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Contemporary Issues with Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Social Science

by Engin ÇAKIR (Volume editor) Yusuf KADERLİ (Volume editor)
Edited Collection 342 Pages

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Preface
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Referees
  • Russian Information Warfare: The Case of the White Helmets in Syria: İbrahim Karatas
  • On “The Human” and Behavioral Economics: Sidre Gul Bige Gocekli and Necmiye Comertler
  • Profitability of Turkish Manufacturing Firms: Efficiency or Market Power?: A. Elif Ay Yalcinkaya and Ramazan Ekinci
  • The Relationship Between the Vertical Specialization of Exports and Employment: Burcu Hicyilmaz and Mesut Cakir
  • Is Brexit a Transaction Cost Problem?: Yildirim Beyazit Cicen
  • Clustering Approach as a Regional Development Tool and Turkish Automotive Sector Clustering Analysis: Mustafa Cem Kirankabes
  • The Use of Spatial Models: Examples from Financial Market Applications: Sevgi Eda Tuzcu
  • Measures Securing the Collection of Public Receivablesin Turkey: İsmail İsler
  • Prioritizing the Problems Confronted by Independent Accountant and Financial Advisors with Best – Worst Method: Engin Cakir
  • Culture of Innovation as A Management Function: Kezban Talak
  • Weighting Cost Calculation Methods by Healthcare Employees Using the SWARA Method: Cagri Koroglu and Zeynep Aydin
  • Current Developments in the Process of Adoption to the IFRS/IAS in Turkey: Mehmet Utku and Yusuf Kaya
  • Entrepreneurial Marketing for a Competitive Advantage: Aslihan Yavuzalp Marangoz
  • Transition to Multi-sensory Strategies: Sensory Branding: Zuhal Cilingir Uk and Gamze Kayan
  • The Antecedents of Customer Loyalty: Nihat Tavsan and Cem Duran
  • Do Research and Development Investments and Financial Development Promote Human Development? Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries: Mehmet Levent Erdas and Zeynep Ezanoglu
  • Determination of R&D Efficiency Levels of OECD Countries in the Intermediate Innovative Countries Group: Busra Kutlu Karabiyik
  • Examining the Relationships Between Emotional Labor Behaviour, Burnout and Work Alienation in the Marine Tourism Businesses: Murat Yorulmaz
  • Employees’ Perception of Ethical Leadership: A Research on Tourism Establishments: Melda Akbaba
  • A Comparative Analysis of the Health Care Financing Models in the Context of Financing Sources and Health Coverage: Covid-19 Experience: Gulizar Seda Yilmaz
  • Environmental Benefits of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mehmet Metin Dam
  • The Challenges of the Turkish Music-Entertainment Industry During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Serhat Karaoglan
  • Analysis of Causality Relationships Among COVID-19 and Sector Returns: Evidence from Turkey: Yakup Soylemez
  • The Effect of Covid-19 Pandemic on Solidarity Culture in Turkey: Asli Kose

←10 | 11→

List of Contributors

Melda Akbaba

Asst.Prof.Dr., Kilis 7 Aralık University, Kilis, Turkey, mharbalioglu@kilis.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0001-8701-017X

Zeynep Aydin

Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, zynpayydin@gmail.com, 1 ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3358-0000

Engin Cakir

Asst.Prof.Dr., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, engincakir@adu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5906-4178

Mesut Cakir

Asst.Prof.Dr., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, mcakir@adu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4980-1047

Yildirim Beyazit Cicen

Asst.Prof.Dr., Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey, ybcicen@gumushane.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3425-280X

Zuhal Cilingir Uk

Asst.Prof.Dr., Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey, zuhal.cilingir@omu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3271-7765

Necmiye Comertler

Prof.Dr., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, ncomertler@adu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-0370-843X

Mehmet Metin Dam

Asst.Prof.Dr., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, metindam@adu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3980-7832

Cem Duran

Asst.Prof.Dr., Istinye University, Istanbul, Turkey, cduran@istinye.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5171-0270

Ramazan Ekinci

Asst.Prof.Dr., Bakircay University, İzmir, Turkey, ramazan.ekinci@bakircay.edu.tr, ORCID-ID: 0000-0001-7420-9841

←11 | 12→

Mehmet Levent Erdas

Asst.Prof.Dr., Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey, leventerdas@gmail.com, 1 ORCID ID: 0000-0001-6594-4262

Zeynep Ezanoglu

PhD student, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey, zeynepezanoglu@gmail.com, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4601-7567

Sidre Gul Bige Gocekli

Res.Asst., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, sgb.gocekli@adu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5406-4304

Burcu Hicyilmaz

Res.Asst.Dr., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, burcu.yilmaz@adu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3501-2012

İsmail İsler

Asst.Prof.Dr., Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey, iisler@pau.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-9666-130X

Hatime Kamilcelebi

Asst. Prof. Dr., Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey, hatimekamilcelebi@klu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-1028-7135

Busra Kutlu Karabiyik

Res.Asst.Dr., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, busra.kutlu@adu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-6691-2921

Serhat Karaoglan

Res.Asst.Dr., Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey, serhat@karaoglan.net, 1 ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4120-4013

İbrahim Karatas

Dr., Istinye University, Istanbul, Turkey, ibratas@gmail.com, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2125-1840

Yusuf Kaya

Asst.Prof.Dr., Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey, ykaya@pau.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2076-9808

Gamze Kayan

Res.Asst., Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey, gamze.kayan@omu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0001-8726-5551

←12 | 13→

Mustafa Cem Kirankabes

Assoc.Prof.Dr., Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey, ckirankabes@balikesir.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-0807-5897

Cagri Koroglu

Assoc.Prof.Dr., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, cagrikoroglu@hotmail.com, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4073-1847

Asli Kose

Asst.Prof.Dr., Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey, asl_kse@hotmail.com, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8044-6592

Aslihan Yavuzalp Marangoz

Asst. Prof.Dr., Toros University, Mersin, Turkey, aslihan.marangoz@toros.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5119-4330

Yakup Soylemez

Asst.Prof.Dr., Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey, yakup.soylemez@beun.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-6185-3192

Kezban Talak

Dr., Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey, ktalak@gmail.com, ORCID ID:0000-0002-7837-5852

Nihat Tavsan

Dr., Piri Reis University, Istanbul, Turkey, antavsan@pirireis.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0001-7085-0893

Sevgi Eda Tuzcu

Dr., Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey, stuzcu@politics.ankara.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3658-2546

Mehmet Utku

Asst.Prof.Dr., Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey, mutku@pau.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7076-6891

A. Elif Ay Yalcinkaya

Asst.Prof.Dr., Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey, elif.ay@deu.edu.tr, ORCID-ID: 0000-0003-4417-2341

←13 | 14→

Gulizar Seda Yilmaz

Res.Asst.Dr., Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, seda.corak@adu.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-2430-6808

Murat Yorulmaz

Asst.Prof.Dr., Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey, murat.yorulmaz@kocaeli.edu.tr, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5736-9146

←16 | 17→

Referees

DR. AHU YAZICI AYYILDIZ

DR. ALİ PETEK

DR. ARZU ORGAN

DR. ASLI YENİPAZARLI

DR. AYNUR UÇKAÇ

DR. AZİZ BOSTAN

DR. BURCU HİÇYILMAZ

DR. BÜLENT YILDIZ

DR. BÜŞRA KUTLU KARABIYIK

DR. ÇAĞRI KÖROĞLU

DR. DİLEK ELVAN ÇOKİŞLER

DR. E.YASEMİN BOZDAĞLIOĞLU

DR. ECE AKSU ARMAĞAN

DR. ENGİN ÇAKIR

DR. ESİN SAYIN

DR. ESMA DURUKAL

DR. FATMA ÇAKIR

DR. FERİŞTAH SÖNMEZ

DR. FUNDA ÇONDUR

DR. GÖKHAN AKEL

DR. GÖNÜL TEZCAN

DR. GÜLİZAR SEDA YILMAZ

DR. GÜLŞAH SEZEN AKAR

DR. HATİCE EROL

DR. HÜSEYİN ŞENKAYAS

DR. İSMAİL İŞLER

DR. İSMET ATEŞ

DR. KIYMET YAVUZASLAN

DR. MEHMET BÖLÜKBAŞ

DR. MEHMET METİN DAM

DR. NECMİYE CÖMERTLER

DR. OSMAN PEKER

DR. SADULLAH ÇELİK

DR. SEDAT ALATAŞ

DR. SEMA OĞLAK

DR. SERCAN YAVAN

DR. ŞABAN ERTEKİN

DR. ŞANSEL ÖZPINAR

DR. TARIK ILİMAN

DR. TUĞBA AKIN

DR. UMUT EVLİMOĞLU

DR. UMUT TOLGA GÜMÜŞ

←18 | 19→

İbrahim Karatas

Russian Information Warfare: The Case of the White Helmets in Syria

Abstract Syria’s opposition civil-defense network, namely the White Helmets, has been under the military and information warfare of Russia since the Russian army began to fight alongside the Syrian regime against rebel groups in September 2015. Designating the organization as a terrorist group, Russians attacked the White Helmets’ operation centers and simultaneously waged an information war to smear the organization and perpetuate confusion among the world audience. This study has analyzed Russian media, affiliated news outlets, social media, pro-Russian reports disseminating Russian claims, the White Helmets’ reports and concerning news in the Western media. It also made interviews with top officials of the organization to check the accuracy of Russian accusations. After comparing allegations of both sides, it has concluded that there is massive Russian information warfare on the White Helmets that testifies Russian and the regime crimes on the frontline. The research has also contended that Russian black propaganda has become successful. As a side finding, this study has revealed which tactics the Russian propaganda machine uses during the discrediting campaigns. Methodologically, both quantitative and qualitative researches were used.

Keywords: Information Warfare, Russia, Syria, White Helmets, Security

1Introduction

The White Helmets (officially the Syrian Civil Defence) has been rescuing victims of the war from rubbles in mainly opposition-held areas of Syria since its establishment in 2013. Consisting of former engineers, bakers, tailors, students, shopkeepers, and people with many other professions, the humanitarian organization with over 3.000 volunteers has saved more than 100.000 lives as of January 2020. The White Helmets are funded, trained and supported by foreign governments particularly the US, the UK, Canada, European countries and some Arab states. They have a so dangerous job that some of the group members lost their lives or got injured while rescuing civilians in war-torn regions that were under continuous bombardment. According to the organization’s website, 252 volunteers have been killed and a double of that number was injured (The White Helmets, 2019). Besides deaths emanating from the ongoing Russian and Syrian regime bombardments, they have been ←19 | 20→the private target of jet fighters due to their humanitarian activities and being the witnesses of war crimes. Thus, their buildings, cars and medical centers have been under deliberate attacks of artillery bombardment, missiles or barrel bombs. However, their efforts went viral thanks to Western media, which culminated in a nomination for Nobel Prize. Besides, a documentary film named ‘The White Helmets’ streamed at Netflix won ‘the Best Documentary’ at the 89th Academy Awards.

The White Helmets are now sandwiched between asymmetric warfare and information warfare conducted by Russia. The humanitarian aid group had been operating in areas out of the Syrian regime’s control since the civil war erupted. Its efforts got praise from the world governments and audience but things changed when Russia directly got involved in the civil war on the side of the Assad regime. As soon as Russian jets dropped the first bomb on opposition groups on September 30, 2015, Russian media outlets launched a massive anti-White Helmets campaign simultaneously (The Syria Campaign, 2017: 8). Since then, the White Helmets have been hit by bombs and the black propaganda of Russian information warriors. The White Helmets operates in fatal conditions to minimize the number of deaths. Yet, while the group and its volunteers could escape from bombardments, they could not save themselves from the virtual warfare perpetrated by pro-Russian individuals. This study investigates how a humanitarian aid association can be discredited through internet blogs, social media, trolls, and classic media though it saves lives in the combat. To reveal the truth about the White Helmets and the reliability of Russian claims that are regarded as false propaganda by the Western media, accusations of pro-Russian groups and responses of the White Helmets have been analyzed for this study. By this way, this study intends to unveil; (1) how Russian information warfare is influential alongside the real war, (2) how perceptions can be changed negatively even against well-intentioned activities, and (3) why and how information warfare is complementary to ordinary warfare. This research contends from analyzes that Russia uses information as a weapon because Russians want to; (1) create doubt and confusion in the minds of foreign public, (2) do not want to witnesses on the ground that uncover their war crimes, (3) legitimize its attacks and whitewash the Assad regime, and (4) eliminate the White Helmets. In addition, it will also try to reveal how Russian propaganda works by analyzing their methods. In other words, this study plans to unveil Russian information warfare through analyzing its attacks on the White Helmets. The article expects to contribute to the theoretical literature of information warfare, particularly that of Russia.

←20 |
 21→

Methodologically, pro-Russian media disseminating Russian claims, counter reports and allegations of the White Helmets and concerning news in the Western media that aim to disprove Russian evidence have been examined and compared with each other. Further to documentary analysis, telephone and face-to-face interviews were made with the group leader Raed Saleh and some other officials of the organization. No people from Russian and the Syrian regime side could be accessed. While a section was dedicated to Russian information warfare, the White Helmets group is briefly explained in Introduction (see above) due to space problem.

The White Helmets (officially the Syrian Civil Defence) has been rescuing victims of the war from rubbles in mainly opposition-held areas of Syria since its establishment in 2013. Consisting of former engineers, bakers, tailors, students, shopkeepers, and people with many other professions, the humanitarian organization with over 3.000 volunteers has saved more than 100.000 lives as of January 2020. The White Helmets are funded, trained and supported by foreign governments particularly the US, the UK, Canada, European countries and some Arab states. They have a so dangerous job that some of the group members lost their lives or got injured while rescuing civilians in war-torn regions that were under continuous bombardment. According to the organization’s website, 252 volunteers have been killed and a double of that number was injured (The White Helmets, 2019). Besides deaths emanating from the ongoing Russian and Syrian regime bombardments, they have been the private target of jet fighters due to their humanitarian activities and being the witnesses of war crimes. Thus, their buildings, cars and medical centers have been under deliberate attacks of artillery bombardment, missiles or barrel bombs. However, their efforts went viral thanks to Western media, which culminated in a nomination for Nobel Prize. Besides, a documentary film named ‘The White Helmets’ streamed at Netflix won ‘the Best Documentary’ at the 89th Academy Awards.

The White Helmets are now sandwiched between asymmetric warfare and information warfare conducted by Russia. The humanitarian aid group had been operating in areas out of the Syrian regime’s control since the civil war erupted. Its efforts got praise from the world governments and audience but things changed when Russia directly got involved in the civil war on the side of the Assad regime. As soon as Russian jets dropped the first bomb on opposition groups on September 30, 2015, Russian media outlets launched a massive anti-White Helmets campaign simultaneously (The Syria Campaign, 2017: 8). Since then, the White Helmets have been hit by bombs and the black propaganda of Russian information warriors. The White Helmets operates in fatal conditions ←21 | 22→to minimize the number of deaths. Yet, while the group and its volunteers could escape from bombardments, they could not save themselves from the virtual warfare perpetrated by pro-Russian individuals. This study investigates how a humanitarian aid association can be discredited through internet blogs, social media, trolls, and classic media though it saves lives in the combat. To reveal the truth about the White Helmets and the reliability of Russian claims that are regarded as false propaganda by the Western media, accusations of pro-Russian groups and responses of the White Helmets have been analyzed for this study. By this way, this study intends to unveil; (1) how Russian information warfare is influential alongside the real war, (2) how perceptions can be changed negatively even against well-intentioned activities, and (3) why and how information warfare is complementary to ordinary warfare. This research contends from analyzes that Russia uses information as a weapon because Russians want to; (1) create doubt and confusion in the minds of foreign public, (2) do not want to witnesses on the ground that uncover their war crimes, (3) legitimize its attacks and whitewash the Assad regime, and (4) eliminate the White Helmets. In addition, it will also try to reveal how Russian propaganda works by analyzing their methods. In other words, this study plans to unveil Russian information warfare through analyzing its attacks on the White Helmets. The article expects to contribute to the theoretical literature of information warfare, particularly that of Russia.

Summary

Social sciences are made up of science disciplines that research humanity, society, and the world with a human dimension, and therefore its domain of influence is also serious and wide. Naturally, the social scientist has the power to influence society with his/her research and writing. This book aims to add the contributions of academicians from different disciplines to the social sciences fields they specialize in the academic literature and to give an idea about new researches. The book contains scientific articles on business, economics, public finance, tourism, and international relations.

Details

Pages
342
ISBN (PDF)
9783631848432
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631848449
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631848456
ISBN (Book)
9783631815939
Language
English
Publication date
2021 (March)
Published
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2021. 342 pp., 19 fig. b/w, 53 tables.

Biographical notes

Engin ÇAKIR (Volume editor) Yusuf KADERLİ (Volume editor)

Yusuf Kaderli completed his PhD at Aydin Adnan Menderes University Nazilli Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences (Turkey). He is working as a professor at the same faculty. His main field of study is capital market analysis and portfolio management. Engin Çakır completed his PhD at Aydin Adnan Menderes University Nazilli Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences (Turkey) with his thesis titled “Application of Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods in Six Sigma Project Selection”. He is working as an assistant professor at the same university. His main research area is multiple criteria decision-making.

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Title: Contemporary Issues with Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Social Science