31.07.2020)

7

Table 7.1:Item Analysis—Cronbach’s Alpha

Table 7.2:Economic Impact—Important Parameters (Using Likelihood Ratio Analysis)

Table 7.3:Likelihood Ratio Method to Select Important Features (Indirect Economic)

Table 7.4:Likelihood Ratio Method to Select Important Features (Housing)

Table 7.5:Important Features—Other Local Services Impact (Using Likelihood Ratio Method)

Table 7.6:Important Features—Social Impact (Using Likelihood Ratio Method)

Table 7.7:Type of Drivers—Impact on SEZs (Using Likelihood Ratio Method)

Table 7.8:Models Summary

Table 7.9:Socio-Economic Development Indicators (Q 3)

Table 7.10:Corporate Responsibility (Q 6.2)

Table 7.11:Environmental Sustainability (Q 6.3)

Table 7.12:Government Policies—Environment

Table 7.13:Vacant Land Utilization

Table 7.14:Business Model Analysis—Ownership Pattern

←xvii | xviii→

Table 7.15:Business Model Analysis—SEZ Contribution

Table 7.16:Social Impact

Table 7.17:Impact on Land Owners

Table 7.18:Impact on Local People

Table 7.19:Economic Impact—General

Table 7.20:Economic Impact—Trade and SEZs

Table 7.21:Promotion of MSME in SEZs

Table 7.22:Company Culture—SEZ Units (Q 1.1–Q 1.2.12)

Table 7.23:Adaption of Work Style (Q 1.3)

Table 7.24:Quality Programmes in SEZ Units (Q 1.4)

Table 7.25:Top Promising Sectors (Q 2.1)

Table 7.26:Parameters for SEZ Opportunities (Q 2.2)

Table 7.27:Ranking of Role of New Digital Technologies in Promotion of SEZs (Q 2.3)

Table 7.28:Scope of New Technologies in SEZs (Q 2.4)

Table 7.29:Function Level of Organization—New Technologies Will Be Useful (Q 2.5)

Table 7.30:Redesigning Value Chain and Use of New Technologies (Q 2.6)

Table 7.31:Competetive Advantages over Other SEZs Outside India (Q 3.1)

Table 7.32:Strategic Resources and Competencies (Q 3.2)

Table 7.33:SEZ Units—Contribution to Dynamic Economic (Q 3.3)

Table 7.34:New Approaches to Strategic Management (Q 3.5)

Table 7.35:Ranking of Variables

8

Table 8.1:Key Factors—Socio-Economic Impact in SEZs

Table 8.2:Socio-Economic Development in SEZs—Profit and Loss Statement

Details

Pages
XXX, 422
ISBN (PDF)
9781433184383
ISBN (ePUB)
9781433184390
ISBN (MOBI)
9781433184406
ISBN (Book)
9781433184376
Language
English
Publication date
2021 (September)
Published
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Oxford, Wien, 2021. XXX, 422 pp., 65 b/w ill., 35 color ill., 86 tables.

Biographical notes

Shashank Shende (Author) Mehal Pandya (Author) Assis Flaviano Sequeira (Volume editor)

Dr. Shashank Shende is Joint Development Commissioner for Ahmedabad SEZs Cluster, KASEZ under Ministry of Commerce, Government of India. Gujarat University conferred a PhD in management for his research work on the socioeconomic impact of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in Gujarat, which forms the basis of this publication. Dr. Mehal Pandya is a Departmental Head at B.K. School of Professional and Management Studies, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad. She is the Coordinator of Gujarat University Startup and Entrepreneurship Council for Student Startup & Innovation Policy (SSIP) of Government of Gujarat. Assis Flaviano Sequeira, a native of Goa, is pursuing his love for creative writing after a long career in management. He was trained at the Sri Aurobindo Centre for Arts & Communication, New Delhi.

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Title: Socio-Economic Impact of Special Economic Zones in Gujarat