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Cultural and Social Diversity in Language Teacher Education

by Hanna Komorowska (Author) Jarosław Krajka (Author)
Monographs 354 Pages
Series: Gdańsk Studies in Language, Volume 19

Summary

The aim of the present book is to examine the social and cultural diversity of language teacher education, providing a unified account of highly diversified teacher development and appraisal realities across sociocultural contexts. We will strive to make an overview of a wide range of issues related to teacher development approaches and models, teacher competences, adopted roles, stressors and motivators, teacher appraisal systems, professional examinations and certifications as well as digital opportunities for teacher development. All of these concepts will be discussed in a wide social and cultural context, trying to bring examples from numerous countries.

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • 1. The beginnings and growth of pre-service teacher education
  • 1.1. Language teachers before the emergence of formal teacher training
  • 1.2. The origin of teacher education paradigms: Pre-service teacher education before the 1990s
  • 1.2.1. Beginnings of formal teacher training
  • 1.2.2. Controversy over the status of teacher education
  • 1.2.3. Pitfalls of early teacher education programmes
  • 1.2.4. Organizational structure and content of teacher education before the 1990s
  • 1.2.5. The influence of classroom research and curriculum studies on teacher education
  • 1.2.6. Paradigms in pre-service teacher education
  • 1.3. The period of innovation and change: Pre-service teacher education since the 1990s
  • 1.3.1. Theoretical underpinnings: The role of reflection
  • 1.3.2. The organization and practice of pre-service teacher education
  • 1.4. Between pre- and in-service education: Induction phase
  • 1.5. Cultural and social diversity in pre-service teacher education
  • 1.5.1. The length of study
  • 1.5.2. Location of teacher education programmes
  • 1.5.3. Sharing good practice
  • 1.5.4. Similarities and differences
  • 1.5.5. Challenges
  • 1.5.6. Complexities of the context: The Polish example
  • 1.6. Concluding remarks
  • 2. Continuous teacher development toward professionalism
  • 2.1. Stabilization in the profession: In-service teacher education
  • 2.1.1. Paths of teacher development
  • 2.1.2. Content and target groups
  • 2.1.3. Organizational models of in-service teacher education
  • 2.1.4. Effectiveness of in-service teacher training
  • 2.2. Towards teacher professionalism through pre- and in-service training
  • 2.2.1. Teaching as a professional activity
  • 2.2.2. Teacher professional competence and knowledge base
  • 2.3. Effective teaching skills
  • 2.3.1. Development of teacher expertise
  • 2.3.2. Novice vs expert teachers
  • 2.3.3. Approaches to teacher expertise in the twentieth century
  • 2.3.4. Approaches to teacher expertise in the twenty-first century
  • 2.3.5. Pitfalls of assessing teacher professionalism
  • 2.3.6. Competence-based approaches to effective teaching
  • 2.4. Effective teacher education institutions: Towards quality assurance in institutional contexts
  • 2.4.1. The European policy on the quality of teacher education
  • 2.4.2. External evaluation of teacher training institutions
  • 2.4.3. Quality assurance at the institutional level: Tools and documents
  • 2.4.4. Quality assurance at the individual level: Tools and documents
  • 2.5. Effective teacher educators and mentors
  • 2.5.1. The European language policy on the quality of teacher educators
  • 2.5.2. Recruitment of teacher educators: Experts vs non-experts
  • 2.5.3. Efficient in-service teacher educators and mentors
  • 2.6. Cultural and social diversity in the professional development of language teachers
  • 2.6.1. Teachers’ needs across sociocultural contexts
  • 2.6.2. Content and target groups in various sociocultural contexts
  • 2.6.3. The international transfer of expertise and programmes
  • 2.6.4. Teacher educators and mentors across sociocultural contexts
  • 2.7. Concluding remarks
  • 3. The language teacher in action
  • 3.1. Teacher’s roles
  • 3.1.1. Role description and role enactment
  • 3.1.2. Role expectations and role conflict
  • 3.2. The role of the teacher in society
  • 3.2.1. Socio-political aspects of the teachers’ functioning
  • 3.2.2. Teachers’ social status, prestige and the feeling of self-worth
  • 3.3. Potential frustration: Challenges and dilemmas
  • 3.3.1. Unfulfilled needs
  • 3.3.2. Teacher dilemmas
  • 3.4. Teacher stress
  • 3.4.1. Stressors and pressures
  • 3.4.2. Conflicts
  • 3.5. Teacher burnout
  • 3.5.1. Psychological factors
  • 3.5.2. Sociological factors
  • 3.6. Teachers’ coping strategies
  • 3.6.1. Individual coping strategies
  • 3.6.2. External support
  • 3.7. Cultural and social diversity in the functioning of language teachers
  • 3.7.1. Formal requirements
  • 3.7.2. Teachers’ attitudes to their profession
  • 3.7.3. Multitude of stressors and a need for satisfiers
  • 3.7.4. Teaching methods
  • 3.8. Concluding remarks
  • 4. Language teacher development and appraisal: Formal frameworks across cultures
  • 4.1. Teacher career models
  • 4.1.1. Career stages and promotion procedures
  • 4.1.2. Registration
  • 4.1.3. Probation
  • 4.2. Appraisal approaches and practices
  • 4.2.1. The role of teaching standards in teacher appraisal
  • 4.2.2. Teacher appraisal vs school evaluation
  • 4.2.3. Appraisal as assessment vs appraisal as dialogue
  • 4.2.4. Using appraisal results: Acknowledging teaching excellence and dealing with underperformance
  • 4.2.5. Professional organizations in setting standards and managing teacher development
  • 4.3. Agents of appraisal
  • 4.3.1. Internal superior appraisal (principals, school leaders, coordinators)
  • 4.3.2. Internal peer appraisal (fellow teachers, newly appointed teachers)
  • 4.3.3. External superior appraisal (teaching advisors, experts)
  • 4.3.4. External peer appraisal (teachers from other schools)
  • 4.4. Tools for appraisal
  • 4.4.1. Teacher examinations and post competitions
  • 4.4.2. Classroom observations
  • 4.4.3. Portfolios
  • 4.4.4. Student test results
  • 4.4.5. Student satisfaction surveys
  • 4.5. Legal framework for teacher development
  • 4.5.1. Provisions and obligations for teacher development
  • 4.5.2. Personal and school development plans
  • 4.5.3. Self-development in online settings
  • 4.5.4. Publishers’ role in teacher development
  • 4.6. Concluding remarks
  • 5. Examined and certified: An outline of certifications and examinations for English language teachers all over the world
  • 5.1. Internationally recognized teacher qualifications
  • 5.1.1. Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT)
  • 5.1.2. CELT-P and CELT-S (Cambridge English, University of Cambridge)
  • 5.1.3. Certificate in English Language Teaching (CELTA) and Diploma in English Language Teaching (DELTA)
  • 5.1.4. CertTESOL and DipTESOL (Trinity College London)
  • 5.2. National teacher evaluation tests
  • 5.2.1. KPSS (Turkey)
  • 5.2.2. Central Teacher Eligibility Test (India)
  • 5.2.3. Praxis and National Board Certification (USA)
  • 5.2.4. California Educator Assessment Scheme (USA)
  • 5.3. Researcher-made teacher evaluation tests
  • 5.3.1. PPK (Voss, Kunter and Baumert 2011)
  • 5.3.2. Language Assessment Knowledge (LAK) (Farhady and Tavassoli 2018)
  • 5.4. Perceptions of teacher qualifications and examinations in various sociocultural contexts
  • 5.5. Concluding remarks
  • 6. Language teacher development online: New opportunities, new forms
  • 6.1. Towards electronic continued professional development
  • 6.2. Distance, blended and flipped learning
  • 6.3. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
  • 6.4. Online conferences and webinars
  • 6.5. Telecollaborative projects
  • 6.6. Web 2.0 tools
  • 6.7. Video sharing sites
  • 6.8. Virtual worlds, virtual reality, simulations and games
  • 6.9. E-mentoring and virtual practicum
  • 6.10. Social network sites
  • 6.11. Concluding remarks
  • General conclusion
  • References
  • Series Index

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List of Abbreviations

ABM

Award-Bearing Model

AERA

American Educational Research Association

AI

artificial intelligence

AR

Atlantis Remixed

ARELS

Association of Recognized English Language Schools

AST

Advanced Skills Teacher positions (Australia)

AVT

A Teacher’s Voice (Trinidad)

BRiTE

Building resilience, Relationships, WellbeIng, Taking Initiative and Emotions (Australia)

CAL

Centre for Applied Linguistics

CALL

Computer-Assisted Language Learning

CBEST

California Basic Educational Skills Test

CBSE

Central Board of Secondary Education (India)

CBT

competency-based training

CBTE

Competence-Based Teacher Education

CEFR

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

CELTA

Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults

CELT-P

Certificate in English Language Teaching – Primary

CELT-S

Certificate in English Language Teaching – Secondary

CELTYL

Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners

CHAT

Cultural Historical Activity Theory

CILT

Centre of Information on Language Teaching

CLIL

Content and Language Integrated Learning

CLT

Communicative Language Teaching

CMC

computer-mediated communication

CMS

content management system

COI

Community of Inquiry

COL

Commonwealth of Learning

CPACE

California Preliminary Administrative Credential Examination

CSET-EL

California Subject Examinations for Teachers – English Language

CTEFLA

Certificate in Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults

CTEL

California Teacher of English Learners

CTET

Central Teacher Eligibility Test (India)

DELTA

Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults

DGBLL

Digital Game-Based Language Learning←11 | 12→

DM

Deficit Model

EAQUALS

Evaluation and Accreditation of Quality in Language Services

ECML

European Centre for Modern Languages

ECN

English Companion Ning

e-CPD

electronic continued professional development

EDO

English Discovery Online (Vietnam)

EFTA

European Free Trade Association

ELET

Early Leaving from Education and Training

ELP

European Language Portfolio

ENCHD

National Examination of Teaching Knowledge and Skills (Mexico)

EPD

Early Professional Development (UK-Northern Ireland)

EPLTE

European Profile for Language Teacher Education

EPMS

Enhanced Performance Management System (Singapore)

EPOSTL

European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages

ESCS

Economic, Social and Cultural Status

e-TPD

electronic teacher professional development

EVO

Electronic Village Online

EXEL

experimental elementary education

FIPLV

Fédération Internationale des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes / International Federation of Language Teachers Associations

GTCNI

General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland (UK-Northern Ireland)

HMD VR

Head-Mounted Display Virtual Reality

HMI

Her Majesty’s Inspectorate (UK)

HOMEPOS

Home Possessions

HTET

Haryana Teacher Eligibility Test (India)

IATEFL

International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

ICC

International Certificate Conference

ICELT

In-service Certificate in English Language Teaching

IH

International House

INGED

English Language Education Association (Turkey)

INSET

in-service training

IPS

Institute for School Curriculum (Instytut Programów Szkolnych – Poland)

KA

knowing about

KAL

knowledge about language

KARDS

knowledge-analyzing-recognizing-doing-seeing←12 | 13→

KH

knowing how

KPSS

Public Personnel Selection Examination (Turkey)

KT

knowing to

LA

Language Awareness

LAK

Language Assessment Knowledge test

LMS

learning management system

LP

Learner Portfolio

LTAs

language teachers’ associations

MA

Materials Assignment

MALL

Mobile-Assisted Language Learning

MEB

Ministry of National Education (Turkey)

MOOC

Massive Open Online Course

NAAC

National Assessment and Accreditation Council (India)

NBC

National Board Certification (USA)

NES

National Evaluation Series (USA)

NNESTs

non-native English-speaking teachers

NTE

National Teacher Examination (USA)

NZTC

Teaching Council of Aotearoa New Zealand

OECD

Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development

OEIF

Independent Federalist Evaluation Body (Mexico)

o-TPD

online teacher professional development

PACE

Polish Access to English

PDP

Personal Development Plan

PEPELINO

European Portfolio for Pre-Primary Educators

PPK

Pedagogical Knowledge Test

PPP

Presentation-Practice-Production

PRSD

Performance Review and Staff Development (UK-Northern Ireland)

PSTs

pre-service teachers

QCA

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (UK)

QIFLT

Quality in Foreign Language Teaching (Bulgaria)

RICA

Reading Instruction Competence Assessment (USA)

RSA

Royal Society of Arts

SAT

Scholastic Assessment Test

SbM

Standards-based Model

SDP

School Development Plan

SOFLA

Synchronous Online Flipped Learning Approach

SWOT

Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats

TALIS

Teaching and Learning International Survey←13 | 14→

TAP

Teacher Apprenticeship Program (Canada)

TCL

Trinity College London

TESOL

Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages

TET

Teacher Eligibility Test (India)

TKT

Teaching Knowledge Test

TKT CLIL

Teaching Knowledge Test: Content and Language Integrated Learning

TKT KAL

Teaching Knowledge Test: Knowledge About Language

TKT YL

Teaching Knowledge Test: Young Learners

TM

Training Model

ToTs

teachers of teachers

TP

teaching practice

Details

Pages
354
ISBN (PDF)
9783631864227
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631864234
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631864241
ISBN (Hardcover)
9783631855867
Language
English
Publication date
2021 (November)
Tags
applied linguistics language teacher education sociocultural contexts of language teaching methodology language teacher appraisal continued professional development teacher training
Published
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2021. 354 pp., 3 fig. b/w, 3 tables.

Biographical notes

Hanna Komorowska (Author) Jarosław Krajka (Author)

Hanna Komorowska, professor of applied linguistics and language teaching at the SWPS University in Warsaw, served as the Polish delegate to the Council of Europe, member of the EU High Level Group on Multilingualism and a consultant to the ECML in Graz. Jarosław Krajka, professor of applied linguistics and language teaching and Head of Department of Applied Linguistics of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, editor-in-chief of Teaching English with Technology journal.

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Title: Cultural and Social Diversity in Language Teacher Education