This book tells the story of the philosophy of science from its inception in the aftermath of the first World War to its current stage, and relates this story to the status of theology. In doing so, it fills a remarkable gap in the literature. The unexpected resurgence of religious issues in often heated discussions since the beginning of the 21st century gave a new urgency to the question of the academic treatment of religion(s). Is it still adequate to allow for the academic study of religion only in a distanced and matter-of-fact way, without people’s own views of life being brought into play and confronted with each other? Or can we also have a viable form of theology that starts from a basic religious commitment, but nevertheless fully satisfies academic standards? There is a wide debate on topics like these – but seldom this debate is conducted in a way that is informed by the state of the art in the philosophy of science.