Approaches to Health of Individuals Living in Different Cultures in Turkey

by Fatma Eti Aslan (Author)
©2019 Monographs 104 Pages


This book was created in the light of experiences considering how individuals in different cultures in Turkey evaluate the concepts of health and disease. It is important to know the cultural characteristics of the community to allow individuals and societies to participate by accepting this service in order to provide them with the desired level of health care. The conditions that are culturally important are generally overlooked in the presentation of health services – providing a proper cultural health care, understanding the dimensions of culture, leading to a holistic approach more than biophysicality, increasing knowledge, changing approaches and improving clinical skills.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Foreword
  • About the editor
  • About the book
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Contents
  • 1 Culture and Health Relationship
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Concept of Culture
  • 1.3 Properties of Culture
  • 1.4 Culture’s Elements
  • 1.5 Culture and Health
  • 1.6 Evaluation Example: Wound Care
  • 2 Culture and Health Relationship: Turkey Rumelia-Balkan Immigrants, Romanians and Alevi Public Cultural Properties Overview
  • 2.1 Balkan (Rumelia) Immigrants and Cultural Features
  • 2.1.1 Pomak Culture
  • Pomaklar with Ethnic Properties and Population Distribution
  • Pomaks with Religions and Languages
  • Marriage and Family Structure
  • Approach of Health and Disease
  • 2.2 Culture of Albanian
  • 2.2.1 Albanians with Ethnic Properties, Population, Languages and Beliefs
  • 2.2.2 Marriage and Family Structure
  • 2.2.3 Approach of Health and Disease
  • 2.3 Culture of Bosniaks
  • 2.3.1 Ethnic Characteristics, Populations, Languages and Their Beliefs of Bosnians
  • 2.3.2 Marriage and Family in Bosnians
  • 2.3.3 Approach to Health
  • 2.4 Culture of Circassian
  • 2.4.1 The Distribution of Ethnic Properties, Religion, Language and Population of Circassians
  • 2.4.2 Marriage and Family Structure
  • 2.4.3 Approach to Health
  • 2.5 Culture of Roman
  • 2.5.1 Romans with Ethnic Properties, Populations, Languages and Beliefs
  • 2.5.2 Marriage Pattern and Family Structure
  • 2.5.3 Approach to Health and Disease
  • 2.6 Culture of Alevi
  • 2.6.1 Alevis with Ethnic Properties, Populations, Languages and Beliefs
  • 2.6.2 Religious and Language Features
  • 2.6.3 Family Structure and Marriage
  • 2.6.4 Approach to Health and Disease
  • 3 Research Example
  • 3.1 Evaluation of Anatolian Alevi People Living in Istanbul with “Purnell’ Cultural Competence Model”
  • 3.1.1 Materials and Methods
  • 3.1.2 The Universe and Sample of Research
  • 3.1.3 Data collecting
  • 3.1.4 Data Evaluation
  • 3.1.5 Results and Discussion
  • General Information, Region of Residence: Reasons for the presence of migration to the region of residence, educational status, professional status assessed.
  • Settlement, Migration, Causes of Migration
  • Education
  • Job
  • Communication
  • Family Roles and Organizations
  • Head of the Family
  • Marriage
  • Severity
  • Workforce Status
  • Biological Features
  • Skin Color
  • Disease and Health Conditions
  • High Risk Behaviors
  • Nutrition
  • Pregnancy and Birth Practices
  • Death Rituals
  • Spirit
  • Health Care Practices
  • Health Care Workers
  • Conclusion and Suggestions
  • List of Table
  • References
  • About the Author

1 Culture and Health Relationship

1.1 Introduction

In response to the creations of nature, all kinds of values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors, and customs are defined as “culture”, which can be found, learned, shared and transferred between generations1. Culture is a share of values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors that are learned, taught and transmitted from generation to generations2. It serves as an important tool in shaping and interpreting the environment in order to preserve human health, to ensure its welfare and to maintain its existence by transferring these shares, which will ensure the continuity of life.

We live in a global world where people’s interactions from different cultures are increasing every day. Globalization; it brings economic, social, political and cultural ties between the various regions of the world. In addition, there are many changes in the economic, political, social, social and health fields3,4,5. It is important to be aware of the cultural differences and their effects among people in such a world. In the last century, in almost all regions of the world, together with globalization, wars, ethnic conflicts, environmental crises, suppressing regimes, economic collapse, as well as immigrant asylum seekers in many people, country or other countries or forced immigration. In this case, the multicultural population structures formed by individuals, families and groups from different cultures and ←11 | 12→subcultures are emerging in the world6,7. The situation now focuses on the world’s health policy approaches in recent years, primarily to prevent inequality and discrimination in ethnic traits and health8. Complex, similar and diverse cultural insights are common in multicultural societies based on cultural diversity. These are cultural insights; it is shaped by many factors such as age, gender, race, ethnic characteristics, socio-economic class, religious identity, religious rituals, education, etc. In other words, each individual perceives the world from its own culture window.

Due to the global world and the conditions it brings with it, it is necessary for the different cultural groups to live together or to establish intercultural interactions with health professionals for a number of reasons. The health team has highly increased the importance of raising health professionals who are well-known for their culture and who are equipped with cultural knowledge and skills to meet the cultural needs of societies. For this reason, it is necessary to recognize, be sensitive to and respect the cultural differences of individuals within the community for effective health care9,10.

1.2 Concept of Culture

In the interpretation of linguistics related to the word culture, the basic meaning of the word agriculture is observed. It is suggested that the word “culture” comes from the word “Ederecultura”, which is used in Latin for farming, mowing, etc.11. Similarly, another study suggests that the origin ←12 | 13→of the word culture is “Cultura”, derived from the root of “co-” which contains meanings such as “residence, cultivate and protect” in Latin12. The term “Ekin”, which is used as a term for culture in Turkish, is also derived from the verbs, given that the plants grown under various conditions are called culture plants. The word “culture” means that the root of agriculture is influenced by other meanings and uses that are then loaded13.

Philosophers, educational scientists, social scientists and anthropologists are the leading researchers who produce various definitions on the concept of culture14. Culture in these areas, “Social heritage, the way of life, thought systems, values, etc.” were tried to be explained in the angles. Previously, the definitions of “the culture of anything” have been replaced by the primary culture-oriented definition of the 18th century. In these definitions, culture was first considered as a form of general thought, and later expressed the development of social intellectuals, and was thought to be the general structure of art, and in the end of this century as “the way of thinking and spiritual life”, defined in 12 ,13,15.

When the literature is examined, the concept of “culture”, which is seen to have a large number of recognitions, has gained a new dimension today with the framework of post modernism and globalization Conceptually, in order to define culture, it is necessary to recognize and understand the practices of beliefs, feelings, thoughts, life forms, etc., which are transmitted from generations to generation, in the framework of the historical process. In conjunction with the conditions brought by globalization, no cultural structure is living in a completely separate way from other cultural groups This is precisely why it is not easy to define the concept of culture and the processes that are related to it nowadays16. According to Williams (2016), ←13 | 14→the lack of consensus on the concept of culture suggests that the word stems from the use of different thought systems17.

The concept of culture for the first time in 1871 by Edward Tylor in the book “Primitive Culture” is a complex whole that encompasses the knowledge, art, morality, traditions and other similar talents and habits that mankind has gained as a member of the Society. “described18,19 . In this definition, Taylor combines the complex integrity of culture with his human-synthesized observation, expressing that culture has gained an abstract concept and a theory value beyond a complete definition 20. One of the first definitions of the concept of culture belongs to Geert Hofstede. The Hofstede culture describes “the whole of a human community, which distinguishes it from the rest and the mental programs that are unique to every human community.”

According to Hofstede, culture, which is a kind of mental programming process, begins primarily in the family of the individual, develops in education and working environment and continues to be added to social life. Thus, culture is transferred to the generation of generations at the end of a learning process21. According to Güvenç, culture, “as a member of the Society, living, by doing, learned and taught by the material spiritual is the whole complex of everything” 22. According to the Turkish language institution, culture, “Historically, all the material and spiritual values created in the process of social development, and the creation of them, to the next generations used to convey, the measure of sovereignty of man’s natural and social environment is the whole of vehicles” 23. According to the cultural definition of the UNESCO World Cultural Policy Conference in the conclusion Declaration, culture is the widest meaning; “It is a combination ←14 | 15→of the distinctive material, spiritual, intellectual and emotional traits that define a society or a social group, and not only in science and literature, but also in the forms of life, fundamental rights of man, value judgments, It is a phenomenon that encompasses its traditions and beliefs”24.

To summarize the culture in the light of the definitions in the literature, “It can be said that individuals or societies are a complex whole of tangible and abstract elements that they make to accomplish their objectives in the historical process.” In other words, culture is one of our vital functions. Because human beings have been trying to understand, explain and systematically question their relationship with the world since its existence, and they need to be enriched by both culture and culture by transferring it from generations to generation.

1.3 Properties of Culture

In line with the various definitions of culture, Göçer (2013) has outlined the characteristics of the culture in a more descriptive and systematic way to support culture definitions as follows25:

i. Since culture is a learned phenomenon, it is necessary to comply with the rules of education and the laws.

ii. The culture continues to exist between generations because it can be transferred from generation through language.

iii. The internal dynamics and teachings of each culture vary from community to society.

iv. While culture is a growing concept in social life, individual attitudes, values and behaviors also have an important place in the cultural phenomenon.

v. Culture is a dynamic phenomenon that includes private and life experiences and meets social needs.

←15 | 16→


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2019 (October)
Culture and health relationship Turkey Rumeli-Balkan immigrants Romanians and Alevi public cultural properties overview Research example
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2019. 104 pp., 1 tables.

Biographical notes

Fatma Eti Aslan (Author)

Fatma Eti Aslan is Professor of Health Sciences at Bahcesehir University. She obtained her nursing license from Istanbul University, Florence Nightingale Nursing School; her master degree from Istanbul University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing; and her doctoral degree from Istanbul University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing. She has published widely on nursing and health care.


Title: Approaches to Health of Individuals Living in Different Cultures in Turkey
book preview page numper 1
book preview page numper 2
book preview page numper 3
book preview page numper 4
book preview page numper 5
book preview page numper 6
book preview page numper 7
book preview page numper 8
book preview page numper 9
book preview page numper 10
book preview page numper 11
book preview page numper 12
book preview page numper 13
book preview page numper 14
book preview page numper 15
book preview page numper 16
book preview page numper 17
book preview page numper 18
book preview page numper 19
book preview page numper 20
book preview page numper 21
106 pages