Studies on Balkan and Near Eastern Social Sciences – Volume 3
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Copyright Page
- About the editors
- About the book
- Citability of the eBook
- List of Contributors
- Social Memory and Cultural Identity
- Investigation of the Effects of the Disasters Occurred between 2010 and 2017 on the World Economy
- Revisiting the Health Systems of OECD Countries toward an Efficiency Perspective
- Internet as a Form of Public Sphere and Its Role in Environmental Activism
- Human Rights and Virtuous Growth in Terms of Global Economic Transformation: Is It Possible to Return to Homo-Politicus?
- Is China’s Integration to the International Markets a Threat for Western Economies? An Outlook in Terms of Political Economy of Transition from Labor-Intensity to Capital-Intensity
- Operation Olive Branch: Cross-Border Use of the Right of Self-Defense
- Can Concordatum Be a Solution for the Financial Relationship between Firms and Banks?
- The Future of Accounting and the Accounting Profession in Industry 4.0
- Working Capital Management and Firm Performance of Turkish Companies
- Integrating Sustainability to Organizational Strategy: An Analysis of the Turkish Banking Sector
- Country of Origin Image and Consumer Knowledge Effects on Product Evaluation and Purchase Intention
- Causes and Solutions for Financial Failure of Enterprises in Turkey
- Corporate Sustainability and the Methods of Corporate Sustainability
- Is Public Service One of the Determinants of Happiness: Evidence from Turkey in Province Level
- Main Reasons of Government Reforms in Turkey and the Legislation/Reform Efforts between 1990 and 2007
- Do Governance Indicators Play a Role in Banking Crises?
- Tolerance Matters for the Prosperity of Nations
- An Empirical Analysis of the Association between Natural Resource Rents and Corruption
- The Effect of Human Development Index on Economic Growth: A Comparative Analysis
- Globalization and Banking Crises: The Case of Developing Economies
- The Impact of Banking Crises on Poverty: Panel Evidence
- Explanation of Financial Crises by Hyman Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis
- Oil Prices and Monetary Policy: The Case of Turkey
- The Effect of Institutional Factors and Freedoms on Women’s Labor Force Participation
- The Importance of Financial Literacy for Women’s Financial Inclusion
- The Impact of Export Promotion Programs on the Technological Intensity of Export Products: The Case of Turkey
- The Effect of Credits Extended by Participation Banks and Conventional Banks on Imports
- Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Emerging Economies
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
Assist. Prof. Dr., Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Department of Public Finance
Asst. Prof.Dr., Gümüşhane University, Faculty of Health Sciences
Prof. Dr. Dumlupınar University, Department of Business.
Gizem Akbulut Yildiz
Asst.Prof.Dr., Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics, Gümüşhane University
Dr, Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of International Relations
Associate Prof. Kirikkale University, Department of Public Finance
Asst. Prof., Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics
Assistant Prof. Dr. Kadir Has University, Faculty of Management, The Department of Accounting and Financial Management
Dr., Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Department of Economics
A. Naci Doğrul
Asst. Prof. Dr., Kütahya Dumlupınar University
H. Günsel Doğrul
Assistant Prof. Dr., Kütahya Dumlupınar University, Vocational School of Social Sciences
Kadir Caner Doğan
Assistant Prof. Dr., Gumushane University, Department of Political Science and Public Administration
Dr., Independent Researcher, Turkey
Assistant Prof.Dr., Gumushane University, Department of Business Administration
Research Assistant, Gumushane University, Department of Business Administration.
Prof.Dr., Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Department of Economics.
Hasan Mahmut Kalkişim
Assistant Prof. Dr., Gumushane University, Department of Political Science and Public Administration.
M. Veysel Kaya
Assoc. Professor Dr., Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics
Afşin Ahmet Kaya
Assoc. Prof. Dr., Gümüşhane University, Department of Emergency and Disaster Management
Asst.Prof.Dr., Görele School of Applied Disciplines, Department of Logistic Management, Giresun University, firstname.lastname@example.org
S. Ahmet Menteş
Assoc. Prof. Dr., Tekirdağ Namık Kemal University, Department of Business Administration
Assistant Professor, Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Department of Economics.
Assistant Prof. Dr., Bursa Uludağ University, İnegöl Faculty of Business.
Assistant Professor, Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Department of Economics.
Research Assistant, Gümüşhane University, Department of Emergency and Disaster Management
Associate Prof.Dr., Dumlupınar University, Department of Business.
Asst. Prof.Dr., Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics
Kırıkkale University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Economics
PhD Candidate, Kırıkkale University, Turkey
Mehmet Sabri Topak
Asst. Prof. Dr. İstanbul University, Faculty of Economics, Department of Business Administration
Lecturer, Gümüşhane University, Department of Emergency and Disaster Management
Associate Prof. Dr., Kırıkkale University, Department of Public Finance.
Pelin Varol Iyidoğan
Associate Prof. Hacettepe University, Department of Public Finance
Assistant Professor, Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Department of Economics.
Assistant Professor, Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Department of Economics.
Asst. Prof. Dr. Bilecik Şey Edebali University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics
Julide Yalçinkaya Koyuncu
Prof.Dr., Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Department of Economics.
Assistant Prof.Dr., Anadolu University, Department of Economics.
Associate Prof. Dr., Anadolu University, Department of Economics
The social memory that reproduces itself through daily life practices is based on the knowledge and experiences of individuals about the past. Although social memory is nurtured by individual memories, it is clear that not all individual memories can be found in social memory. Because the recollections of the past are historical events to explain today. In this regard, recalling the past is as important as how the past is remembered. There is a mutual relationship between social memory and individual memory. In this context, individual memory affects social memory and also individual memory is affected by social memory. The individual is nourished from the social memory through the process of socialization and grasps the meaning of the world of culture and values of the society in which s/he was born. The coming up of the events in the social memory in daily life affects the individual memory and is transferred to the future through individuals. This individual interaction with social memory allows individuals in everyday life to reconstruct social memory. In brief, it can be said that individuals rebuild social memory by bringing the events that took place in the social memory into the agenda in their daily lives. Daily life refers to an area in which social memory is both reproduced and transmitted. It can be said that cultural memory is a formation as a result of the transfer of a certain life style, custom, tradition and the behaviors which have been continued for centuries from the past to the present. In this study, the relationship between social memory and cultural identity is examined. What is the relationship between social memory and cultural identity? How does the culture and society we grow up contribute to the shaping of individual-collective memory and identity? Answers of such questions are sought in the study.
The Relationship between Social Memory and Identity
Social memory is an important tool in the construction of national identity. In this process, memory is rebuilt by the founders’ will in line with founding philosophy. In the construction of the national identity, similar to individuals, societies also prefer to remember the historical periods or events that they ←15 | 16→can proudly look at and enhance their sense of value. During this construction process, the past is reproduced to meet today’s needs. Thus, first a new social memory is created; then a new identity is built upon this memory. In this process, it is observed that while some of the points of the past connected to the new identity have been carried to the present and that they continue to exist in the social memory, outside of this relation frame is forgotten or is forced to be forgotten. According to Assmann (2002), power is an important factor in the remembrance and reconstruction of memory. There is also an alliance between power, memory and forgetting. Power plays an active role in not only the guidance, reconstruction and remembering process of past memories but also shaping the memory of the future. Because inevitable events cannot be prevented; however, they may be prevented from becoming history of the society. In this context, rulers who command the past do things which help them to be remembered since they want to be remembered in the future. That is why, they are in constant efforts to explain, monumentalize or archive these things they accomplish.
The identity of a person is shaped by his/her past, the way s/he perceives the past, the today s/he forms with this perception and his/her self-positioning in society, in other words, by the consciousness of his/her sense belonging to society. The sense of social belonging, called social identity, is based on participation in common knowledge and memory achieved through the use of a common language or a common symbolic system. What is important here is not words, sentences and texts, but traditions, dances, examples, embroidery, clothing, eating and drinking forms, monuments, pictures, geographies, road and border signs (Assmann, 2002). As Halbwachs (1992) emphasizes, the individual memory is nourished from the social memory and can exist in the social plane. Social memory survives with those who bear it. In return, it confirms the group membership of those who bear it. In this sense, it is also the identity of the group of those who carry it. This identity is acquired through socialization. According to Castells (2010), memory always belongs to the individual; but it is socially determined. This is because the individual memory is shaped by the socialization of the individual which means communication of individual with the society where s/he lives. In the construction of identities, materials ranging from history, geography, biology, institutions, collective memory, personal fantasies, power instruments to religious teachings are used. Therefore, it cannot be expected that groups that cannot agree on the common past create a common identity or memory. On the other hand, individuals, groups and societies rearrange the meaning of all this material. In this arrangement or during the construction process the power apparatus ←16 | 17→plays an effective role. Because the social construction of identity always takes place in connection with power relations. According to Bauman (2004), identity in general terms, and the idea of national identity, did not derive from an experience that was not naturally fertilized, be naturally incubated in the human experience, and be considered a reality of life. This idea was forced into the world of modern man and emerged as a fiction. The idea of identity emerged from identity crisis and efforts of this crisis to close the gap between what it is and what it is to be and to bring the truth to the level of standards established by this idea.
According to Connerton (1989), the two most important carriers of social memory are ceremonies and bodies. The traces of social memory are manifested in commemorative memories where the memory is formalized. The performances exhibited in repeated rituals are important for the continuity of the social memory. According to Giddens (1986), the images of the past and the transfer of the recalled information to the present and the continuation of it are through ritual practices in ceremonies. In this context, ceremonies have a function to strengthen the identity of society as well as are a practice that is needed for the continuity of society (Connerton, 1989). Hence the event, which was presented through repeated ceremonies, was reminded to the witnesses and was introduced to others (Assmann, 2002). Thus, the transfer of information established through repetition prevent forgetting history. On the other hand, testimony to repeated ceremonies does not guarantee the accuracy of the story which is preserved and transmitted from generation to generation. However, the historical event, which is protected by testimony, is saved from oblivion (Agamben, 2002). On the other hand, collective recall requires the existence of a society and is inherently social (Wertsch, 2009). In this context, it can be stated that ceremonies have an important role in the formation of common consciousness of nation states and in nation building process. This situation is most commonly observed in national commemoration and celebration ceremonies. The aim here is to create a common consciousness around the historical event that is remembered.
According to Göka (2017), nation-states build a social identity within the framework of the common past. Because for the construction of social identity, apart from the need for the others, it is necessary to emphasize a common past and to construct it in a certain way. This is the creation of a collective memory in accordance with the requirements of the national identity and is to make history an instrument by writing an official history. Official history is one of the answers that a society gives to itself on how to speak and how to handle its past. Its main function is to build a collective identity by giving a meaning and depth ←17 | 18→to the sense of belonging. In this sense, the official history can neither replace the history nor clear the history, but it meets only the psychological need of the community. The understanding of the past by making it unique is due to the psychological need to create a collective memory. From this perspective, official history is an understandable and universal phenomenon. Every society, including Western societies, builds its own history according to the requirements of identity building, and the collective memory of all consist of their official histories (Göka, 2017; Bilgin, 2013). Türkdoğan (1995) calls this process as becoming a nation. According to Türkdoğan (1995), becoming a nation has a meaning of gaining and adapting to the national culture, and a nation is a social reality created by those who share the common culture. In the process of becoming a nation, culture, history and values should be adopted by individuals and they should feel belonging to the nation. A sense of belonging and partnership form the basis of social memory and the legitimacy of common values. This sense of partnership is formed around the common values that constitute the social memory and passed on from generation to generation and becomes legitimate. Thus, the common values that have gained legitimacy play an important role in ensuring social cohesion.
According to Berger and Luckmann (1991), people put some values on institutions and institutional practices, and this common story becomes part of the legitimation process. Legitimation is like an affirmation seal on the practical social world. According to Assmann (2002), members of the community united under the identity of “we” can protect the past to the extent that they can maintain sustainability. For this reason, changes are tried to be ignored as much as possible, thus ensuring the permanent continuity of history. In order to be “we” again, there is a need for an “other” and collective memory. These points constitute the fundamental pillars of social identity construction (Göka, 2017). Within this framework, collective memory constitutes one of the basic processes of identity building at the social level. In general, it is seen that all groups have a common background in the construction of group identity and they design it in a certain way. Collective identity is constructed from tradition and the heritage of the past consisting of symbols, memories, works of art, ceremonies, habits, values, beliefs and knowledge, in short, from social memory. Therefore, social memory and the construction of memory are an indispensable pillar of identity. Because the individual who has no memory loses his/her identity. Similarly, there is no public who does not have a common memory (Bilgin, 2007). In this context, there is a close relationship between identity and memory since the identity is built on the social memory. Accordingly, it can be stated that common memory construction is also an identity building.←18 | 19→
Assmann (2001) emphasized that there are two different methods in the construction of national memory: either a history based on heroic stories has been referenced or a history based on sacrifices of the nation. Nora (1996) states that memory gains value with the way in which memory is used rather than its existence. As can be seen so far, memory is interpreted or shaped according to the situation and need in the construction of identity. Moreover, it is understood that cultural memory is also needed in the construction of identity and this activity is a process of creating tradition. According to Assmann (2002), who relates the need for the concept of cultural memory with the formation of tradition, recall is a culture and a cultural act. The formation of tradition in relation to the past is, above all, acquired identity. Thus, recall and identity are strengthened. Again, according to Halbwachs (1992), a society’s familiarity with past events or traces it left in the past means that the society can go back in time, display persistence, be in existence and be conscious of itself. Because establishing a link with the past is also an identity building. According to this, we can state that the existence of the society depends on its ability to connect with its past and to carry the historical and cultural accumulation of the past to this day. In other words, for the emergence of a nation in the modern sense, all individuals must know that they share common ties among themselves and believe that these ties have superior value (Karpat, 2017).
On the other hand, collective experiences and collective memory separate a society from other societies and help it to reveal its own authenticity. Being a society means being different from other communities and being in a social cohesion. The most important element that provides this unity among the members of the society is the belief that they have a common identity. Common goals play a significant role in building the social reality of communities with a sense of social unity. Three key concepts in everyday life are defined in the literature. The first one is common-sense knowledge which are the common stock of information on how to interpret and act in our community or social group; the second is typifications that is the process of abstraction and formalization of objects and experiences by common forms of classification and are constructed within the stock of information; the third is reciprocity which is the common assumptions that allow people to interact and mutually understand each other. We learn these general assumptions through socialization, adapt them and, when necessary, change our perceptions about them. We all have a special history, interests and motives, an opinion about ourselves and the world. However, we can apply them only when working together and using common sense so that we can live as humans (Slattery, 2003). In short, socialization is a process that enables learning and teaching of cultural elements through contact with society. At the same time, ←19 | 20→it is an effective tool for the culture of a society to be transferred from one generation to the other.
Considering that the social memory is a product of communication and individuals remember on the social level, the breaking of the connection between society and the individual will lead to forgetting. This leads us to the sociality of forgetting. According to Halbwachs (1992), it is not necessary for people to experience events by themselves in order to create historical memories. However, in order to remember the events of the past, people must come together. The historical memory that is formed as a result of long-term cooperation is transferred to the new members through the group members and kept alive in this way. This form of long-term co-existence forms the consciousness of common history. Social memory is a memory that is formed by all people in society. Social memory is formed and maintained by people’s talk about past events and experiences and represents important changes in people’s lives in the long term. Social sharing of the events in question also shapes the perceptions of people about the events and thus a consensus on narrative occurs (Halbwachs, 1992). On the other hand, according to Göle (2007), people remember and describe their existence, values and way of life in a way that reflects their point of view. They hide or cover what they do not want to know. They emphasize or exaggerate some of the points that they want others to know. In doing so, human beings create a non-objective personal fiction that affects the future of the society in which they live. History is organized in accordance with the aims of the individuals of a society. The past is built to serve a current purpose. The reconstruction of the past around a purpose is also an identity building process.
Societies have always been interested in the past. The basis of this interest is the search for identity of the society. This past is called social memory which is a prerequisite for a society to differentiate itself from others. In this context, we can talk about two kinds of past. The first of these is the traditional past, which is based on myths, does not need to be proved, is believed, has no time dimension and the other one is the past which is questioned, sought and has a depth of time (Özbudun, 1997). To understand a phenomenon historically, one should be aware of the complexity of the phenomenon, have the objectivity to see the phenomenon from many different perspectives and accept the uncertainties in the motives and behaviors of the heroes. Collective memory simplifies and sees events from a single point of view with dedication. It is also intolerant of all kinds of uncertainty and popularizes events to legendary archetypes (Roediger III et al., 2009). Again, Assmann (2002) emphasizes that instead of real history, remembered history is more important than the real history for cultural memory. According to the author, the legend is the story that illuminates the present with ←20 | 21→the light of the past. Here, history becomes a legend through recollection. By this transformation, the history gains reality as a regulating and shaping power and hence ensures its continuity. This is because the past is richer than the present. The past is an entire history. In fact, history is an endless treasure of national conflicts of interest, national independence and sovereignty. People and societies need to have a clear and collective knowledge of all the changes they have gone through to get full information and consciousness about themselves (Erkal, 2000). Because, in contrast to the memorial activities, historical metaphors attempt to associate the past with the present to analyze a present situation. In this context, a present crisis is built on the crises that has been experienced in the past and the past is taken as a reference in history. Thus, it is seen that historical metaphors are used especially by political authorities and instrumentalized in reference to current issues (Edy, 2006). Therefore, it is generally accepted that history and collective memory are contradictory. The reason for this is the different views to the past. History tries to give an accurate break down of the past. In contrast, the past in collective remembering is often linked to today. The identity of the individual and the identity of the group are supported by the glorious history of society. In the collective memory, the negative aspects of the past have been omitted or ignored to show what kind of people we are (Roediger III et al., 2009).
It is seen that in the process of building a new nation it is applied to history knowledge and history is used both to instill self-confidence and to provide historicality with society. Hence, it is tried to make society to gain consciousness with the connection between the glorious past and causal present. In this context, the role of history in the interaction of memory and identity is not to add new knowledge to memory and identity, but to legitimize the elements that identity has taken from memory. In this respect, history is the supporter of memory in the formation of identity. Because without integration, unity and solidarity are not possible. Similarly, it is impossible to express oneself without identity (or vice versa). In this respect, it is meaningful that history (in fact, reinterpreted history for ideological purposes) plays an important role in creating a positive image of the new nation. History is used to ensure the pride of national heritage and instill a sense of belonging to a group (Karpat, 2017).
Cultural memory tends to focus on certain points of the past. Rather than the actual history, the remembered history is important as far as it is remembered. Because the story is a myth that is legendary and constitutive. The story that was told becomes legendary and used in a nation building. What is told to explain today is actually the memory of the story of the past. Because these stories cannot be spread spontaneously, they always need special narrators.←21 | 22→
The main function of the narrator is to protect the group memory. This narrative is institutionalized, artificial, formatted and ritualistic since it includes non-daily events. For this reason, participation has an important role in the preservation and transmission of cultural memory. Festivals are the times when participation is at the highest level. This temporal and spatial union re-constructs the cultural identity by giving a sense of belonging to the group. Apart from the festivals where cultural memory is formed and subjected to ritual rules, other carriers of social memory are ceremonies, narratives and monuments (Assmann, 2002). Similarly, the archives, museums, collections, anniversaries, monuments, memory spaces that serve as a castle are signs of belonging created by the eternity dreams of societies in order to witness another era (Nora, 1996). The events that are subject to commemoration for the societies are mysticized events that were experienced in history and explained with ceremonies. Mitigation makes, not the event itself, but the way of repetition and execution practice become unalterable. Ceremonies, which have certain rules and are repeated at regular intervals, are the events that express what is happened. Some things can only be expressed by ceremonies. For example, some emotions are consciously transferred to the participants through ceremonies (Connerton, 1989). In addition, memorial ceremonies, which are closely related to collective remembering, tend to avoid ambiguity and view the past from a single point of view with devotion (Wertsch, 2009). The ceremonies establish a relationship between the animated event and the animators, intersect the past with the present, and go beyond time and space with repetitions. The feelings and expressions revealed by the ceremonies are both institutionalized and formalized by the expression of the language and body into certain patterns. This concretization keeps the social memory alive. In this context, national ceremonies play an important role in the formation and survival of consciousness and thus contribute to social integration. However, ceremonies cannot always provide social integration. Sometimes ceremonies themselves, and sometimes their forms of celebration, can be felt by some segments of society as a means of legitimizing the practices of power and hence create discontent. In order to overcome this discontent, governments should aim to ensure that social participation and acceptance are at the highest level rather than making their mark on the ceremonies. Otherwise, the ceremonies that must provide social unity can lead to social divisions. On the other hand, groups renew their social identity by remembering the memories about their origins in these rituals and ceremonies through recall figures such as festivals, ceremonies, monuments, epics and memorial days within the subset of cultural memory. In this respect, the pillars of national culture are symbolized in the epics and tales that live in the community and constitute the source of our society. These direct ←22 | 23→society’s world of minds, beliefs and values. Their existence is possible only when the people adopt, sustain and make them part of their existence. They continue to exist as long as the people internalize them. This cultural exchange leaves deep traces in the formation of the child’s self and personality. Myths, jargons, patterns of behavior and symbols in epics, legends and tales play an important role in the development of the social self as well as in the development of the standard cultural values of society (Türkdoğan, 1996).
According to Assmann (2002), the common identity is the image created by a group and identified by group members. One cannot speak of a common identity on its own and it is a matter of identification of individuals. The common identity depends on the existence of individuals who define themselves in this identity. In addition, it is strong or weak to the extent that it affects consciousness and actions of the group members and is aware in the consciousness of group members. Because the common identity needs individuals who adopt it. So how is the common national identity built? According to Bilgin (2007), national identity is established with the past, history and legacy of the past. The national identity is constructed from a tradition loaded with symbols, memories, works of art, customs, habits, values, beliefs and knowledge, from the heritage of the past, in short, from social memory.
Living a common history means carrying a common identity. In the formation of social identity, individuals must have common feelings and create a common-sense world. In this context, it is seen that there is a close relationship between social memory and culture. Assmann (2002) asserts that social memory corresponds to culture. According to him, culture, together with civilization, is the name of the national consciousness that a nation has formed up to that day, and social memory comes into being through the human phenomenon. The cultural process, which is expressed and coded in common language, knowledge and memories, takes place in the form of cultural meanings formed by a set of common values, experiences and meanings that constitute the symbolic meaning world of a society. Common emotion arises from the circulation of common meanings. The “schematic narrative patterns” of a society cause “deep memories” that are different from other societies. Moreover, narrative patterns function at a level that can be called “deep collective memory” (Wertsch, 2009).
Social memory is the discovery of a common identity that unites the social group such as family or nation. The selection of any past is necessary to create social awareness. Collective memory, which constitutes an important foundation in the formation of national identity and nation building, also provides continuity among generations. According to Bilgin (2008), collective memory is often loaded with the mission of raising the self-esteem of the nations established after ←23 | 24→a war and glorifying their humiliated selves. The merger under a nation assumes a belonging to a common past. Therefore, in the construction of collective memory, the concern of reality is not carried. Collective memory provides the group members with narratives that tell the group members who they are, where they come from and where they go. These narratives praise the inner group and emphasize the group’s successes and marginalize the outside group. Thus, the group’s self-esteem is protected. The past, which is one of the most important sources that activate a community, is also a reference source in the discourses of identity demands. Our current perception of the world is in a close relationship with our past experiences (Bilgin, 2008). Moreover, memory has a determining and shaping power in shaping our present life. In social order, individuals share and carry the memory of the past. Narratives, rationalizations and sensations are the determining factors in the fictions of the past and these constitute the reference points for our identity. In other words, our existing achievements are largely dependent on the past, and the common images of the past are used as a tool to justify the present social order (Connerton, 1989).
A society’s recall of its history in a private or general way significantly affects how society sees itself. Values and social differences in adaption to the life can determine which dimensions are separated and valued by memory. In addition, it can be assumed that societies’ own specific ways of remembering their past is related to their own way of imagination of their future (Schacter et al., 2009). The role of social memory in cultural transportation comprise of values and behaviors and bring individuals in sense of belonging. The memories of the past are also related to where and how memory is formed. Without memory, it is difficult to differentiate between group identities and to interpret the relations between groups. Even the simplest conversations in everyday life are extremely complex and include what we do, our needs, where we belong. In this context, memory is an identifier for our individual and group identity. Social memory is a key identifier for the individual from the social and cultural viewpoints depending on time and space. Because it is the reconstruction of history related to the past and experiences and is mostly equipped with social and political narratives.
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- Economics Business Finance Health Economics International Relations
- Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2019., 360 pp., 75 tables, 15 graphs