Loading...

New Horizons in Philosophy and Sociology

by Hülya Yaldir (Volume editor) Güncel Önkal (Volume editor)
Edited Collection 320 Pages

Summary

What is our responsibility as scholars in the Humanities and Social Sciences in the face of global issues threatening humanity today? This book provides a platform for an interdisciplinary, cross-cultural dialogue among philosophers and sociologists on the most pressing global issues facing humanity today. Combining the critical thinking of philosophy with sociological methods and researches, this volume offers fresh and stimulating perspectives with regard to various issues including environmental degradation, democracy, gender and economic inequalities, religion, war and peace.

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • Acknowledgments
  • Contents
  • Introduction: The Alliance of Understanding
  • Part I Concepts and Methodology for New Horizons
  • Social Knowledge: Inclusions and Exclusions for the Sake of the Future Democracy
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Redefining knowledge in a social world
  • 3 Knowing society beyond the absolutism
  • 4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Human’s Tragedy in the Global World
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Human who knows thyself in the antiquity
  • 3 Human who believes in the medieval
  • 4 Human who lives tragedy in the modern and global world
  • 5 Conclusion
  • References
  • On Finitude and the Ground of Hope: A Kantian Horizon Radicalized by Meillassoux
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Kantian limits of speculative knowledge
  • 3 The speculative horizon of hope
  • 4 Meillassoux’s radicalization of Kant
  • 5 Conclusion
  • References
  • The Quest for Peace
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Pre-civilised societies and peace
  • 3 Darwin’s evolutionary view of violent nature
  • 4 Peace is naturally moral while war needs justification
  • 5 Conflict, war, peace and human nature
  • 6 Role of power in war and peace
  • 7 War and peace in history, sociology, and politics
  • 8 Quest for permanent peace
  • 9 Artificial intelligence and war and peace
  • 10 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Opportunity of a Permanent Peace in Today’s World: Kantian Perpetual Peace
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Preconditions of perpetual peace
  • 3 Sense of republican state
  • 4 A federation of peoples
  • 5 Cosmopolitan right
  • 6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Rationality in Religion and Religious Beliefs
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Preliminaries for explanation of philosophical rationality of religion and religious beliefs
  • 3 Introductory explanation of philosophical rationality of religious beliefs
  • 4 Intermediate beliefs
  • 5 Marginal beliefs
  • 6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Islamic Perspective on Islamophobia: From Misconceptions to Reason
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature review
  • 3 Theoretical framework of Islamophobia
  • 4 Methodology
  • 5 Islamic interpretation of Islamophobia
  • 6 Discussion
  • 7 Loyalty (Al-Wala) and disassociation (wal Bara)
  • 8 Conclusion
  • References
  • The West and Islam: Consequences in the Marginalization of the Religion by the Post-National State
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Theological roots of the contemporary State
  • 3 Liberty, secularism and anthropological turn of the Second Vatican Council
  • 4 The collision between lay ethics and natural morality is a dead-end street
  • 5 The effects of pluralism in the post-national State: the rise of relativism
  • 6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Unravelling the Dark Face of the Enlightenment: Theodor Adorno
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Frankfurt School (critical theory) and enlightenment rationality
  • 3 Theodor Adorno: “culture industry” and instrumental reason
  • 4 The possibility of art within the culture industry
  • 5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Environmental Destruction as a Philosophical Problem
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Environmental ethics
  • 3 Human-centred ethics (anthropocentrism)
  • 4 Life-centred ethics (biocentrism)
  • 5 Conclusion
  • References
  • The Relation between Theory and Observation in Science as Seen by N. R. Hanson
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Relation of observation and experimentation to theory
  • 3 Is there an independent observation and experiment in theory?
  • 4 Observation and experiment are theory dependent
  • 5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Quantum Theory is the Paradigm of Contemporary Science: The Role of Philosophy in the New Paradigm
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Development
  • 3 From classic concepts to generic symbols
  • 4 Displacements
  • 5 Mental experiment: intelligent quantum entities
  • 6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Wisdom and Artificial Intelligence
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Social cognition and scientific rationalism
  • 3 What is wisdom?
  • 4 What is science?
  • 5 Can science teach wisdom?
  • 6 Science, wisdom, and consciousness
  • 7 Moral reasoning and artificial intelligence?
  • 8 End of the human era
  • 9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Part II Researches for New Horizons
  • A Qualitative Research with Healthcare Employees regarding Violence against Healthcare Workers
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Research objective, scope and methodology
  • 3 Definition of violence and an overview on violence forms
  • 4 Research findings: subjective view on form, source and causes of violence
  • 5 Subjective view regarding violence experience and working environment
  • 6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Feminist Economics and Unpaid Labour
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 A brief history of the studies on women’s unpaid labour in Turkey
  • 3 Capitalism and unpaid domestic labour
  • 4 Women’s labour in subsistence production/family businesses
  • 5 Care labour and emotional labour
  • 6 Women’s labour in informal economy
  • 7 The economic value of unpaid labour and its measurement
  • 8 Economic and feminist approaches and unpaid labour
  • 9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Macroeconomic Growth Policies and Female Labour
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The impacts of the development strategies on different countries
  • 3 Import-substitution industrialization period and female labour in Turkey
  • 4 The period of export-oriented industrialization and female labour in Turkey
  • 5 Development and its relation with gender
  • 6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Women Entrepreneurs in Rural Areas: From Awareness to Difference: Denizli Case
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Sociodemographic characteristics of rural women entrepreneurs in Turkey
  • 3 Study method
  • 4 Participants
  • 5 Collecting data
  • 6 Findings: factors that encouraged women to become entrepreneurs
  • 7 Challenges that women entrepreneurs encounter
  • 8 Challenges and advantages of being a woman entrepreneur
  • 9 Women entrepreneurs’ expectations from institutions and family members
  • 10 Conclusion
  • References
  • Sociological Analysis of the Effects of Divorce on Children: Example of Denizli in Turkey
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Material and methods
  • 3 Findings
  • 4 Conclusion
  • References
  • Rendezvous of Turkish Secularists with Yoga: Self-Inquiry Attempts in the Midst of Spirituality, Religion and Politics
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 About the methodology
  • 3 Yoga in Turkey
  • 4 From mat to life
  • 5 Yoga and political activism
  • 6 Yoga, religion and spirituality
  • 7 Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • The Hiv/Aids in Turkey as a Social Phenomenon
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Methodology
  • 3 Sample features
  • 4 Findings
  • 4.1 Access to health services
  • 4.2 Access to education services
  • 4.3 Access to law services
  • 4.4 Work life
  • 4.5 Family life
  • 4.6 Social life
  • 5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Life Support Units and Rings of Sustainable Cities: Ecological Villages
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Aims and background
  • 3 Practices and potential gains of sustainable ecological villages
  • 4 Discussion
  • 5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Notes on Contributors

Hülya Yaldır / Güncel Önkal (eds.)

New Horizons in Philosophy and Sociology

Bibliographic Information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek

The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Yaldir, Hulya, 1965- editor. | Onkal, Guncel, 1978- editor.

Title: New horizons in philosophy and sociology / Hulya Yaldir, Guncel Onkal (eds.).

Description: New York : Peter Lang, [2018] | Includes bibliographical references.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017060874 | ISBN 9783631742075

Subjects: LCSH: Social sciences--Philosophy.

Classification: LCC H61 .N489 2018 | DDC 300--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017060874

About the author

About the book

Contents

Hülya Yaldır and Güncel Önkal

Introduction: The Alliance of Understanding

Part I:Concepts and Methodology for New Horizons

Güncel Önkal and Ahu Tunçel

Social Knowledge: Inclusions and Exclusions for the Sake of the Future Democracy

Ayşe Gül Çıvgın and Seda Özsoy

Human’s Tragedy in the Global World

Elif Çırakman

On Finitude and the Ground of Hope: A Kantian Horizon Radicalized by Meillassoux

Mirza Iqbal Ashraf

The Quest for Peace

Mustafa Kaya

About the Opportunity of a Permanent Peace in Today’s World: Kantian Perpetual Peace

Qodratullah Qorbani

Rationality in Religion and Religious Beliefs

Zouhir Gabsi

Islamic Perspective on Islamophobia: From Misconceptions to Reason

Mª Ángeles Corpas Aguirre

The West and Islam: Consequences in the Marginalization of the Religion by the Post-National State

Özgül Ekinci and Hülya Yaldır←7 | 8→

Unravelling the Dark Face of the Enlightenment: Theodor Adorno

Nurten Kiriş Yilmaz and Hülya Yaldır

Environmental Destruction as a Philosophical Problem

Mehmet Ali Sarı

The Relation between Theory and Observation in Science as Seen by N. R. Hanson

Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

Quantum Theory is the Paradigm of Contemporary Science: The Role of Philosophy in the New Paradigm

Mirza Iqbal Ashraf

Wisdom and Artificial Intelligence

Part II:Researches for New Horizons

Türkan Erdoğan

A Qualitative Research with Healthcare Employees regarding Violence against Healthcare Workers

Gönül İçli

Feminist Economics and Unpaid Labour

Gönül İçli

Macroeconomic Growth Policies and Female Labour

Gül Aktaş, Mehmet Meder and Zuhal Çiçek

Women Entrepreneurs in Rural Areas: From Awareness to Difference: Denizli Case

Mehmet Meder, Zuhal Çiçek and Gül Aktaş

Sociological Analysis of the Effects of Divorce on Children: Example of Denizli in Turkey

Büke Koyuncu←8 | 9→

Rendezvous of Turkish Secularists with Yoga: Self-Inquiry Attempts in the Midst of Spirituality, Religion and Politics

Özgür Sarı

The Hiv/Aids in Turkey as a Social Phenomenon

Rıza Sam and Neslihan Sam

Life Support Units and Rings of Sustainable Cities: Ecological Villages

Notes on Contributors←9 | 10→←10 | 11→

Philosophy and sociology, two siblings—from the same family yet with distinct attributes and personalities—constantly argue and fight yet complement each other perfectly. Likewise, these two disciplines spring from and are fed by the same sources, namely, society and human beings. Though they are all principally concerned with the nature, life and activities of men and social structure, they yield different analyses and interpretations of the given subjects. This difference stems from techniques and tools each discipline uses in examining and explaining a particular subject. Having located within the scientific paradigm, sociology heavily relies on empirical methods and seeks to provide a deeper insight into a social phenomenon and the cause-effect relationships embedded in it. Philosophy does not premise on providing definite answers to any questions. As Russell remarks, “as soon as definite knowledge concerning any subject becomes possible, this subject ceases to be called philosophy, and becomes a separate science”. Thus, philosophical inquiry is a never-ending critical inquiry into any given problem. Although these divergent modes of approaches may lead to fragmentation among disciplines and draw a sharp line among them, the affinity and alliance among them cannot be denied. They all nurture and influence each other. For instance, Max Weber is often regarded as a “Nietzschean sociologist”, which reveals the influence of Nietzsche’s philosophy on Weber’s sociology. Philosophical and sociological works not only supply materials and new ideas to each other, but also play a pivotal role in teaching and learning process of the prominent views and problems in each field. The emergence of sociology as a positivist social science cannot be considered apart from its philosophical roots and history of ideas through ages. The philosophers who regard sociological relations are more efficient in their conclusions as the sociologists who take philosophical core concepts into consideration while obtaining their methodology in understanding society and human reality.

Thinkers in our era prefer to label several concepts such as post-truth, -post age, the end of postmodernism, the transhumanism age, the end, etc. It is appropriate to say that all concepts are “incomplete”, all definitions about human and society are “partial” and “blurred”. The nature of humanitarian sciences has been under question for ages, since the reality of humanities is so complex and open to transitions in personal, social and institutional respects. Thus this book begins ←11 | 12→with the tragic roots of our global world. If we follow the motto “to define is to understand”, the philosophical concepts require a tool for evaluating humanity in current, global conditions.

This books starts to define new horizons in philosophy and sociology with the debate of social knowledge for the sake of future democracy, in which the possible social conditions of the concepts of democracy is discussed by Ranciere.

“Human’s Tragedy in the Global World” underlines the unfavourable consequences of global developments and the transformed modes of production and consumption, commodification, alienation, exploitation, new forms of slavery, virtual relationships and tyranny. The fragile, interrupted, partial life of human is surrounded by sovereignty relations of the time.

In such a world, it is not easy to provide a continuous hope for future. The following two chapters are quite relevant to evaluate the idea of hope between conceptual–philosophical and sociological levels.

New horizons in philosophy and sociology cannot ignore the religious approach and outsider point of view. Thus, three more chapters are dedicated to discuss this topic under conceptual, sociological and political perspectives.

Since the first part is dedicated to concepts and methodology, culture industry, philosophizing social events, the paradigm shifts in social sciences and the features of observation are all included in this part.

Biographical notes

Hülya Yaldir (Volume editor) Güncel Önkal (Volume editor)

Hülya Yaldir is Professor of Philosophy at Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey. She received her MA and PhD degrees in Philosophy from the University of Reading, UK. Her main areas of interest are philosophy of mind, metaphysics, early modern philosophy, logic, philosophy of culture and comparative philosophy. Güncel Önkal is Associate Professor at Maltepe University, Istanbul, Turkey. He has specialised in cultural philosophy, social epistemology, philosophy of art, sociology of punishment and sociology of knowledge by means of practical issues. He is currently delivering courses on daily-life sociology, modernity and postmodernity, sociology of knowledge and urban studies.

Previous

Title: New Horizons in Philosophy and Sociology