The Perception of Employer Branding in relation with Organizational Commitment, Organizational Identification and Communication Climate in Higher Education Institutions

by İsmet Burçak Vatansever Durmaz (Author)
Thesis 186 Pages

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Acknowledgment
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Literature Review
  • 1 Employer Branding
  • 1.1 Relations Between Employer Branding and HR Functions
  • 1.1.1 Selection and assignment
  • 1.1.2 Education and development
  • 1.1.3 Performance management
  • 1.1.4 Career management
  • 1.2 Theoretical Principles of Employer Branding
  • 1.2.1 Organizational ecology theory
  • 1.2.2 Organizational attractiveness frame
  • 1.2.3 Psychological contract theory
  • 1.2.4 Person-Environment fit theory
  • 1.2.5 Characteristics and Objectives of Employer Branding
  • 1.3 The Process of Creating an Employer Branding
  • 1.4 Importance of Employer Branding
  • 1.5 The Needs for a Successful Employer Brand and Its Results
  • 1.6 Dimensions of Employer Branding
  • 1.7 Importance of Employer Branding in Higher Education Institutions
  • 2 Organizational Commitment
  • 2.1 The Concept of Organizational Commitment
  • 2.2 Effective Elements on Organizational Commitment
  • 2.2.1 Communication
  • 2.2.2 Job satisfaction
  • 2.2.3 Organizational trust
  • 2.2.4 Organizational discipline
  • 2.2.5 Promotion
  • 2.2.6 Organizational culture
  • 2.2.7 Manager profile
  • 2.2.8 Organizational management approach
  • 2.3 Dimensions of Organizational Commitment
  • 2.3.1 Affective commitment
  • 2.3.2 Continuous commitment
  • 2.3.3 Normative commitment
  • 2.4 Responsibility of Organizations and Employees on Organizational Commitment
  • 2.5 Levels of Organizational Commitment
  • 2.5.1 Low level of organizational commitment
  • 2.5.2 Mid-level of organizational commitment
  • 2.5.3 High level of organizational commitment
  • 2.6 Indicators of Organizational Commitment
  • 2.7 Importance of Organizational Commitment
  • 2.8 Organizational Commitment in Higher Education Institutions
  • 3 Organizational Identification
  • 3.1 Organizational Identity
  • 3.2 Tools and Indicators of Organizational Identity
  • 3.3 Organizational Identification
  • 3.4 Social Identity Theory
  • 3.5 Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Identification
  • 3.6 Main Differences Between Organizational Identification and Commitment
  • 3.7 Organizational Identification in Higher Education Institutions
  • 4 Communication Climate
  • 4.1 The Concept of Communication Climate
  • 4.2 Supportive and Defensive Communication Climates
  • 4.2.1 Defensive communication climate
  • Evaluation
  • Control
  • Strategy
  • Neutrality
  • Superiority/Domination
  • Certainty
  • 4.2.2 Supportive communication climate
  • Provisionalism
  • Empathy
  • Being egalitarian
  • Spontaneity
  • Problem Orientation
  • Description
  • 4.3 Studies About Communication Climate
  • 4.4 The Role of Leaders in Communication Climate
  • 4.5 Communicatıon Climate in Higher Education Institutions
  • Methodology
  • 1 Aim of the Study and Research Questions
  • 2 Model of the Study and Hypotheses
  • 3 Hypothesis Development
  • 3.1 Independent Variable-Employer Branding
  • 3.2 Dependent Variables
  • 3.2.1 Organizational commitment
  • 3.2.2 Organizational identification
  • 3.2.3 Communication climate and moderating effect of communication climate
  • 3.3 Control Variables
  • 4 Measurement Scales
  • 4.1 Employer Branding
  • 4.2 Organizational Commitment
  • 4.3 Organizational Identification
  • 4.4 Communication Climate
  • 5 Preliminary Study
  • 6 Data Collection Method and Procedure
  • 7 Statistical Analysis Used
  • 8 Participants
  • Results
  • 1 Correlation Analysis
  • 2 Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Reliability Test of the Scales
  • 2.1 Employer Branding
  • 2.2 Communication Climate
  • 2.3 Organizational Identification
  • 2.4 Organizational Commitment
  • 3 Configural and Metric Invariance Tests
  • 4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis
  • 5 Test of Convergent and Divergent Validity
  • 5.1 Convergent Validity
  • 5.2 Divergent Validity
  • 6 Common Method Bias
  • 7 Hypotheses Testing
  • 7.1 Testing of Direct Relationships
  • 7.2 Testing of Moderating Relationships
  • 8 Multigroup Analyses of Control Variables
  • Conclusion & Discussion
  • 1 General Results and Theoretical Implications
  • 2 Managerial Implications
  • 3 Limitations and Future Research
  • 4 Conclusion
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Bibliography


“If you need the right people on the bus to deliver your strategic intent, you first need to ensure that you make your bus attractive to the right people”

(Mosley 2007)

It has become very important to create value in the eyes of employees as well as for consumers to provide competitive advantage for companies. One of the factors that companies should implement is to create a brand name in order to be able to create this value. Around these conditions, within the global marketplace, “brand” has become one of the most important factors which shape employee behavior and performance. Brands do not only meet the physical needs of the consumer, but they also fulfill the psychological needs of their employees. Employees give importance to the brand which they work for in order to put themselves out. Organizations notice the brand which they own in the market in relation to their competitors and with this distinguished brand it creates customer and employee satisfaction. Therefore, the value of a brand has become directly related to the perceptions and feelings of employees about the company.

The value of a brand is related to the employer branding term which is firstly introduced as a marketing term, and latterly this terminology enters the human resource management world. Organizations have to work on the desired level of employer branding internally and also externally to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. (Sehgal and Malati 2013)

According to the employer branding term, employees think that a company is the “best place to work”. The employer brand plays an active role in bringing successful staff to the company. Organizations’ brand attracts the candidate personnel to the company and in this respect the firm has the chance to choose the best personnel. In the employer brand management activity, the main purpose is to keep existing customers (current employees) while attracting new customers (potential candidates and potential employees). As well as in the consumer brand, emotional and rational benefits offered by the employer to the employees (current/potential employees) should be foregrounded in the employer’s brand perspective. (Baş 2011a, p.29–30)

Today’s companies have realized the importance of internal customers as well as their external customers in marketing their products and services. In this context, the concept of employer brand has become not only one of the important ←13 | 14→developments of the 1990s but also a concept considered by many companies (Tüzüner et al. 2009).

For creating employer branding perspective, a supportive environment should be created within the organization. This understanding should not be isolated; it should be spread out to each level and department within the organization. Also, in order to be effective for the employer brand, a good communication network is needed. Besides that, a strong employer brand increases the level of commitment of employees as well as their motivation and performance, employee references, managerial satisfaction, a strong organizational culture, competitive power and decline in recruitment cost. In addition, it has been observed that those who think that their work activities are meaningful, targeted and valuable are more successful in their work life and their emotional health is stronger.

According to the Modway, Steers and Porter (1979), commitment to the company is the belief that increases the interest of the company through employee behavior. Also, commitment is determined by the employee’s goals and objectives, and along with that, employee’s efforts to achieve those goals and ensuring continuity in the company. Commitment to the organization is that the employee has a high sense of belonging, especially because of his emotional attachment, can embrace it and act in harmony with the company. (Kryger Aggerholm et al. 2011)

Organizations have to work consistently and continuously to have a strong employer brand. At this point, an organization’s communication efforts have a key role in having and maintaining a strong employer brand. In the process of employer brand management, establishing good relationships with existing and potential employees as well as with all other stakeholders depends on effective communication efforts. Corporate communication and public relations departments, human resources departments and marketing departments have to work collaborately for directing and managing internal and external communication studies.

Organizational structures have begun to change with the employer brand and the importance of internal communication has increased. The solidity and quality of communication with the employees within the organization is also important in terms of the preference of the potential employees of the organization (Foster et.al., 2010).

In an organization with an employer brand, dedicated employees are encouraged to be included in major decision-making processes about the operation. Besides that, the employees set their own goals and make great effort to reach those goals. The aim is to improve the workforce that is connected to organizational values and objectives. Therefore, in the process of employer brand ←14 | 15→management, organizations have to ensure the consistency in communication messages for potential and current employees (Ariffin 2014).

It is easier to plan, carry out and coordinate the activities in organizations where the communication system is effective. Organizations aim to increase the sense of sharing in their employees by establishing an effective communication system and to reduce negative conflict and pressure in the business environment. Through communication, employees are connected to each other, thus facilitating the processing of organizational functions more effectively and efficiently. Many researchers have stated that organizational communication climate improves the productivity and performance of employees and provides positive organizational benefits. At the same time, effective communication within the organization also influences organizational structure, culture, relationships among employees, the use of technology, the flow of authority, employee behaviors and performances. Effective and open communication climate always brings good performance to the organizations (Buchholz et al. 2001, p.3).

An open communication climate is a form of communication in which employees communicate their complaints and views without hesitation to their managers, freely discuss their opinions among themselves and freely transfer information and concerns about processes through horizontal and vertical channels. Such communication can be best described as supporting, participatory and reliable communication (Buchholz et al. 2001, p.3).

An increase in the organizational commitment of employees can be observed when a number of activities are carried out in order to recognize and meet the expectations of the employees from the institutions through internal communication climate (Bartels et al. 2007).

In connection with all these matters, the extent to which members of the organization acquire sufficient and accurate information from their organizations, the degree of identification increases. In addition, the organizational identification of an organization member is shaped by how often it communicates and the content of interaction. Andrews Basler and Coller (1999) stated that employees who play a central role in the communication network are much more strongly identified with their organizations. Besides that, several studies indicate that an employee’s status affects the power of identification (Dutton et al. 1994). Di Sanza and Bullis (1999) have analyzed that identification is a result of different elements and stated that effective communication established by management is an important element in establishing the identity of the member within the organization. It is expected that the leader will create a positive communication climate for the maintenance and strengthening of positive work behaviors. It is also expected that the leader has to create an identity to motivate the employee. ←15 | 16→It is also important that communication between managers and employees or with others frequently within the organization creates a sense of belonging, commitment and identification. Providing such identity and commitment facilitates the organizational communication and also creates a better understanding of common goals and values (Di Sanza and Bullis 1999).

In this study, the employer branding approach, which has become increasingly important in recent years, is examined in the context of organizational commitment and organizational identification and communication climate approaches, which have been studied for many years in the field of organizational behavior. The empirical study conducted on the academic and administrative staff of foundation universities in İstanbul with the concepts of employer branding, organizational identification, organizational commitment and communication climate were measured and relations of concepts with each other were examined.

The first chapter of this study is the introduction of the subjects. The second chapter includes the literature review of the variables, which are employer branding, organizational commitment, organizational identification and communication climate. Methodology of the study is discussed in the third chapter, with explanations of models of the study, hypotheses, constructs and scales that are used. Summary of the data collection method and information about the sample are also presented in chapter three. In the fourth chapter, results of the study are explained in detail, and in last chapter conclusion and discussion about the results of the study are presented.

Literature Review

Abstract: The employer brand terminology started to enter the literature in the United States in the early 1990s, and it can be defined as “the best place to work” or “the most liked company”. The employer branding activities become important to the organizations when the number of talent is inadequate, to keep existing employees, high expectations of new generations and to gain potential talented candidates. Organizations who want to hold competitive advantage try to see the existing employees and potential talents as customers and perceive the employer branding activities in a holistic approach to be the best company to be worked on. The organizational commitment and organizational identification that emerge as a result of employer brand practices appear as concepts related to the individuals’ sense of belonging to the organizations. Meeting the demands and needs of individuals in the organizations where employer brand activities are carried out will bring together organizational commitment and organizational identification. In addition, the concept of communication climate plays a vital role in the success of the employer brand management process. In line with the employer branding, the organizations communicate their messages to all of their stakeholders, especially their employees, through communication activities, and affect the employees’ views and perceptions about the operation as an employer. In this study; employer branding, organizational commitment, organizational identification and communication climate terminology is explained in terms of higher education perspective.

Keywords: functionaleconomical and psychological benefits; internal communication; current and potential employees; attraction engagement; retention

1 Employer Branding

In the past, when companies were the only authority to employ, employees never had the option to choose. However, in the current period, employees choose the companies which they prefer to work for and decide their future. In this process, employees need to see the performance and promises of companies to decide about their future in the professional world. So, this situation creates pressure on companies to develop their structures and to introduce their identity well to the potential employee nominees in the market.

The basic aim of conceptualizing the employer brand is about making the employer more important and about keeping its competition level at the optimum point. All of the efforts during this process create a total of employer brand perception. Employer brand may be evaluated as change in an organization about that organization’s identity and practices. Concepts such as customer, employee and production are the important and determinative facts to define employer brand. Additionally, employer brand is a fact, which creates a ←17 | 18→platform for establishing a good communication between organizations, current employees and potential employee nominees (Ören & Yüksel 2012 p. 37–38).

A company which makes its name a brand in the market makes a difference to employ the successful and the knowledgeable employees in its organization. In other words, a company needs a good image and a stable quality to employ successful and qualified employees. At the same time, employees look for the qualities and specialties of companies to apply for a position. That is why a good name and a good image means a lot for companies and employees.

Here are some definitions for employer brand from the literature below:

i. According to Ambler and Barrow (1996, p. 187), employer brand is the total of functional, economical and psychological benefits which are decided by companies and are provided by the recruitment process.

ii. According to Sullivan (2004, p.1), employer branding is “a targeted, long term strategy to manage the awareness and perceptions of employees, potential employees, and related stakeholders with regards to a particular firm.”

iii. Backhaus and Tikoo (2004, p.502) stated that “the term employer branding suggests differentiation of a firm’s characteristics as an employer from those of its competitors; the employment brand highlights the unique aspects of the firm’s employment offerings or environment”. Also, “employer branding is the process of building identifiable and unique employer identity.”

iv. Sartain and Shuman (2006) define the term as “how a business builds and packages its identity, from its origins and values, what it promises to deliver to emotionally connect employees so that they in turn deliver what the business promises to customers.”

v. According to Dooley, Levine and Russell (2007, p. 31–32), employer brand defines the purposeful strategy of the company to create a distinctive perception for recruitment process; it is also the reflection of a specific image.

vi. Jenner and Taylor (2007, p.7) stated that employer branding “represents organization’s efforts to communicate to internal and external audiences what makes it both desirable and different as an employer.”

vii. According to Rosethorn (2009, p. 19), employer brand is a two sided agreement between organization and its employees.

viii. According to Gomes & Neves (2010, p. 225), employer brand depends on developing and increasing the potential of a company’s identity for individuals who look for a job.

ix. According to Foster et al. (2010, p. 403), employer brand is related to corporate brand. The concepts of corporate brand and employer brand have similar characteristic specialties

←18 | 19→

x. Edwards (2010, p.6) explains, employer branding “is an activity where principles of marketing, in particular the ‘science of branding’, are applied to HR activities in relation to current and potential employees”

xi. Minchington (2011, p.28) stated that “the image of your organization as a ‘great place to work’ in the mind of current employees and key stakeholders in the external market. The art and science of employer branding is therefore concerned with the attraction, engagement and retention initiatives targeted at enhancing your company’s employer brand.”

xii. Jiang and Iles (2011, p.98) explain employer branding as “it represents a further extention of branding theory and research, involving efforts to communicate to existing and prospective staff that the organization is a desirable place to work, creating compelling, distinctive employee value proposition.”

All of these definitions about employer brand counted above are related to the image of companies for the potential employee nominees, partners in the business world and the public opinion. Employer brand is one of the best factors which define the specialties and qualities of an organization. By the determinative effect of employer brand, in particular, employees or potential employee nominees decide about their future in organizations. On the other hand, employer brand is an important factor to become the first option during the decision-making processes of potential employees, who are qualified and have experience and knowledge.

According to Baş (2011b, p. 29–30), employer brand helps the companies to differentiate their employer role. Companies use basic marketing techniques to locate themselves as “employers” during the management process of employer brand. In this process, as being different than corporate brand, the concept of “customer” reminds current and potential employees. Besides, the basic purpose during the employer brand activities is to keep the current customers (employees) and to make the organization attractive for new customers (potential employees). In this manner, to become a customer brand, the emotional and rational benefits, which are presented by employers to customers (current and potential employees), are important.

Today, companies pay more attention to their employees and the potential employee nominees to make them happier and to make the organization more attractive than other companies. In the current period, there is a serious challenge and a serious competition between the companies to hire the best employees by the positive effect of employer brand.

←19 | 20→

For Barrow and Mosley (2005, pp. 163–164), there are three basic reasons of employer brand’s rapid development in the last year of the business world:

i. Companies are completely aware of the insufficiency of organizational commitment on its own; this is not an easy process and there must be more. That is why a company needs a brand to polish its name, brand and quality.

ii. Employer brand is a great commercial “bridge” between human resources, domestic communication and marketing process.

iii. Employer brand represents a discipline, which creates a value in the market continually.

In these points, it is possible to see the importance, value and the key role of employer brand as a concept. In particular, employer brand’s role to make a company attractive and preferable is essential during the period of choosing an employee or on the employees who currently work in the company.

In the employer brand experience of employees, they ask the following questions to themselves (Öksüz 2012, p. 19–20):

i. Why must I join the process?

ii. Why must I stay?

iii. Why must I do my best?

iv. Why must I suggest my company as an employer and a company?

v. Why must I rejoin the process?

After an employee finds the answers to these questions, he/she will decide about the future of his/her career in the company well because the view, the image and the quality of employer will directly assist an employee decide on career plans and expectations from the employee.

As the below figure presents, the brand should be a meaningful platform for employees, not just for customers. Employees need to be identified with brands as well as customers at least and to have satisfying experiences in the world created by the brand. The internalization of brand values by employees does not happen by itself. Employees cannot be a part of the brand if the company is not making an investment in brand philosophy to own employees.

Contrary to what is believed, the brand is created inside and not outside the company. In order for a company to create a brand, it must first convince its employees of its “cause of existence”, “worldview”, “philosophy” and “difference from their opponents” to receive their voluntary participation. If employees in a company cannot understand and internalize the brand value they have invested in, it will not be possible for them to own the brand.

←20 | 21→

If employees do not feel that the company cares about them as much as the customers, they cannot establish a genuine connection with the brand. In this case, they are not “natural defenders” and “fans” of the brand.

Communication within a company consists of written communication and, more importantly, non-written communication. The more open, genuine and sincere communication creates deeper and stronger brand values for the employees will understand.

So, Minchington (2012) made a large research and demonstrated the “bigger picture” of the ecosystem of employer branding. This ecosystem helps to understand basic perceptions and functions of how organizations can build a strong employer brand.

In the case of current employees, the employer branding framework is working as Figure 3. Martin (2007) explains that employer branding begins with the creation of “employer brand image”, which covers the package of “functional, economic and psychological benefits”. Corporate identity and organizational identity (in contrast to Backhaus and Tikoo 2004) are two important elements and drivers of “employer brand image”. Corporate identity is defined as “a posture of organization’s mission, strategies and culture, expressed through logos, ←21 | 22→←22 | 23→architecture and communication of ‘what it is’ ”. Besides that, organizational identity is defined as organizational self-concept of who we are, revealed in its shared knowledge, beliefs, language and behaviors (Ibid).

Further, in this model, employer brand reputation is “the biographical account of organization instrumental and symbolic attributes offered to and perceived by potential and existing employees”. According to Martin (2007), if “employer brand reputation” is positive then it helps to attract “talented applicants” and ensure identification of employees. So, it creates a desired “organizational performance”, and consequently increases organizational identity in employees’ eyes.

In addition, Backhaus and Tikoo (2004) explain a theoretical framework for employer branding through the HR perspective and marketing perspective together. In this model, “employer brand associations” and “employer brand loyalty” are two key assets for creating a strong employer branding. “Employer brand associations” have an impact on “brand image”. So, it attracts attention to the organization. Also, culture and employer branding have a mutual relationship. It means employer branding strengthens and creates change in terms of organizational culture, and in turn culture affects the employer branding perspective. As a result, this relationship enhances and increases productivity.

←23 | 24→

The figure below which shows the conceptual model of employer branding developed by Backhaus and Tikoo (2004, p.505):

In all of the above-stated studies, which are conducted by Backhaus and Tikoo (2004), Martin (2007) and Minchington (2011), there is a conceptual model developed with the ideas and integrations of “the employer value proposition”, “organizational identity”, “organizational attractiveness theory” and “employer branding” perspectives.

Minchington (2012), as a result of interviews with employer brand managers, stressed that these managers should have some competencies that contribute to the evolution of the employer brand, such as strategic thinking ability, ability to influence senior officials, global perfectionist approach to employer branding, ability to adopt a business executive role by traveling and share the best employer brand practices outside the country, ability to establish and develop a global network of employer brand stakeholders and the ability to effectively create internal and external teams to deliver a coherent employer branded strategy.

1.1 Relations Between Employer Branding and HR Functions

Human resources departments and managers try to develop employer brands and create “an attractive place to work” to attract qualified candidates and maintain the existing employees in the organizations. In the branding process, it is important to note that the Human Resource Management act in accordance with the employer’s strategy.

It can be said that employer branding and human resources applications are complementary and support each other. The effects of human resources practices on employer branding are discussed below.

←24 | 25→←25 | 26→

1.1.1 Selection and assignment

In the process of placing rightly qualified and quantified candidate into work, the candidate is either accepted or rejected at the end of the evaluation process. The positive result of the evaluation process is simpler than the negative result in terms of management and it is an easier process for companies to manage with. However, the job offer process to last short at this stage should be considered by the companies.

The process of communication with the candidates, which are negative after the candidate selection phase, is also very important. This process is inadequately handled or not managed at all in many companies. It is absolutely necessary for the candidates to give feedback to the companies and human resources managers. It will not be easy to give individual feedback to candidates given that at least 500 candidate applications have been made in Turkey. However, candidates who have reached a certain stage in the interview process must be provided with feedback by a human resources specialist. Failure to provide feedback to candidates or intervening time is the biggest problem following the interview process. Informing the candidates of negative feedback, informing them of a suitable language, providing satisfactory information and satisfying the process of selecting the words will support the positive and fair picture of the candidate in the negative result (Ryan & Polyhart 2000). Companies that provide feedback to nominees who have failed in the interview process use standard templates and are collectively e-mailed back. However, research shows that the individual returns to the candidates are more effective and valuable for the candidates. The attitudes of companies both in the recruitment process and in the post-nomination process affect brand awareness. For this reason, companies must always exhibit candidate-oriented behaviors in order to provide and increase candidate satisfaction, make the institution attractive from the standpoint of candidates and strengthen the corporate image and employer brand (Erdemir 2007).

The correct structuring and proper management of the recruitment process, which is generally undertaken by the human resources department in companies, supports the positive work of all the work done for the creation and management of the employer brand. Nowadays, when there is a dissatisfaction about any product, it is possible to inform due offices about this negativity in a very short period of time with social media and communication channels. It is also possible to say that the employer’s brand may also suffer serious damage in the recruitment process when it comes to processes that are not well managed by human resource specialists. Considering that Heliki has 40 million active ←26 | 27→social media accounts in Turkey, reaching millions in the next few days will not be difficult. It is important to remember that the employer brand process, which is a very large and careful process, can easily be damaged by a negative approach. In order to prevent the possible negativities, a process satisfaction survey can be applied to all candidates interviewed. According to the results, recruitment process can be carried out and trainings can be given to human resources responsibilities that related to the process. These steps will contribute to the integrity of the employer brand and will facilitate the process of governance. Increasing the number of qualified job applications, decreasing the duration of the recruitment process, making a candidate-oriented approach in the recruitment process, removing internal and external customer distinctions and adopting regular candidate-oriented behavior should be accepted as the best steps for the employer’s brand. When companies approach potential employees with this policy, they will give equal value to both pools and provide a positive perception.

1.1.2 Education and development

The continuous and systematic development of knowledge in the globalizing world affects the educational processes positively. The investment made in education also affects the educational process positively. Accordingly, it would be appropriate to consider the investment made in education as an investment made in human beings. Educational human resources is the richest source of companies today. For this reason, companies are giving more and more attention to train their employees.

The most well-known and easily understood definition of education is that it is a tool in the development of skills. In terms of businesses, it is aimed to provide positive developments in knowledge, skills and behaviors through various training programs in order to make the workers more productive (Sabuncuoğlu and Tüz 2013).

Development of job skills, to adapt to the new business lines that are formed today, to change and develop the business requirements and business skills that are conditioned by considering the technical and economic and social developments in accordance with the modern understanding of the day. The goal of developing jobseekers is to see the worker as part of a larger organization, and thus, to do his job more efficiently.

Education is not only a concept that serves the economic interests of the employers. At the same time, it is a process that contributes to employees in the business. These contributions are as follows:←27 | 28→

i. Increase in production with the increased education level and increase in the level of salary with the increase in production,

ii. Opportunities for promotion,

iii. Increase in morale and self-esteem,

iv. Getting mature and earning tolerance,

v. Cooperation and solidarity,

vi. Improvement in manners,

vii. Providing job satisfaction as a result of the increase in knowledge and experience of work,

viii. Rise of value in the workforce market,

ix. Improvement in creativity.

Workers who have invested in self-education by their employers feel more valuable when they are invested, while also having the opportunity to improve themselves. This results in employer commitment. When workers have the opportunity to work in a better working environment, their morale will increase and this will cause their performance to rise. All these factors strengthen the employer’s brand and help increase the working commitment.

1.1.3 Performance management

There are a wide variety of tools that are used to materially motivate workers. Job-based awards, performance-based awards or competency-based awards are just a few of them. Many companies reward their employees at certain rates according to their status or value. When assessing work done by employers, more value is given to jobs that require more skill and labor, more responsibility or more difficult tasks. Those who work in such jobs are supported by advantages such as a larger office space or a company car as well as a higher salary. The aim of job-based rewards is to improve the sense of equity among employees while encouraging competition for business. Nowadays, especially considering the X and Y generations, some awards can be applied by the company in the right manner (McShane & Glinow 2010).

Performance-based reward systems are based on the success of the awards. The goal is to motivate people to work more. Premiums and profit sharing are some performance-oriented awarding tools. Although financial prizes or money is one of the earliest rewarding tools known, internal prizes that are as effective as money are also significant in motivating the employees. Inner prizes are prizes of work, such as responsibility, recognition and success. The aim of recognition without financial cost in companies is approval of its success in order to further improve its performance. Personal development and autonomy are tools ←28 | 29→that are driven internally by those who work. The sense of accomplishment that employees have in relation to their duties and responsibilities have a very strong motivating influence on the occupants (Sabuncuoğlu 2012).

Although prizes are important to increase their commitment to the company, it is also a fact that such awards can easily be imitated by competitors. Especially in terms of creating an employer brand, it is very important for companies to focus on experiential applications and to pre-screen applications that are prepared and adapted by employees. Applications in this field will be an advantage for the company in that it is both perceived as a qualified company to be worked in by the business people and difficult for the competitors to imitate. Although such practices vary from company to organization, culture to industry, some innovative applications have a significant impact on the retention of skilled workers. Microsoft has put back and neck massage practices for business people, thinking that technology, office environment, ergonomic conditions and stress will reduce physical effects. Halkbank’s Turkish Folk Music Chorus, which it has created in order to offer hobbyists the opportunity to work, and the activities that bring Vestel’s water sports business with nature, can be given as examples of some of these companies’ developments according to their own culture.

With no doubt, the only way to retain talented business people drawn to the company is not to use innovative and successful motivational tools. Providing competitive pricing, training and development opportunities, promotion opportunities and a fair performance appraisal system to business people is as important as the least incentive systems. Business segments that function under companies are knowledge, skills, values and business excellence, and it is extremely difficult to keep the profit to the highest point if these are ignored. It is possible to say that this is in fact an effort to keep the brand image as holistic as possible. If keeping a business is not one of the primary goals of a company, then even the best recruitment strategy is likely to fail.

1.1.4 Career management

Career development is the product of a highly important decision and responsibility of employers as well as employees. Employees and employers, considering their current position, want to benefit from opportunities for education for more development and increased performance.

Careers are positions that individuals use throughout their lives. For this reason, career stages must be defined in order to analyze and explain the career. It is the process of starting a business in terms of all those who work and passage ←29 | 30→of a certain period of inoculation. Career stages are categorized as discovery (understanding oneself and searching for the job that can be most successful on), setup (job seeking, first job, learning the job), middle stages of career (active practitioner), late career (determined by the individual’s post-intermediate career orientations) and descent (retiring from the job).

Employers who plan employees’ career pathways regularly manage their performances and are willing to educate and support the job seekers in setting out their career goals to make themselves attractive to the skilled job force. Meanwhile the employer’s assistance to employees in achieving their goals while being aware of the inadequacy of the job seekers to reach their career goals are also strategically appealing to the workers. Employers who give importance to career development and support job seekers in this field make a strong investment in the name of employer branding.

1.2 Theoretical Principles of Employer Branding

Theories employed to develop the framework of this study are derived from organizational ecology theory, organizational attractiveness frame, psychological contract theory and person- environment fit theory.

1.2.1 Organizational ecology theory

This theory was introduced in 1977 by Hannan and Freeman to answer the question “Why are there so many kinds of organizations?” (p. 956) and explained as “an approach to the macrosociology of organizations that builds on general ecological and evolutionary models of change in populations and communities of organizations” (Hannan and Freeman 1989; p.2).

The main idea of the organizational ecology approach can be summarized as follows: If living beings in nature are sifted through a natural selection and lose part of their lives while the other part continues to develop in an evolution, the situation is also similar for organizations. The basic thesis that can be explained in the organizational world is it can happen with the birth or change of organizations that are compatible with the new conditions in the world and the disappearance of organizations that do not adapt to the changing environment.

In order to be able to complete all of these things, it should be emphasized that one of the basic principles of the organizational ecology model is the “struggle to exist”. Organizations engage in a competitive struggle to reach the necessary resources. This is a “war of survival”. The environment will determine the results of ←30 | 31→this war. The winners will continue on their way, and if they lose, they will reach the end of their lives (Sargut 2010, p.123).

The researches have evolved since the early 1980s, and due to technological advances, cultural studies and changing business practices, organizational identity, identity creation and protection have gained importance (Tüzün 2006, p.53).

Theories that embrace the open system approach argue that organizations interact both within themselves and with the environment in which they are located. This interaction is important in terms of making organizations’ life-cycle sustainable.

In terms of organizational ecology theory, there are strong empirical foundations to the study of human resource management (Baron 2004; Welbourne and Andrews 1996) and employer branding.

One of the related factors of these empirical foundations is the organizational identity which comes from rules that express what an organization is supposed to do (and how to do it) and what it can expect from it. In other words, the concept of organizational identity is about how organizations look from the outside. Important factors such as the state, professional organizations, potential and current employees and labor market as well as customers refer to the organization’s expectations.

Another factor is the concept of organizational identification, which is also a very important internal feature for the concept of organizational ecology because it is seen as “the desired link of the employee to the organization”. The organization also thinks the same way against the employees. Because it is believed that the identification will reflect positively on the performance of employees. So, it allows employees to perceive areas of organization and similarity in their goals and values, creating the opportunity to shape organizational goals and activities (Tüzün and Çağlar 2008, p. 1011).

According to the organizational ecology theory and employer branding perspective, Hannan (2005) stated that even though organizations may be in the same industry, in the same profession and follow the same labor law, they are not exactly the same in terms of their employment relations.

Edwards (2010) also stated that different organizations have different “employment experience features,” such as economic and financial reward packages offered, fulfillment of socio-emotional needs and other tangible and intangible promotions for valuable employees. According to employer branding, organizations should deliver what they have promised to the existing or potential employees. In other words, they should maintain sustainable reliability messages for a successful employer branding process.

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1.2.2 Organizational attractiveness frame

Berthon and his colleagues explain organizational attractiveness (2005) as “the envisioned benefits that a potential employee sees in working for a specific organization”. Organizational attractiveness is also referred to as “the degree to which potential and current employees perceive organizations as good places to work” (Jiang and Iles 2011).

Based on the above-stated definitions, it is possible to say that organizational attractiveness is related to how current employees and potential employees see that organization, what they expect from it and what they think it will provide.

There are many theories for explaining organizational attractiveness. These theories emphasize many factors, such as organizational characteristics, recruitment process, personality and values. Theories in the literature are also classified in different forms. Scholars present three metatheories, which are the environment processing metatheory, the interactionist processing metatheory and the self-processing metatheory.

First of all, the environment processing metatheory includes theories that focus on the processing of information about the features of the environment by individuals.

The second metatheory is the “interactionist process metatheory”, which consists of theories that combine personality characteristics that contribute to attractiveness and harmony between environmental attributes.

The last metatheory is called the “self-processing metatheory”, which describes the theories that focus on the process of information about people’s personal characteristics.

Even though some researchers such as Berthon et al. (2005) and Ehrahrt and Ziegert (2005) completed their research about the potential applicants’ perspective, very few researches made by Turban (2001), Ehrahrt and Ziegert (2005), Lievens et al. (2007), Nadler et al. (2010) and Jiang and Iles (2011) deal with current employees. These researches try to explain an “experienced” opinion and answer the question why employees are already retained.

Following this approach, organizational attractiveness is conceptualized as an element of employer branding and as a vehicle for employer brand development. In this dissertation, the main topic is in the internal organizational attractiveness.

1.2.3 Psychological contract theory

Although Argyris (1960), Levinson et al., (1962) and Schein (1965) try to explain the psychological contract term, these studies developed in the period before 1995 and Rousseau (1998a, p.9) re-conceptualized and redefined psychological ←32 | 33→contract as “individual beliefs, shaped by the organization, regarding terms of an exchange agreement between individuals and their organization”.

In 1989, Rousseau distinguishes between “relational” and “transactional” contracts where “relational contract” involves long-term or open-ended employment arrangements based on “mutual trust” and “loyalty”, while “transactional contract” involves a “short-term” or “limited duration” employment relationship which concentrates to extrinsic rewards such as money. In the medium, a “balanced contract” is a “dynamic” and “open-ended employment” arrangement, based on “mutual contribution” from both employees and organizations.

Zhao et al.(2007), Johnson and O’Leary-Kelly (2003), Coyle-Shapiro (2002) and Robinson (1996) stated that psychological contract creates positive effects ←33 | 34→on work-related behaviors such as organizational commitment, absenteeism, employee performance, employee turnover and so on.

The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (2013, p. 2, https://www.cipd.co.uk/) stated that “where the psychological contract is positive, increased employee commitment and satisfaction will have a positive impact on business performance”

Also, as Ambler and Barrow (1996), Backhaus and Tikoo (2004), Moroko and Uncles (2008) and Edwards (2010) indicate, psychological contract literature provides a helpful framework for the understanding of organizational commitment and employer branding.

When the employer brand is evaluated as an internal brand concept, it is defined as an evolved state of psychological contract theory and is evaluated ←34 | 35→based on its influence on organizational relations. The concept also concerns effective human resource management. Target group selection, promotion, etc. are also used in order to manage the employees effectively. The aim is to increase the attractiveness of the current employees to other businesses, in terms of future occupations as well and also to increase the attractiveness of the organizations to other organizations in terms of current employees and potential employees (Kucherov et al. 2012, p.87).

Despite perceiving a violation of the psychological contract for the employee, staying in the organization can lead to low-quality service, gossip, damage to the equipment and theft within the enterprise in the future.

The examination of psychological contracts is important in determining the attitudes and performances of employees. In psychological contracts, the expectation of the parties in a balanced way and the identification of the employees with the organization is important in terms of arranging the relations between the employee and the employer. For this reason, it is suggested that the organizations should act very carefully in the words given to the employees and avoid the promises that they cannot fulfill.

It is believed that organizations’ executives may be able to achieve more successful results on behalf of the organization by increasing the adaptation of the employees to the psychological contract and hence the level of organizational identification, by communicating mutual perceptions with the employees.

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1.2.4 Person-Environment fit theory

In the management literature, the Person-Environment Fit has been studied for about 100 years.

In general, this kind of fit is defined as the individual’s needs, goals, values, preferences and abilities as well as the appropriateness of the organizational culture, environment, work groups or work itself. If the environment and the individual show similar characteristics or if they meet each other’s needs, then this harmony is created.

While some researchers have described similarity between the individual and the environment, such as goals or values, when describing the Person-Environment Fit (Cable ve Edwards 2004; Chatman 1991; O’Reilly, Chatman, ve Caldwell 1991), in some other studies, this concept has been dealt with in terms of the fact that the individual and the environment cannot meet each other’s needs or wishes (e.g., Edwards 1991, Muchinsky and Monahan 1987).

According to Murray (1938), the harmony between the needs of the individual and the features of the environment is important, and this level of harmony causes the satisfaction of individual’s needs.

In 1968, Pervin revealed that for each individual, it was an environment that conformed more or less to his/her personality, providing a high level of performance, high satisfaction and low levels of stress. The study showed that children who are less social in pervasive work perform better in the classroom environment (in a teacher setting) and that social children have better outcomes in non-leadership environments. With this example, Pervin demonstrated how an individual’s performance in relation to the environment could change.

Person-Environment Fit is a discipline at the turning point of many theories, such as Lewin’s interaction theory (1951), Barrett’s congruence model approach to job design (1978), Murray’s need-press theory (1938), Dawis and Lofquist’s theory of work adjustment (1984), Schneider’s attraction-selection-attrition model (1987) and Holland’s theory of vocational behavior (1973, 1997).

Lewin’s interaction theory emphasizes that the behavior of the individual is determined by the interaction of the individual and the environment (Kennedy 2005). Lewin emphasizes that the attitudes and behaviors of the individual are not only a function of the individual himself, but these attitudes and behaviors are the end of the individual’s interaction with the environment (Lawrence 2004). Lewin has formulated this idea as B = f (P, E). In Lewin’s formula, B stands for behavior, P for person and E for environment (O’Conner-Cahill 2001). Many researchers are studying how environmental variables such as organizational ←36 | 37→climate, organizational culture and work characteristics have an influence on individual attitudes and performance-based outputs (Lawrence 2004).

Schneider’s attraction-selection-attrition model is based on the assumption that individuals in any organization differ from each other in their preferences to be attracted, selected and maintained in the organization. The adaptation according to this model is the correspondence between the personality of the individual and the organization (Kennedy, 2005). The idea at the core of this theory is that organizations with different characteristics are influencing, choosing and retaining employees with different characteristics (Ehrhart 2001; Quintela 2002).

Individuals are influenced by the organization that they perceive their character as being in harmony with the characteristics of the organization. If there is no harmony between the individual and the organization, the individual will prefer to leave the organization (Ehrhart 2001; Scroggins 2003). According to the attraction-selection-attrition model, an individual cannot comment on an organization without mentioning the individuals working in that organization. As the organization matures, the individuals involved in that organization gradually begin to show more similar characteristics to those of the organization. Over time, these individuals in the organization differ from the individuals in other organizations.

Similar characteristics that occur within the same organization over time are a result of the attraction-selection-attrition cycle (Quintela 2002). For this reason, organizations are not concerned with whether the candidate has only the qualifications required by the job in the recruitment process, at the same time, the organization considers whether or not the candidate will adapt to the culture in the organization. Likewise, the candidate collects information about the organization during the recruitment process and examines whether the organization can be adapted (Quintela 2002).

According to the attraction-selection-attrition model, the aim is to maximize the harmony between the applications and structure of the organizations, organizations itself, current employees and also new employees who will join the organization to create a homogeneous structure within the organization (Quintela 2002).

Muchinsky and Monohan (1987) described the person-environment fit in two different ways, which are supplementary/reinforcing fit and complementary fit (Lawrence, 2004). Muchinsky and Monohan describe supportive fit as the individual having similar characteristics to other individuals in the environment (Hutcheson 1999).

If the environment in which the individual is involved has similar characteristics, that is, the characteristics of the individual and the environmental ←37 | 38→characteristics are parallel to each other, then supplementary fit will occur (Payne, 2006). In other words, supplementary fit is the similarity between the individual and the environment in terms of values, goals, personality and interests (Kennedy, 2005).

If the individual has the characteristics of the environment that he or she does not possess and completes the environment, then the complementary fit is also mentioned (Payne 2006). Powell (1998) describes this type of fit as an extending fit and suggests that individuals who have different characteristic traits extend the power of the organization (Hutcheson 1999).

Powell defines the Person-Environment Fit as follows:

- The individual has similar characteristics to other individuals around him.

- The individual has characteristics that are different from other individuals in the environment, and the community needs these attributes.

- At least one party (the individual or the environment) meets the needs of the other party.

- In the form of a combination of the conditions defined above (Hutcheson 1999).

In summary, studies on Person-Environment Fit have been influenced by many different approaches, which argue that individual factors and environmental factors are important together. Within these theories, the approach of Schneider (1987) has been influential, especially in terms of attracting and retaining processes for employees who share similar values, goals and norms with organizations that allow them to reach their needs.

On the other hand, in the Person-Environment Fit studies, the environment can be examined at different levels. For example, the environment can be treated as work, organization, profession, manager or group (Ostroff and Schulte 2007).

Thus, when the studies deal with the fit of values, person-manager fit described as the values of the manager can be compared with the values of the employees, person-job fit means that values among employees who do the same job, person-group fit means the values of group of employees, or person-organization fit deals with the values of other employees in the organization (Ostroff and Schulte 2007). Researches, at the level of Person-Environment Fit often focus on the point of view of similarity, and the harmony between values, targets, personality traits or culture is measured (Cable ve Edwards, 2004; Cable ve Judge 1996; Chatman 1991; Uysal Irak 2012).

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1.2.5 Characteristics and Objectives of Employer Branding

There are some specific specialties of employer brand which make the concept different than the other concepts of brand. Although the employer brand is evaluated as part of a generally known brand perception, it includes specific differences (Ören & Yüksel 2012, p. 39):

i. Employer brand is identified with the relationship between employers and their employees.

ii. In employer brand, there is a powerful psychological bond between employers and their employees.

iii. A powerful employer brand helps companies to reach more customers, to increase the customer experience and to bring positive attitude for employees towards their employers.

iv. Employer brand is a long-term strategy to manage the awareness and the perception of employees/potential employees and the factors, which join the process fresh.

v. Employer brand is a powerful tool to attract potential employees to the organization and to show the communication and the commitment of current employees with organizational identity and organizational culture,

vi. Employer brand is an effective tool to attract potential employees, who are talented, knowledgeable and experienced, to the organization,

vii. Employer brand creates loyalty and satisfaction and it helps the companies to create an emotional bond between organization and its employees,

viii. Employer brand helps the employers and the employees to have social and economic relations,

ix. The concept of employer brand is related to effective human resources and it uses methods such as target group selection and promotion to manage the employers.

Although it is an abstract concept, employer brand has an important and direct positive effect on employers and employees. The most important being, employer brand completely works for the interests of employees because employees can find answers to their questions about employers and they can make a good decision due to these answers.

On the other hand, the basic target and the basic target group of employer brand are counted below in three different types (Öksüz, 2012, p. 20):

Generally, employer brand tries to focus on all the pieces of process carefully to make the company more attractive for business environment. For every part of process, employer brand uses the name, the identity and the culture of organization towards the business environment.

On the other hand, every target of employer brand aims to bring the most useful pieces to the organization in any condition. Employer brand seems like the best method to reach the best potential employees in the market to employ.

1.3 The Process of Creating an Employer Branding

A good employer brand is created in a specific process under the control of organization administration and under the surveillance of authorized persons to the best for the image of a company. Hence, creating an employer brand is important as well as protecting it.

In the literature, generally, the process of creating an employer brand depends on five different steps, which are counted as follows (Doğru & Çakır, 2015, p. 679):

i. Evaluation on Employer Brand: This is an investigation process to understand the dimensions and the effects of efforts of an organization administration to create a stable and an attractive employer brand for every party around the organization. In that way, the brand’s roadmap is decided due to needs and necessities.

ii. Definition of Brand Identity: This is about what the brand wants to be. In other words, a company tries to find its identity to define and to introduce. The employer searches for answers to questions such as “what does it represent?” and “how do we want people to perceive?”. The answers of these questions are helpful for an employer to direct its decisions and introduction methods.

iii. Promises for Employees: The promises of employers for their employees and the candidates are effective on their decisions. These promises include ←40 | 41→emotional and functional benefits and all of these promises are hidden in the employer brand’s identity.

iv. Positioning: It is so important to differentiate the company from its rivals to create a strong employer brand. Positioning may be seen as creating a value, which has differentiator effect and is compatible with brand identity in the minds of target groups. In the positioning step, the basic specialties or the basic benefits, which differentiate the enterprise as employer, are decided.

v. Practice: On the basis of employer brand approach, there are the practices of promises which were made in previous steps. It is extremely important to continue this process under the control of a manager or an administrator who has authority to realize those promises. It will be useful to give responsibility to employees or managers from a different department of enterprise to manage the process.

In every step, employers work for the interests of a company and the company’s image. Employer brand, indirectly, affects all of the aspects of a company and that is why the authorities must focus on each of these steps to correct deficiencies of employer brand’s structure. It will also be useful to create a new and a fresh employer brand from the beginning.

The adaptation that will be provided in the creation of the employer brand serves as a meaningful filter for the employees who can contribute to the organization’s strategies, vision and mission to participate and take place in the organization as a long term (Narcıkara et al., 2016).

On the other hand, the control and the directives of responsible authorities are precious to carry the employer brand one position to the higher levels in the process of creating an employer brand. Their roles in the decision-making process make the employer brand more meaningful on the minds of current employees and the candidate ones.

No doubt, these current employees and candidate ones need the support, positive explanations, encouragement and realistic promises of authorities as they may become very effective on encouraging employees to show more performance and to be more productive.

1.4 Importance of Employer Branding

Generally, when all the steps and the factors of employer brand have been considered, it is possible to see the importance of concept of employer brand for the companies to make their strategies, efforts and practices attractive for their current employees and the candidates. Employer brand is also useful to make a company loyal towards the public opinion.

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There are some specific and most striking facts about the importance of employer brand below to consider (Baş, 2011b, 40–42):

i. An employer brand addresses to the feelings of people.

ii. In the employer brand process, experiences, opportunities and expectations become more simple.

iii. Employer brand makes the communications between the employer and the employees easier.

iv. Employer brand is a “sticky” fact on employees and it is hard to remove from the mind and the feelings.

v. The perception on employer brand is developed with experiences, which come out in touch points.

vi. Powerful employer brands stay alive for a long time period.

vii. As a part of employer brand, the commitment is the most important result of the relationship between employer brand and employees.

In important points of employer brand, the most striking point is about the power of employer brand about addressing the feelings of employees directly. Accordingly, the employer brand has direct communication with the spiritual world of employees. The emotional situation of employees affects their performance and productivity level. That is why the emotional and spiritual facts are the most important pieces of the process of creating an employer brand.

According to Chunping & Xi (2011, p. 2088), there are some strategic important points of employer brand which have been counted below:

i. Employer brand is a tool to attract the important talents to an enterprise.

ii. The companies provide special job experiences for their current and potential employees with employer brand.

iii. Employer brand makes an enterprise’s employees visible and remarkable in the market.

iv. Employer brand makes an enterprise “number-one option” for potential employees in the market.

v. Employer brand has a “catalytic” role to develop the productivity level in an enterprise.

vi. Employer brand assists companies to create a chain of values in the talent market.

vii. Employer brand shows the way for companies to support employees in every practice and activity of them.

These strategic points are important in two different ways for employer brand. Firstly, employer brand is not just about the financial and career-oriented facts. ←42 | 43→In the beginning, employees think about the emotional facts for their comfort and for their relationships with their company and the business world. These facts are not evaluated as essential changes in the direction of employees’ feelings, expectations and future plans.

Secondly, there is a fact about trust. Trust is the most important point of modern period’s employees to understand the possibilities and the quality of a company. If there is chance to talk about the reliability of a company, it encourages an employee to make a decision, which depends on trust between employees and their employers. Perhaps, this matter of trust does not make sense for the near future, but for the long-period choices, trust gives courage to employees to continue their performance in a company.

Another important point that has to be mentioned is the factors that increase the importance level of employer branding. In the time period, the business world saw different trends and all of those trends were related to high competition level. In other words, the competition was in the center of business environment and only the different periodical factors were the variables of process. As one of them, employer brand has gained importance in the last years; a lot of companies from various sectors pay attention to employer brand and its value to the company.

However, there are some factors which were important during the creation process of concepts such as employer brand, and each and every one of these factors increase the value of employer brand in the agenda of companies, in particular, the system of human resources. These factors are counted below (Bruce & Harvey 2010 p. 170):

i. Increasing numbers of qualified employees around the tough competition between companies to reach them.

ii. Increasing importance, potential and authority of human resources in the decision-making process of companies.

iii. Although there is a serious direct effect of technology to the business world, the role of labor has not changed.

iv. Indispensability of customer satisfaction and its dependency on the quality degree of a company’s name.

v. Effect of a company’s awareness in the market on the employees’ productivity and high performance.

When the institutionalized companies saw this direct and serious effect of employer brand in the market, they preferred to create a brand for employer role of company and they started to market their identity and culture to the candidate employees. Surely, the successful and the most known companies are the targets of candidate employees.

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However, it is a truth that in this tough competition environment, it gets harder to handle the employees, which are already employed in the company and those successful and popular companies must reconsider their employer brand carefully to keep their position, identity, culture and popularity in the same level against the developing standards of market.

All in all, the connection between employer branding and employee satisfaction in terms of working environment, wages, career development and organizations’ attitude to the employees should be established (Tsymbalyuk 2017).

1.5 The Needs for a Successful Employer Brand and Its Results

No doubt, an employer brand requires a lot of serious and important standards to be actualized as well as to survive. It is not possible for an employer brand and for its providers to keep itself alive in the tough competition conditions without considering the general needs of employees, business partners and third party factors.

There are some basic and important needs, which have been counted below, for a successful employer brand’s presence (Bruce & Harvey, 2010, p. 175):

i. Definition of Core Brand: It is a need for a clear brand definition. With that way, it is possible to make compatible definition with the expectations and needs of employees. In this process, it becomes easy to understand the perception method of employees their company’s employer brand.

ii. Attendance and Support of Managers: It is impossible to create an employer brand without the support and the directions of a qualified management system. It is important for them to live and to feel the employer brand to introduce it as qualified. The attendance and the support of managers will increase the persuasiveness level of employer brand to environment.

iii. Being on the Same Line with Company Strategy: Employer brand must be on the parallel line with the company’s general strategy, including company’s identity and targets. This situation is important to realize the promises of company to its employees at the same time. A possible change and a difference in the employer brand practices of the company changes the direction employer brand.

iv. Delegating the Employees: Although the employer brand provides a serious comfort for employees’ activities, there must be surely a serious delegation and responsibility sharing with employees. The responsibility conscious of an employee provides a serious performance, productivity and seriousness for an employee. This also support the current image of employer brand positively.

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v. Measuring, Evaluation and Reward: Facts like measuring, evaluation and reward, which include rightness and justice, are the important indicators of employer brand’s quality and quantity. With that way, employees may powerfully believe in employer brand’s presence or absence.

If these needs and expectations are met, surely there will be a visible employer brand. There will be also a chance to talk about the value and the good results of every member of this process. So, there are some important, striking and good results of a successful employer brand, which had been counted by Sullivan (2004), as presented below (Öksüz 2012, p. 22):

i. Increased organizational reputation.

ii. Consensus among the employees.

iii. Increased, qualified and numerous application to company.

iv. Decreased circulation rate of qualified employees.


ISBN (Book)
Publication date
2020 (January)
Employer branding Organizational commitment Organizational identification Communication climate Higher education institutions
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2020. 186 pp., 22 fig. b/w, 22 tables.

Biographical notes

İsmet Burçak Vatansever Durmaz (Author)

Ismet Burçak Vatansever Durmaz completed her undergraduate studies at Istanbul Bilgi University, Business Administration, Stage Performing Arts Management and at the Business Administration Department of the University of Portsmouth. She obtained a Master’s degree in Education Management and her PhD in Business Administration from Bahçeşehir University, Graduate School of Social Sciences. Ismet Burçak Vatansever Durmaz has been working in different sectors at Bahçeşehir University for nearly 17 years.


Title: The Perception of Employer Branding in relation with Organizational Commitment, Organizational Identification and Communication Climate in Higher Education Institutions