The Rise and Fall of Europeanization

What is Next for Turkey-EU Relations?

by Çiğdem Üstün (Author)
©2018 Monographs 124 Pages


The 2000s started with massive support for Europeanization but now, in 2017, whether the negotiations should be suspended is debated. What happened? How did we come to this point? And maybe more importantly, what is next for Turkey-EU relations? Those are some of the questions that this book tries to dwell upon. In its effort to answer these questions, it starts with a reminder of the golden years of Europeanization. The second part is on Populism and how populist rhetoric frames not only the politics, but also the public opinion on Turkey-EU relations. Finally, Differentiated Integration (DI) models, as alternative cooperation mechanisms, are analyzed. It is argued that DI models hold the risk of turning Turkey-EU relations into more interest-based pragmatic ones and overshadow democratic norms and values.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I: Once upon a time there was Europeanization
  • Europeanization
  • Europeanization in Turkey
  • Europeanization in External Relations
  • How have things changed?
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter II: Turkey – EU relations hit by populist rhetoric (with Özgehan Şenyuva)
  • Defining Populism
  • France, the UK and the Netherlands
  • Turkey
  • What about public opinion?
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter III: Is there an alternative to full membership?
  • Once again, how have things changed?
  • What is differentiated integration (DI)?
  • How can Turkey be part of DI?
  • Differentiated Integration and Values
  • Conclusion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Index

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List of Abbreviations

← 10 | 11 →


The 2000s started with massive Turkish support for Europeanization, but in the year 2017 the question of whether or not membership negotiations should be suspended is debated not only in Europe but also in Turkey. What happened? How did we come to this point?

Being a part of Western organizations and becoming an EU member state have been strategic aims of Turkey since its establishment. Even during the Ottoman era, starting in the 1820s, westernization was seen as essential for modernization. This may sound like a cliché indeed, but it is an important cliché that demonstrates the direction of Turkey and Turkish foreign policy. The shift of axis in Turkish foreign policy has been debated extensively in Turkey in the 2010s. Is Turkey turning to the East? Is there a Middle Easternization? Is Turkey being Islamized? Or are we experiencing a Euroasianism, as Ziya Öniş calls it?


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2018 (October)
Integration Differentiated Integration Membership and alternatives Populism Democratization Euroscepticism
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2018., 124 pp., 2 fig. b/w, 1 tables,

Biographical notes

Çiğdem Üstün (Author)

Çiğdem Üstün holds a PhD in European Studies from the University of Limerick (Ireland) and got her associate professorship also on EU Studies. She is affiliated with the Association of Development, Migration and Social Policies (DEMIS) in Izmir. She published on issues related to Turkey-EU relations and regional cooperation in the neighborhood regions.


Title: The Rise and Fall of Europeanization
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126 pages