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Azerbaijan at the Crossroads of Eurasia

The Tumultuous Fate of a Nation Caught Up Between the Rivalries of the World’s Major Powers

by Fazil Zeynalov (Author)
©2017 Monographs 406 Pages

Summary

Modern Azerbaijan came into being in 1991 following a national struggle for the re-establishment of its independence, initiated long before the collapse of the Soviet Union. It is situated in a unique geographic location, at the crossroads of Eurasia and on the famous Silk Road that links Europe and Asia. It has been the stage of particularly rich historical events, testament to its ancient State traditions, the wealth of its cities, the violence of the imperial invasions. Today this secular country, facing war with Armenia, is central to the geopolitical stakes in the region, whether in terms of the international strategies of major powers or the geo-economic considerations of oil and gas exports to Europe. It has put in place a multi-faceted foreign policy and initiated political and economic reforms as it moves towards a better future.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I – The first States on the territories of Azerbaijan
  • 1.1. The Mannaean Kingdom
  • 1.2. Atropatena
  • 1.3. The Kingdom of Caucasian Albania
  • Chapter II – The Arab conquest of Azerbaijan
  • 2.1. Military success and undeniable influence, in spite of Byzantine and Khazar ambitions
  • 2.2. The conversion process of Azerbaijanis
  • 2.3. The Khurramite movement and Babek’s armed struggle
  • Chapter III – The emergence of new Azerbaijani feudal States
  • 3.1. The States of northern Azerbaijan
  • 3.1.1. The Shirvanshah State
  • 3.1.2. The principality of Khachen
  • 3.1.3. The Shaddadid State
  • 3.2. The Sajid, Salarid and Ravvadid States of southern Azerbaijan
  • Chapter IV – The reign of the Seljukids
  • 4.1. The emergence of a new imperial power
  • 4.2. The establishment of direct rule by the Seljukids and the preservation of the Shirvanshah State’s autonomy
  • 4.3. The decline of the Seljukids
  • Chapter V – The Azerbaijani State of the Atabegs
  • 5.1. The promotion of Shamsaddin Eldegiz, founder of the Atabegs of Azerbaijan
  • 5.2. The rise in power of the Eldegizid dynasty
  • 5.3. The decline of the State
  • 5.4. The wars with Georgia
  • Chapter VI – The domination of the Mongols
  • 6.1. The invasion of Azerbaijan and the creation of the Ilkhanate
  • 6.2. Azerbaijan: a strategic target between the Ilkhanate and the Golden Horde
  • 6.3. Gradual improvement in the situation in Azerbaijan
  • 6.4. Ghazan Khan’s attempted reforms and the end of the Mongol State
  • Chapter VII – The Timurid Empire
  • 7.1. Tamerlane’s conquest of Azerbaijan and the alliance with the Shirvanshah
  • 7.2. The resistance of Alinja fortress
  • 7.3. The Hurufi movement
  • 7.4. The decline of Timurid influence and the Azerbaijani State of Kara Koyunlu
  • Chapter VIII – Azerbaijan: a place of trade between Europe and Asia
  • 8.1. Azerbaijan’s role in trade
  • 8.2. Trade with the Russians
  • 8.3. Trade with the Europeans
  • Chapter IX – The Azerbaijani State of Ak Koyunlu
  • 9.1. The rise to power of the Ak Koyunlu State
  • 9.2. Sara Khatun, the country’s first female diplomat
  • 9.3. Eliminating threats on the eastern borders
  • 9.4. War and diplomacy: relations with the Europeans and Ottomans
  • 9.4.1. Closer ties with Europe
  • 9.4.2. The alliance with Venice
  • 9.4.3. Clashes with the Ottomans
  • 9.5. The disappearance of the Ak Koyunlu State
  • Chapter X – The Safavid State: a new regional power
  • 10.1. The creation of a new State by the Azerbaijani Safavid dynasty
  • 10.1.1. The first failed attempts
  • 10.1.2. The decisive role of Ismail Safavid
  • 10.2. A profoundly Azerbaijani State
  • 10.3. The Safavid-Ottoman wars
  • 10.3.1. Deteriorating relations
  • 10.3.2. A state of ongoing warfare
  • 10.3.2.1. The first Safavid-Ottoman war
  • 10.3.2.1.1. The battle of Chaldiran
  • 10.3.2.1.2. Rear alliances
  • 10.3.2.2. Azerbaijan once again the focus of conflict
  • 10.3.2.2.1. The defensive strategy of the Safavids
  • 10.3.2.2.2. The Ottoman conquest of Azerbaijan
  • 10.3.2.2.3. The Safavids regain control of Azerbaijan
  • 10.3.2.2.4. Battlefield Azerbaijan
  • 10.4. Reorganising the administrative system
  • 10.5. The Safavids’ diplomatic ties
  • 10.5.1. Ties with the Europeans
  • 10.5.2. Ties with the Russians
  • Chapter XI – The era of the khanates, independent and sovereign feudal States
  • 11.1. The emergence of khanates on the territories of Azerbaijan
  • 11.2. The policies of the main players in Azerbaijani politics
  • 11.2.1. The khanate of Sheki: traditional power-based politics
  • 11.2.2. Rivalry between the khanates of Karabakh and Guba and the development of a bipolar system
  • 11.2.2.1. The khanate of Karabakh: policies designed to maintain the balance of power
  • 11.2.2.2. Khanate of Guba: policies designed to achieve unification
  • 11.3. The objectives of the imperial powers
  • 11.4. The khanates of Azerbaijan: caught between Russia and Iran
  • 11.5. Russia’s annexation of Azerbaijan
  • 11.6. The Russo-Iranian wars and the break-up of Azerbaijan
  • 11.6.1. The first Russo-Iranian war
  • 11.6.2. The second Russo-Iranian war
  • Chapter XII – Azerbaijan as part of tsarist Russia
  • 12.1. Administrative restructuring and the tsarist regime’s policy of ethnic discrimination against Azerbaijanis
  • 12.2. The political involvement of Azerbaijanis
  • 12.2.1. The 1905 revolution and liberal reform
  • 12.2.2. The advent of political pluralism
  • 12.2.3. Participation in the Duma
  • 12.2.4. The issue of national identity
  • 12.3. Commitments in favour of a free press
  • 12.4. Commitments in favour of national education
  • 12.5. Armed involvement: the Gachak movement
  • 12.6. The political climate after the October Revolution
  • 12.6.1. Prior to the October Revolution
  • 12.6.2. The restructuring of national political groups
  • 12.6.2.1. At a regional level: South Caucasus
  • 12.6.2.2. At a national level: Azerbaijan
  • 12.6.3. The seizure of power by Bolsheviks in Baku and the massacres of Azerbaijani civilians
  • 12.6.4. The formation of the armed forces
  • 12.6.5. Peace negotiations with the Ottoman Empire
  • Chapter XIII – The first Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan
  • 13.1. The birth of the Republic
  • 13.1.1. Declaration of independence
  • 13.1.2. The June crisis
  • 13.1.3. Inauguration of the parliament
  • 13.2. The Azerbaijani government’s first steps in dealing with the Turkish, German and British powers
  • 13.2.1. Turkish military support and the liberation of Baku
  • 13.2.2. The attempt to divide Baku between Germany and Bolshevik Russia
  • 13.2.3. The Azerbaijani government and the British authorities
  • 13.3. The diplomatic mission at the Peace Conference
  • 13.4. The territorial sovereignty of Azerbaijan
  • 13.4.1. Rivalries based on territorial claims
  • 13.4.2. The failure of Armenia’s claims
  • 13.4.3. Normalised relations with Iran
  • 13.5. The loss of national sovereignty
  • 13.5.1. The threat posed by Denikin
  • 13.5.2. The Bolshevik threat
  • 13.5.3. The Bolsheviks seize power
  • Chapter XIV – The second Republic of Azerbaijan
  • 14.1. The creation of an ostensibly independent Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan
  • 14.2. Resistance to Bolshevik occupation
  • 14.3. The Soviet approach to resolving territorial issues
  • 14.4. The well-established nature of the new Soviet policy towards Azerbaijanis
  • Chapter XV – The third Republic of Azerbaijan
  • 15.1. The national liberation movement and the restoration of independence
  • 15.1.1. The emergence of the national movement
  • 15.1.2. The January tragedy: an entire people punished
  • 15.1.3. The beginning of the end of Soviet power
  • 15.1.4. Independence
  • 15.1.5. The emergence of political pluralism and the birth of the New Azerbaijan Party
  • 15.2. Independent Azerbaijan: the difficult path towards stability
  • 15.2.1. The first phase: Ayaz Mutalibov and political instability
  • 15.2.2. The second phase: Abulfaz Elchibey and the reasons for his failure
  • 15.2.3. The third phase: Heydar Aliyev and the introduction of stability
  • 15.2.3.1. Heydar Aliyev’s return to power
  • 15.2.3.2. The situation is gradually brought under control
  • 15.2.3.3. A new multifaceted foreign policy is implemented
  • 15.2.4. Once again on the path to growth and reforms
  • 15.3. Exploitation of Azerbaijan’s energy resources
  • 15.3.1. The energy sector opens up to international companies
  • 15.3.2. Diversification of transport routes
  • 15.4. War breaks out between Armenia and Azerbaijan
  • 15.4.1. Early 20th century: the first armed clashes
  • 15.4.2. Late 20th century: fresh outbreak of war
  • 15.4.3. The international legal framework and the search for a peaceful solution
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Index
  • Appendices

Fazil Zeynalov

Azerbaijan at the
Crossroads of Eurasia

The Tumultuous Fate of a Nation Caught Up
Between the Rivalries of the World’s Major Powers

About the author

Fazil Zeynalov is a lecturer and researcher at Baku State University. He studied at the Academy of Public Administration (Azerbaijan), Sciences Po and Pierre-Mendès-France University (France). He is the author of several publications, in particular on the politics and economy of Azerbaijan, the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan and the Oil and Gas Resources of Azerbaijan.

About the book

Modern Azerbaijan came into being in 1991 following a national struggle for the re-establishment of its independence, initiated long before the collapse of the Soviet Union. It is situated in a unique geographic location, at the crossroads of Eurasia and on the famous Silk Road that links Europe and Asia. It has been the stage of particularly rich historical events, testament to its ancient State traditions, the wealth of its cities, the violence of the imperial invasions. Today this secular country, facing war with Armenia, is central to the geopolitical stakes in the region, whether in terms of the international strategies of major powers or the geo-economic considerations of oil and gas exports to Europe. It has put in place a multi-faceted foreign policy and initiated political and economic reforms as it moves towards a better future.

This eBook can be cited

This edition of the eBook can be cited. To enable this we have marked the start and end of a page. In cases where a word straddles a page break, the marker is placed inside the word at exactly the same position as in the physical book. This means that occasionally a word might be bifurcated by this marker.

Contents

Abbreviations

Introduction

Chapter I – The first States on the territories of Azerbaijan

1.1. The Mannaean Kingdom

1.2. Atropatena

1.3. The Kingdom of Caucasian Albania

Chapter II – The Arab conquest of Azerbaijan

2.1. Military success and undeniable influence, in spite of Byzantine and Khazar ambitions

2.2. The conversion process of Azerbaijanis

2.3. The Khurramite movement and Babek’s armed struggle

Chapter III – The emergence of new Azerbaijani feudal States

3.1. The States of northern Azerbaijan

3.1.1. The Shirvanshah State

3.1.2. The principality of Khachen

3.1.3. The Shaddadid State

3.2. The Sajid, Salarid and Ravvadid States of southern Azerbaijan

Chapter IV – The reign of the Seljukids

4.1. The emergence of a new imperial power

4.2. The establishment of direct rule by the Seljukids and the preservation of the Shirvanshah State’s autonomy

4.3. The decline of the Seljukids←5 | 6→

Chapter V – The Azerbaijani State of the Atabegs

5.1. The promotion of Shamsaddin Eldegiz, founder of the Atabegs of Azerbaijan

5.2. The rise in power of the Eldegizid dynasty

5.3. The decline of the State

5.4. The wars with Georgia

Chapter VI – The domination of the Mongols

6.1. The invasion of Azerbaijan and the creation of the Ilkhanate

6.2. Azerbaijan: a strategic target between the Ilkhanate and the Golden Horde

6.3. Gradual improvement in the situation in Azerbaijan

6.4. Ghazan Khan’s attempted reforms and the end of the Mongol State

Chapter VII – The Timurid Empire

7.1. Tamerlane’s conquest of Azerbaijan and the alliance with the Shirvanshah

7.2. The resistance of Alinja fortress

7.3. The Hurufi movement

7.4. The decline of Timurid influence and the Azerbaijani State of Kara Koyunlu

Chapter VIII – Azerbaijan: a place of trade between Europe and Asia

8.1. Azerbaijan’s role in trade

8.2. Trade with the Russians

8.3. Trade with the Europeans

Chapter IX – The Azerbaijani State of Ak Koyunlu

9.1. The rise to power of the Ak Koyunlu State

9.2. Sara Khatun, the country’s first female diplomat←6 | 7→

9.3. Eliminating threats on the eastern borders

9.4. War and diplomacy: relations with the Europeans and Ottomans

9.4.1. Closer ties with Europe

9.4.2. The alliance with Venice

9.4.3. Clashes with the Ottomans

9.5. The disappearance of the Ak Koyunlu State

Chapter X – The Safavid State: a new regional power

10.1. The creation of a new State by the Azerbaijani Safavid dynasty

10.1.1. The first failed attempts

10.1.2. The decisive role of Ismail Safavid

10.2. A profoundly Azerbaijani State

10.3. The Safavid-Ottoman wars

10.3.1. Deteriorating relations

10.3.2. A state of ongoing warfare

10.3.2.1. The first Safavid-Ottoman war

10.3.2.1.1. The battle of Chaldiran

10.3.2.1.2. Rear alliances

10.3.2.2. Azerbaijan once again the focus of conflict

10.3.2.2.1. The defensive strategy of the Safavids

10.3.2.2.2. The Ottoman conquest of Azerbaijan

10.3.2.2.3. The Safavids regain control of Azerbaijan

10.3.2.2.4. Battlefield Azerbaijan

10.4. Reorganising the administrative system

10.5. The Safavids’ diplomatic ties

10.5.1. Ties with the Europeans

10.5.2. Ties with the Russians

Chapter XI – The era of the khanates, independent and sovereign feudal States

11.1. The emergence of khanates on the territories of Azerbaijan

11.2. The policies of the main players in Azerbaijani politics

11.2.1. The khanate of Sheki: traditional power-based politics

11.2.2. Rivalry between the khanates of Karabakh and Guba and the development of a bipolar system←7 | 8→

11.2.2.1. The khanate of Karabakh: policies designed to maintain the balance of power

11.2.2.2. Khanate of Guba: policies designed to achieve unification

11.3. The objectives of the imperial powers

11.4. The khanates of Azerbaijan: caught between Russia and Iran

11.5. Russia’s annexation of Azerbaijan

11.6. The Russo-Iranian wars and the break-up of Azerbaijan

11.6.1. The first Russo-Iranian war

11.6.2. The second Russo-Iranian war

Chapter XII – Azerbaijan as part of tsarist Russia

12.1. Administrative restructuring and the tsarist regime’s policy of ethnic discrimination against Azerbaijanis

12.2. The political involvement of Azerbaijanis

12.2.1. The 1905 revolution and liberal reform

12.2.2. The advent of political pluralism

12.2.3. Participation in the Duma

12.2.4. The issue of national identity

12.3. Commitments in favour of a free press

12.4. Commitments in favour of national education

12.5. Armed involvement: the Gachak movement

12.6. The political climate after the October Revolution

12.6.1. Prior to the October Revolution

12.6.2. The restructuring of national political groups

12.6.2.1. At a regional level: South Caucasus

12.6.2.2. At a national level: Azerbaijan

12.6.3. The seizure of power by Bolsheviks in Baku and the massacres of Azerbaijani civilians

12.6.4. The formation of the armed forces

12.6.5. Peace negotiations with the Ottoman Empire

Chapter XIII – The first Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan

13.1. The birth of the Republic

13.1.1. Declaration of independence←8 | 9→

13.1.2. The June crisis

13.1.3. Inauguration of the parliament

13.2. The Azerbaijani government’s first steps in dealing with the Turkish, German and British powers

13.2.1. Turkish military support and the liberation of Baku

13.2.2. The attempt to divide Baku between Germany and Bolshevik Russia

13.2.3. The Azerbaijani government and the British authorities

13.3. The diplomatic mission at the Peace Conference

13.4. The territorial sovereignty of Azerbaijan

13.4.1. Rivalries based on territorial claims

13.4.2. The failure of Armenia’s claims

13.4.3. Normalised relations with Iran

13.5. The loss of national sovereignty

13.5.1. The threat posed by Denikin

13.5.2. The Bolshevik threat

13.5.3. The Bolsheviks seize power

Chapter XIV – The second Republic of Azerbaijan

14.1. The creation of an ostensibly independent Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan

14.2. Resistance to Bolshevik occupation

14.3. The Soviet approach to resolving territorial issues

14.4. The well-established nature of the new Soviet policy towards Azerbaijanis

Chapter XV – The third Republic of Azerbaijan

15.1. The national liberation movement and the restoration of independence

15.1.1. The emergence of the national movement

15.1.2. The January tragedy: an entire people punished

15.1.3. The beginning of the end of Soviet power

15.1.4. Independence

15.1.5. The emergence of political pluralism and the birth of the New Azerbaijan Party←9 | 10→

15.2. Independent Azerbaijan: the difficult path towards stability

15.2.1. The first phase: Ayaz Mutalibov and political instability

15.2.2. The second phase: Abulfaz Elchibey and the reasons for his failure

15.2.3. The third phase: Heydar Aliyev and the introduction of stability

15.2.3.1. Heydar Aliyev’s return to power

Details

Pages
406
Year
2017
ISBN (PDF)
9783631729748
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631729755
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631729762
ISBN (Hardcover)
9783631729724
DOI
10.3726/b11519
Language
English
Publication date
2017 (July)
Keywords
Caucasus Gepolitics Silk road Karabakh conflict Ottoman Empire Russia-Iranian wars
Published
Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2017. 406 pp., 11 ill., 1 table

Biographical notes

Fazil Zeynalov (Author)

Fazil Zeynalov is a lecturer and researcher at Baku State University. He studied at the Academy of Public Administration (Azerbaijan), Sciences Po and Pierre-Mendès-France University (France). He is the author of several publications, in particular on the politics and economy of Azerbaijan, the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan and the Oil and Gas Resources of Azerbaijan.

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Title: Azerbaijan at the Crossroads of Eurasia