Changing Educational Paradigms: New Methods, Directions, and Policies

by Sakir Cinkir (Volume editor)
©2020 Edited Collection 422 Pages


EJER Congress is one of the most innovative and interdisciplinary conferences in the field of education. It brings together a wide range of researchers in the field of education from all over the world. The chapters in this book cover varied topics concerning the new educational paradigms, research methods, new directions, and policies including teacher training, professional development, drama, creativity, special education needs, educational management and leadership, academic achievement, pedagogy, teaching language, and quality of life in the field of educational research as well as other related interdisciplinary areas.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • The Effect of Using Olfactory Systems in Class Environment
  • Prediction Quality of Life: A Turkish and an Iranian Examples
  • The Effectiveness of Foreign Language Preparatory Program According to the Parents’ Opinions
  • A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Training Curricula at Cambridge, New York, Tokyo, Sydney and Hacettepe Universities
  • Current Issues in Creativity Measurement & Analyses of the Most Popular Creativity Tests
  • The Differences in Text Structures Used in Teaching How to Write: The Case of the Informative Text
  • Teachers’ Lifelong Learning Tendencies and the Role of In-Service Training Activities of the Ministry of National Education
  • Examination of the Problems Posed by Preservice Elementary Mathematics Teachers
  • The Effects of Drama Training Program on Social Information Processing at Preschool Classrooms in Which Inclusive Education is Present
  • Use of Information Technologies in Administrative Processes: Views of School Administrators and Teachers
  • Evaluation of Parents’ Occupational Expectations About Their Children with Mental Disabilities
  • The Effects of the Social Media Usage Habits of Adolescents on Attitudes
  • Analysis of a Physics Lesson at a High School Hosting Hearing Impaired Students as Part of Inclusion Practice
  • A Metaphorical Analysis of the Primary School Teachers’ Perceptions of Financial Literacy: A Phenomenological Study1∗
  • The Effect of Arduino Based Class Activities on High School Students’ Academic Success
  • Candidate Counselors’ Views on Having Supervision in Individual Counselling Practicum Course
  • Positive and Negative Supervision Experiences of Educators and School Environment and Conditions that Cause Them
  • Intellectual Paradigms of Educational Management and Administration in Turkey
  • Views of Teachers and Principals on Uplifting Leadership
  • Key to Academic Success: Predictors of Cognitive Self-Regulation in Children Under Care
  • An Investigation of Ongoing Tactile Communication in a Preschool Classroom
  • Shared Pedagogy: The Autoethnographic Mapping of Movement
  • Investigation of Parents’ Perceptions of Male Early Childhood Teachers
  • Turkish and Persian Adaptation Study of the Quality of Life Inventory
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables

List of Contributors

Abdullah Alper Efe

Corresponding Author, PhD.
Candidate, Gazi University,
Technology Faculty, Department of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
Ankara, Turkey, efe.alper@gazi.edu.tr

Mehmet Akif Ocak

Assoc. Prof. Dr., Gazi University,
Faculty of Education, Department
of Computer and Instructional
Technologies, Ankara, Turkey,

Zakieh Asle Kandroodi

Core Pilates and Psychological
Counseling Center, Eskișehir, Turkey,

Arif Özer

Corresponding Author, Hacettepe
University, Institute of Educational
Sciences, Department of Counseling,
Turkey, arifozer@hacettepe.edu.tr

Ayhan Kandemir

Teacher (MNE), Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal
University, ayh_81@hotmail.com

Asiye Toker-Gokce

Assoc. Prof. Dr., Kocaeli University,
Faculty of Education,

Belgin Özaydinli-Tanriverdi

The University of Kocaeli, Faculty of
Education, Curriculum and Instruction
Department, belgintnvrd@gmail.com

Burak Türkman

Dr., Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa,

Çağrı Kaygisiz

University of Turkish Aeronautical
Association, cgr.kaygisiz@gmail.com

Ebru Burcu Çimili-Gök

Teacher, PhD. Antalya M. Asım Cula
Middle School, ebruburcu@gmail.com

Ebru Saka

Dr., Kafkas University, Faculty of
Education, ebrudmirci@gmail.com

Sevilay Alkan

Dr., Ministry of Education,

Duygu Arabaci

Dr., Düzce University, Faculty of
Education, duyguarabaci@düzce.edu.tr

Fatma Betül Şenol

Corresponding Author, Dr., Afyon
Kocatepe University, Faculty
of Education, fatmabetulsenol@gmail.com

Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty
of Education, fatmabetulsenol@gmail.com

Emine Nilgün Metin

Prof. Dr., Hacettepe University, Health
Sciences Faculty, enmetin@gmail.com

Gökhan Cantürk

Corresponding Author, Dr.,S.Teacher (MoNE),
Karatay Anatolian High School Kepez, Antalya,

Türkan Aksu
Asisstant Prof. Akdeniz University
Faculty of Education,

←9 | 10→

Gülşah Tura

Assistant Professor, Kocaeli University,
Faculty of Education, Department of
Psychological Counseling,

Pınar Bayhan

Hacettepe University, Faculty of
Health Science, Child Development
Department, pinars@hacettepe.edu.tr

Hülya Tercan

Hacettepe University, Faculty of
Health Science, Child Development
Department, hulya.tercan@hacettepe.edu.tr

İhsan Evren Aktürel

Dr., Research Center for Education of
Hearing-impaired Children (RCEHIC),
Anadolu University, Yunusemre
Kampusu, İÇEM, Tepebasi, Eskişehir,

Hasan Gürgür

Assoc. Dr., Faculty of Education,
Anadolu University, Yunusemre
Kampusu, Egitim Fakultesi, Ozel
Egitim Bolumu, Tepebasi, Eskişehir,

Koray Kasapoğlu

Corresponding Author, Dr., Afyon
Kocatepe University, Faculty of
Education, Department of Educational
Sciences, Division of Curriculum and
Instruction, 03200, Afyonkarahisar

Melek Didin

M. Sc. Student, Afyon Kocatepe
University, Graduate School of Social
Sciences, Curriculum and Instruction
Master’s Program (with Thesis), 03200,

Mehmet Akif Ocak

Corresponding Author, Assoc. Prof.
Dr., Gazi University, Faculty of
Education, Department of Computer
and Instructional Technologies,
Ankara, TURKEY, maocak@gazi.edu.tr

Abdullah Alper Efe

PhD. Candidate, Gazi University,
Technology Faculty, Department of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
Ankara, TURKEY, efe.alper@gazi.edu.tr

O. Nejat Akfirat

Corresponding Author, Kocaeli
University, Faculty of Education,

Yıldız Öztan-Ulusoy

Kocaeli University, Faculty of
Education, yildizoz@kocaeli.edu.tr

Süleyman Göksoy

Associate Prof. Dr. University of Duzce,
Faculty of Education, Educational
Sciences, Konuralp Kampüsü, Düzce

Şakir Çınkır

Dr. Ankara University, Faculty of
Educational Sciences,
e-mail: cinkir@gmail.com

Serdar Özçetin

Corresponding Author, Assist.
Prof. Dr., Akdeniz University,
Antalya, Turkey,

Mualla Bilgin-Aksu

Prof. Dr., Akdeniz University, Antalya,
Turkey, muallaaksu@akdeniz.edu.tr

←10 | 11→

Seren Güneş

Corresponding Author, Middle East
Technical University, Department of

Aybegüm Memişoğlu Sanlı

Middle East Technical University,
Department of Psychology,

Sema Erel-Gözağaç

Hacettepe University, Department of
Psychology, semaerel@hacettepe.edu.tr

Sümeyra Eryiğit

Corresponding Author, Department
of Elementary and Early Childhood
Education, Faculty of Education,
Middle East Technical University,

Refika Olgan

Department of Elementary and
Early Childhood Education, Faculty
of Education, Middle East Technical
University, rolgan@metu.edu.tr

Sonya Grace Turkman

Istanbul Technical University,

Turan Gülçiçek

Corresponding Author, Department
of Early Childhood Education,
Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University,

Feyza Tantekin-Erden

Department of Elementary and Early
Childhood Education, Middle East
Technical University,

Zakieh Asle Kandroodi

Core Pilates and Psychological
Counseling Center, Eskișehir, Turkey,

Arif Özer

Corresponding Author, Hacettepe
University, Institute of Educational
Sciences, Department of Counseling,
Turkey, arifozer@hacettepe.edu.tr

Abdullah Alper Efe, Mehmet Akif Ocak

The Effect of Using Olfactory Systems in Class Environment

Abstract: The aim of this clinical research is to identify relationships between effectiveness of ambient scent environment and problem solving abilities. This study presented findings of a clinical research related to olfaction studies and relevant studies researching the scent effect in educational class environments. Recruited participant met two different problem-solving stages to get insights to what degree ambient scent affected to solve problems. The pre-test design included odorless environment, while post-test design was administered in scented environment. This study used operating EEG (electroencephalography) based brain computer interface. Routine EEG shooting was performed before and after olfactory stimulation. Results showed that EEG results before and after the treatment were normal and non-routine EEG shooting was not observed before and after olfactory stimulation. Findings indicated that ambient scent environment did not make any change on participant’s behaviors and study habits. The findings argue and provide guidelines for educators concerning the benefits of scented class environments. The results of this analysis can be used to find which educational issues such as recall correlate with specific ambient scent properties. The findings may be useful in finding how olfactory systems might increase learning and teaching activities in different learning environments.

Keywords: Ambient scentsense of smellstudent behaviorodorclass environment


Some studies dealt with presenting a review of theoretically work from smell research and relevant studies investigating the effect of smell in educational class environments. In these kinds of studies (Sona, Dietl, & Steidle, 2018; Spence, Obrist, Velasco, & Ranasinghe, 2017), researchers investigated the effect of ambient scent in different environments to see how the use of odors changed people’s behaviors and attitudes. For example, Lin, Cross, Jones, and Childers (2018) contended that individual contrasts in olfactory affectability must be considered, uncovering directing consequences for intellectual and enthusiastic procedures. The results provided guidelines for educators and administrators concerning the benefits of scented class environments. In fact, the research showed that there was a lack of research on the effect of scented environment on students’ behaviors, attitudes and their engagement in classes. There is a need to look at the user in ambient scent in order to support decision-making and design processes as well as learning (Dangelmaier, & Blach, 2017). Prior research showed that researchers investigated several dimensions of the class environment including music, color, cleanliness, ←13 | 14→and circulation of the air in break times (Spangenberg, Crowley, & Henderson, 1996). The studies generally focused on ambient scent, which might be of a greater interest that could affect students’ perceptions of class content and in-class activities. In addition, prior research investigated students’ concentration and interest as different parameters regarding ambient scent. For example, Madzharov, Ye, Morrin, & Block (2018) showed that individuals in an espresso scented (versus unscented) condition performed better on a scientific thinking task due to elevated execution desires. Similarly, Sona et al., 2018) argued the effect of the recuperation procedure of reproduced situations on close to home assets. Data analysis demonstrated that tactile enhanced situations were seen as more remedial than less advanced conditions.

Prior research clearly supports the idea of using ambient scent in class environment that people’s interest and motivation increase 45% in scented environment (Hirsch and Gay, 1991). Although there was a huge interest on the effect of ambient scent, it seemed clear that a few researches investigated the effect of using smell on students’ class behaviors. Some studies explained electronic nose and sensors in terms of processing scent topics (Huang, Wu, Chen, Weng, & Zhang, 2018). Moreover, other studies investigated communication factors and their relation to using ambient scent. In terms of technical aspect, electronic nose and especially olfactory displays are important technologies together with relevant physiological issues. Kaiser (2006), in his book, studied diverse floral characteristics and showed that each of ambient scent has unique effects and importance on human behavior. It seems clear that scent has a trigged factor in terms of directing people to certain behaviors. This issue is also related to motivational theories. Researchers failed to express physiological and motivational effect of ambient scent (Gottschalk, 2018). Understanding physiological, chemical and communicative properties of the ambient scent might be a prominent factor on affecting and directing students in the class environment. Many researchers handled ambient of scent in terms of advertising and marketing perspective; however, findings are unclear because the research has not been conducted in educational environments nor has it been summited to experimental analysis. There are still a number of key questions with regard to using ambient scent in learning environments that will need to be addressed before any real progress can be made in delivering plausible solutions to prior research (Spence et al., 2017). Prior research mostly showed the importance of the consistency between scent and product marketing strategies. However, this research differentiated the context where a scent was presented in an environment in which individual attempted to solve a problem and showed decision making procedure.

EEG Analysis

Prior research defines the electroencephalography (EEG) as electrical action of a rotating type recorded from the scalp surface subsequent to being grabbed by metal terminals and conductive media (Teplan, 2002). Electroencephalography signal ←14 | 15→includes diverse cerebrum waves checking mind electrical movement as indicated by terminal arrangements and working in the adjoining cerebrum areas (Bora & Yeni, 2006). Cognitive behavior of brain activities can be analyzed by either signals or images from the brain. EEG Analysis allows researchers to visualize human behavior in terms of motor and sensory stages such as hyperventilation, pensive, eye movement, photic stimulation, swallowing, scented and odorless environment. (Maurer& Dierks, 1991; Sirven, & Stern, 2011). In spite of the fact that EEG signs are non-direct in nature, significant highlights can be extricated by utilizing propelled sign handling (Fulpatil, & Meshram, 2014). In this study, the effect of ambient scent on participant’s problem solving and decision-making was analyzed by using the EEG signals. As indicated by Adhalli, Umadevi, Guruprasad, and Hegde (2016), this study tried to understand how the problem solving ability are dependent on the ambient scent and how the decision making process undergoes changes in terms of autonomic and central nervous system by analyzing the EEG signals.

Ambient Scent and Learning Environments

An in-depth analysis of literature review showed that studies regarding ambient scent were mostly published between the years 1990–2018 in the following indexes: Council of High Education Thesis Center, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Google Scholar, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), and Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ). This study systematically reviewed research articles, published dissertations and several industrial applications to find how the ambient of the scent effected students’ behaviors in learning environments. This research found that the literature on this issue was very broad and many diverse disciplines studied this concept from different aspects. As marketing and advertising seems to be prominent disciplines for this issue, also psychological and neurological effects seemed to be important to the researchers. For example, Roschk, Loureiro, & Breitsohl (2017) presented a meta-examination of 66 studies and 135 impacts (N = 15,621) aligning the air impacts of music, fragrance, and shading on shopping results. The outcomes demonstrated that situations wherein music or fragrance were available yielded higher joy, fulfillment, and social goal evaluations when contrasted and conditions in which such conditions were missing. There is a shortage of investigation on educational aspects of ambient of scent. For example, the relationship of scent with learning is mostly restricted with verbal learning, classical conditioning, operand conditioning, observing and cognitive learning. The idea of using ambient scent was listed in various academic disciplines by which the studies used the ambient of scent as an effective factor for human behavior. In this sense, emotionally responses and shopping behaviors were much related to ambient of scent (Efe, 2017). Zhou and Yamanaka (2017) investigated the effect of scent on the mood evaluation of music by using four kinds of scents and two music samples. The results showed the potential of scent to enhance listening experience, and adopting appropriate scent to achieve advanced listening experience. Our purpose in this study was ←15 | 16→to determine whether ambient scent effected participant’s behaviors and study habits in the learning environment. The theoretical basis of the study is based on environmental psychology. Moreover, some studies (Baron, 1990; Lin et al., 2018) also argued that ambient of scent effected humans’ one-way and two-ways communication with other organisms.

Problem solving and decision making activities seemed to be an important parameter regarding finding the effect of smell on human behavior (Dangelmaier, & Blach, 2017). In this sense, Demirtürk (2016), in his study, investigated effectiveness of smell on participants’ decision-making strategies. Demirtürk supported his research with advertising technics and used comparative research method. According to results, the relationship between smell and emotion and decision making mechanism was revealed. Spangenberg et al. (1996) found that there was a distinction among assessments and practices of individuals in scented condition and those in unscented condition. The study argues that based on prior research educational environments must be evaluated in terms of using ambient of scent. Prior research suggests that scenting the environment may have a greater impact on people’s decision-making strategies (Gvili, Levy, & Zwilling, 2018). A sense of joy, pleasing, relaxing and comforting factors related to using scented products could positively affect processes for studying habit. Baron (1990) found that several aspects of participants’ behavior were influenced by ambient scent produced by air-fresheners. Gottschalk (2018) also added significant knowledge to fragrance advertising writing by tending to extra limit factors which so far have been ignored. Results revealed that, in scented environment, participants set higher goals on certain tasks than those in unscented environment. Thus, it would be a good idea to determine the research method and technological tools used in the prior research and report the results related the use of scent in educational settings.

The Purpose of the Study

The literature review clearly shows that different properties of the ambient scent might be a leading factor on effecting and directing students in the learning environments. Because of this reason, marketing and advertising seemed to be favorable areas for handling ambient of scent. However, research findings are murky since the experimental research in education field regarding ambient scent is very rare. This clinical research tries to investigate the effect of ambient on the participant to find out how the ambient environment effect participant problem solving activities.

Based on a review of theoretically work from ambient scent research and relevant studies investigating the effect of smell in educational class environments, the following question was determined as research question:

Is there a significant distinction among pre-and post-test scores of participant who performed algorithm analysis of the given codes?

←16 | 17→


Research Design

In this clinical study, researchers preferred to use case study approach since it was important to identify the participant’s motor skills abilities while answering pre-test and post-test questions.

Therefore, pre-test and post-test design was used for research model. Before the treatment, the participant was given pre-test and expected to solve the problem within 30 minutes in odorless environment (Fig. 1). After that, the post-test was given to participant in scented environment. The difference between pre-test and post-test scores was analyzed by using EEG analysis. The aim was to compare and contrast pre- and post-tests and try to find a working relationship between tests.


A graduate student participated in the study voluntarily. Arduino based coding of traffic lamp experiment (Ocak & Efe, 2019) was used as pre-test. Arduino based coding of Knight Rider experiment was used as post-test. Researchers mostly argue that purposive sampling method is the more suitable for this kind of clinical experiments. As Fraenkel, Wallen, and Hyun (2011) state, in purposive sampling, researchers generally utilize individual judgment to choose an example dependent on past information of a populace and a particular reason for the exploration. Participant was selected based on coding experience.

Research Instrument and Procedure

In order to identify the brain activities before and after the treatment, this study used EEG Analysis in clinical environment. The experiment was conducted in one of the research hospitals in Ankara, capital of Turkey. Necessary permissions and ←17 | 18→content form for the participant were obtained. The Department of Neurosurgery gave permission to researchers to use EEG device for the experiment (EEG stands for electroencephalography). In this study, 20-channel EEG Monitoring Machines (Nihon Kohden) was used (Fig. 2). The condition of experiment room was good enough to conduct to experiment. The participant used a TV chair to answer the given tests (Fig. 3). In addition, 2 ECG (Electrocardiography) electrodes was also used (Fig. 4).

←18 | 19→

Researchers assessed content validity by using qualitative techniques. The content validity of the pre- and post- tests was examined by two field experts. Based on real experiences and perceptions by the experts, researchers finalized the tests. Moreover, researchers assessed the reliability of the tests by administering the tests at two different times (test-retest reliability) and seeing the degree of variation. The degree of variation showed 93% of similarity between test-retest reliability.

This study used Arduino based coding questions to identify any difference and similarities in EEG analysis. In order to do that, the participant was given 30 minutes to compete pre-test. Pre-test was traffic light experiment. The participant was expected to draw flow diagram of coding. In this time, technician carried out EEG analysis. For the pre-test process, normal, pensive, eyes open, HV start and swallowing steps were conducted meticulously and EEG video shooting was also conducted to monitor the participant while solving traffic light experiment (Fig. 5). HV (Hyperventilation) is a condition wherein you begin to inhale exceptionally quick. Sound breathing happens with a solid harmony between taking in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide. You upset this parity when you hyperventilate by breathing out more than you breathe in. After completing pre-test process, researchers gave 5 minutes break and the experimental room was cleared with room spray every 5 minutes. Post-test was Arduino based Knight Rider experiment. Researchers expected the participant to solve flow diagram of Knight Rider coding. At the same time, the room was filled with room spray every 5 minutes. During the post-test process, normal, HV start, HV finish, photic stimulation start, photic stimulation finish steps were followed consecutively (Fig. 6).


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2020 (February)
Education paradigms Educational research New directions Educational policies Education methodology
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2020. 422 pp., 44 fig. b/w, 80 tables.

Biographical notes

Sakir Cinkir (Volume editor)

Şakir Çinkir earned his MA degree from Ankara University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Educational Management and Planning and his Ed.D in 2001 from the School of Education, at Leeds University, through his engagement with the MoNE-WB Project for the Development of National Education. He was the director of the Educational Research Center at Ankara University and ever since has been teaching at its Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Educational Management and Policy. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER), and the Founder and the President of International Eurasian Educational Research Congress (EJERCongress).


Title: Changing Educational Paradigms: New Methods, Directions, and Policies
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