COVID-19 Studies Concerning Health, Social and Economic Aspects

by Mustafa Demirkiran (Volume editor) Burhanettin Uysal (Volume editor)
©2020 Edited Collection 186 Pages


All people around the world are directly or indirectly under the influence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which appeared in China in December 2019, and the COVID-19 pandemic caused by it. This pandemic, which is still ongoing, has infected over 40 million people and killed around 1 million, according to the latest data from the World Health Organization. Besides significant effects on human health, the overall effect of the pandemic will be much greater than predicted, as it can also cause major social and economic problems. In this context, the book contributes with 10 original scientific studies for understanding the health, social, and economic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Examination of the Healthcare Institution Preferences of Individuals during COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Relationship between Air Pollution and the COVID-19
  • Analysis of the Cancellation Reasons of the Tenders Made by Turkish Ministry of Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Changes in Working Life during the COVID-19 Pandemic Process and Its Effects upon Employees
  • The Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic Process on Organizational Behavior Variables: A Systematic Review Study
  • COVID-19 and Human Resources Management: Primary Reactions, Perceptions and Interventions of HRM Professionals
  • The Effects of Stable Personalities and Situation-Specific Tendencies on Physical Distancing during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Research on Organization Employees
  • Investigation of COVID-19’s Effects on Financial Markets and Economy
  • Business Capital Elements before and after COVID-19 Pandemic: A Study on Borsa İstanbul Pharmaceutical-Health Shares
  • COVID-19 Pandemic and Healthcare Workforce: A Bibliometric Study

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List of Contributors

Alptuğ Aksoy

Res. Asst.; Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Social Sciences Institute, Business Administration Program, Turkey.


Semih Baş

Lecturer; Harran University, Siverek Vocational School, Department of Medical Documentation and Secretarial, Turkey.


Eylem Bayrakçı

Asst. Prof.; Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Büyükkutlu Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of International Trade and Business, Turkey.


Mustafa Demirkıran

Assoc. Prof.; Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Isparta Vocational School, Department of Management and Organization, Turkey.


Mehmet Dinç

Asst. Prof.; Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Büyükkutlu Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Accounting and Financial Management, Türkiye.


Hüseyin Başar Önem

Asst. Prof.; Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Isparta Vocational School, Finance Banking and Insurance Department, Turkey.


Umut Can Öztürk

Asst. Prof.; Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Isparta Vocational School, Department of Management and Organization, Turkey.


Elvan Öztürk

PhD.; Turkey.


Serap Taşkaya

Asst. Prof.; Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Faculty of Health Science, Department of Health Care Management, Turkey.


Ebrar Ulusinan

Res. Asst.; Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Healthcare Management Department, Turkey.


Burhanettin Uysal

Asst. Prof.; Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Healthcare Management Department, Turkey.


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Lecturer Semih Baş and Assoc. Prof. Mustafa Demirkıran

Examination of the Healthcare Institution Preferences of Individuals during COVID-19 Pandemic

1.  Introduction

Coronaviruses (CoV) are one of the two members of the Coronaviridae group (Siddell, 1995 ) with enveloped, positive single-stranded viruses and the largest known Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) genomes (Lai & Cavanagh, 1997; Weiss & Leibowitz, 2011 ). Of the coronaviruses that are divided into four groups, Alpha and Beta coronaviruses are known to infect humans. The coronavirus strains that infect humans were thought not to pose a serious threat to human health (Weiss & Navas-Martin, 2005) and were generally known as coronaviruses that caused common cold (Myint, 1995 ). However, with the emergence of Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) in 2012, these two zoonotic viruses were observed to cause serious diseases and deaths (Yang & Leibowitz, 2015 ). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) report covering the dates of November 2002 and August 2003, 8,422 cases and 916 deaths were reported in the SARS-CoV outbreak (WHO, 2003). Regarding the MERS-CoV epidemic, the number of cases and deaths are still updated and shared by the WHO. In its 2019 status update report, the WHO reported 2,468 cases and 851 deaths from MERS between April 2012 and September 2019 (WHO, 2019).

In December 2019, new cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology appeared in the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province, China. It was determined that these cases, which were reported to be clustered in seafood market employees in Wuhan City, were caused by a new coronavirus that has not been seen in humans before (Ministry of Health of Turkey, 2020a; WHO, 2020a). Following this finding, despite the strict measures and large-scale restrictions imposed by the Chinese government, the new coronavirus reached many other countries of the world in a very short time (Fanelli & Piazza, 2020 ). On January 30, 2020, WHO declared the new coronavirus outbreak as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern due to 82 cases confirmed in 18 countries outside China and a total of 7,818 confirmed cases including China. According to the WHO report published on the same date, the temporary name of the disease ←9 | 10→that caused the current outbreak was proposed to be 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, but it was reported that the International Virus Classification Committee (ICTV) was to decide on the official name of the virus (WHO, 2020b). ICTV announced that the virus that caused the outbreak was named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), due to the high genetic similarity between it and the SARS virus of 2002 (Gorbalenya et al., 2020 ). Thereupon, WHO announced that the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease (WHO, 2020d).

The first COVID-19 case in Turkey was detected on March 10, 2020, and announced by the Health Minister Dr. Fahrettin Koca on March 11, 2020 (Ministry of Health of Turkey, 2020b). On the same date, WHO declared the COVID-19 disease as a Pandemic affecting the world, after more than 118,000 cases were found in 114 different countries and 4,291 people died (WHO, 2020c). As a result of the increasing cases and related deaths, the Turkish government implemented strict and comprehensive measures against the COVID-19 outbreak. With the control of the disease over time and the decrease in the number of cases and deaths, the measures have been gradually relaxed as of June 1, 2020. With the relaxation of the measures and the prohibitions' gradual lifting, the “controlled social life” style was adopted and the authorities frequently emphasized the importance of wearing a mask, social distancing, and personal hygiene during this period.

COVID-19 is a type of disease that is transmitted between humans by contact and droplet (Sabino-Silva et al., 2020 ) and has no specific treatment with proven efficacy and validity (Chen et al., 2020; Lai et al., 2020; Murthy et al., 2020 ). There is no approved drug/s used to cure the COVID-19, and no results have been gotten regarding vaccination studies yet (Shaw et al., 2020 ). In the literature, studies and scientific publications related to the status of alternative treatments are ongoing (Tillu et al., 2020; Uysal & Ulusinan, 2020 ). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention described the symptoms as fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, loss of taste and smell, sore throat, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and nasal congestion or runny nose. The organization also stated that these symptoms appeared 2 to 14 days after exposure to the virus. Individuals who have no symptoms despite carrying the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 and individuals with the disease in the incubation period can transmit the virus to others they come into contact with (Gu et al., 2020 ).

Hospitals and other healthcare institutions are cited as places where the risk of transmission of the COVID-19 pandemic is high (Kamps & Hoffmann, 2020 ). Intensive filling of hospitals by infected patients increases the risk of ←10 | 11→transmission of the virus to healthcare personnel and other uninfected patients (Nacoti et al., 2020 ). This situation may cause the individuals to either postpone their right to use healthcare services, which is defined as the most fundamental right (Kılıç & Çalışkan, 2013 ), or to turn to healthcare institutions where they think the risk of virus transmission is lower.

Examination of the demand for healthcare services contributes to the efficient administration of the healthcare sector (Saraçoğlu & Öztürk, 2016; Naldöken et al., 2018 ). Especially during the COVID-19 Pandemic, we are experiencing, examining the demand for healthcare services is of great importance for planning healthcare services and the health sector to effectively fight the pandemic.

Demands for healthcare services also make up the supply of healthcare services (Aydın, 2008 ). The supply of curative health services is provided by primary, secondary, and tertiary therapeutic health services (Olesen & Fleming, 1998; Ministry of Health of Turkey, 2019 ).

The family physician, who is responsible for the supply of primary health care services, is defined as a family medicine specialist who is responsible for providing personalized preventive health services as well as primary care diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitative health services, or a specialist physician or general practitioner who has received the training prescribed by the Ministry of Health of Turkey (Family Medicine Law, 2004: Article 2). The place where one or more family physicians come together to provide healthcare services accompanied by other health personnel is called a family health center (Kavuncubaşı & Yıldırım, 2015 ).

Secondary healthcare services are provided by public and private hospitals known as inpatient treatment institutions. Hospitals are defined as institutions where the sick and injured, those who suspect of illnesses and those who want to have their health status checked, are observed, examined, diagnosed, treated, and rehabilitated on an outpatient or inpatient basis, and also give birth (Inpatient Treatment Institutions Management Regulation, 1983: Article 4).

The supply of tertiary healthcare services is provided by university hospitals and training and research hospitals. The main purpose of such healthcare institutions is to train health professionals and to carry out fully equipped and comprehensive treatment services (Ateş, 2011; Tengilimoğlu et al., 2017 ).

There are 7,979 Family Health Centers and 26,252 Family Medicine Units in Turkey. A total of 1,534 hospitals, consisting of 889 hospitals affiliated with the Ministry of Health, 577 hospitals affiliated with private enterprises, 68 hospitals affiliated with universities, provide secondary and tertiary health services. According to 2018 data, 782.515.204 healthcare requests were made. 33.03 % ←11 | 12→of these requests were directed to family medicine units, 48.64 % to general hospitals affiliated with the Ministry of Health of Turkey, 5.45 % to university hospitals, 11.98 % to private medical centers and private hospitals (Ministry of Health of Turkey, 2018 ).


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2021 (January)
WG460 WG710 WG720 WG724 WG783 WG784 WG970
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2020. 186 pp., 33 fig. b/w, 32 tables.

Biographical notes

Mustafa Demirkiran (Volume editor) Burhanettin Uysal (Volume editor)

Mustafa Demirkıran holds a PhD in healthcare management. He works at Isparta University of Applied Sciences. His areas of interest include hospital management, health policies, and health legislation. Burhanettin Uysal holds a PhD in hospital management. He works at Bilecik Seyh Edebali University. His areas of interest include healthcare management, health policies, and procurement legislation.


Title: COVID-19 Studies Concerning Health, Social and Economic Aspects
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188 pages