Handbook of Research on Teacher Education in History and Geography

by Cosme J. Gómez Carrasco (Volume editor) Pedro Miralles Martínez (Volume editor) Ramón López Facal (Volume editor)
©2021 Edited Collection 410 Pages


It is necessary to know the opinions, practices and expectations of teachers in training and in practicing, to improve teacher education programs. This Handbook addresses the challenges for the profession of teaching of history and geography, who, in several European countries such as Spain and France, share initial training and teaching in both disciplines. Researchers’ contributions have been collected from eight countries. The majority of Spanish universities, eleven, have shared an extensive research project, but have also had the collaboration and participation of researchers from seven other countries: Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Portugal, Sweden and the United States. It is about collective work, in a network, rather than the sum of individual contributions.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Acknowledgement
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Introduction
  • Part I Research approaches in the training of geography and history teachers
  • Chapter 1 Quantitative research in education
  • Chapter 2 Mixed methods in education research
  • Chapter 3 Teaching the narrative competence in history education: Lessons from Canada
  • Chapter 4 Please let it be a history test with a content I can handle: How girls and boys perform in the national test in history in Sweden
  • Part II Researches about opinions and perceptions of teachers in initial training and in practising
  • Chapter 5 The representation of geographical and historical education among teachers-in-training: An Ibero-American perspective
  • Chapter 6 An analysis of the perceptions of trainee Secondary Education teachers on current historiographical trends
  • Chapter 7 History and geographical thinking skills: between disciplinary knowledge and knowledge for teaching in Teacher Education
  • Chapter 8 Perceptions regarding historical competences in trainee geography and history teachers
  • Chapter 9 The acquisition of historical competences in Spain: Perceptions of primary and secondary education teachers
  • Chapter 10 Social representations and teaching of cross-cutting topics for history and geography teachers in training: Gender and climate change
  • Chapter 11 Socially acute questions and critical citizenship in trainee geography and history teachers: From theory to classroom observation
  • Chapter 12 Learning to teach history in secondary education: Preservice teachers’ attitudes when faced with emotional and controversial issues
  • Chapter 13 What can be learned from decontextualised heritage?
  • Part III Heritage and ICT in the training of geography and history teachers
  • Chapter 14 Heritage education in teacher education and training
  • Chapter 15 Cliffs with memory: Historical and social teacher training via climatic and environmental transformations
  • Chapter 16 Mobile learning methodology: Analysis of the use of mobile devices in teaching
  • Chapter 17 Developing social and civic competence via apps: The role of historical memory in the initial teacher training
  • Chapter 18 Motivation strategies for gamified flipped classrooms in Social Sciences education

←10 | 11→


Fredrik Alvén

University of Malmö

Benito Arias

University of Valladolid (Spain)

Victor Arias

University of Salamanca (Spain)

José A. Armas Castro

University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Elvira Asensi

University of Valencia (Spain)

Inmaculada Aznar-Díaz

University of Granada (Spain)

María-Pilar Cáceres-Reche

University of Granada (Spain)

María de la Encarnación Cambil

University of Granada (Spain)

José María Campillo Ferrer

University of Murcia (Spain)

Janire Castrillo

University of the Basque Country (Spain)

Belén Castro-Fernández

University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Álvaro Chaparro Sáiz

University of Almería (Spain)

Sérgio Claudino

University of Lisbon (Portugal)

Juan Carlos Colomer

University of Valencia (Spain)

Manuela Costa-Casais

University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Ramón Cózar-Gutiérrez

University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

Jean-Philippe Croteau

Sichuan University (China)

Ander Delgado

University of the Basque Country (Spain)

Moisés Domingos

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil)

Andrés Domínguez-Almansa

University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

María del Mar Felices de la Fuente

University of Almeria (Spain)

←11 | 12→

Olaia Fontal Merillas

University of Valladolid (Spain)

Carlos Fuertes

University of Valencia (Spain)

Carlos Fuster

University of Valencia (Spain)

Silvia García-Ceballos

University of Zaragoza (Spain)

Iratxe Gillate

University of the Basque Country (Spain)

Cosme J. Gómez-Carrasco

University of Murcia (Spain)

Francisco-Javier Hinojo-Lucena

University of Granada (Spain)

Alex Ibañez-Etxeberria

University of the Basque Country (Spain)

Juan Antonio Inarejos Muñoz

University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

Esther Jiménez

Complutense University of Madrid (Spain)

Guadalupe Jiménez-Esquinas

University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Stéphane Lévesque

University of Ottawa (Canada)

Ramón López-Facal

University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Ursula Luna

University of the Basque Country (Spain)

Cristina María Maia

Polytechnic Institute of Porto (Portugal)

Luis Alberto Marques Alves

Polytechnic Institute of Porto (Portugal)

Jorge Conde Miguélez

University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Pedro Miralles-Martínez

University of Murcia (Spain)

José Monteagudo-Fernández

University of Murcia (Spain)

Antonio J. Morales

University of Valencia (Spain)

Juan Ramón Moreno-Vera

University of Murcia (Spain)

Álvaro-Francisco Morote

University of Valencia (Spain)

←12 |

Nancy Palacios Mena

University of Los Andes (Colombia)

David Parra Monserrat

University of Valencia (Spain)

Ma Montserrat Pastor

Autonomous University of Madrid (Spain)

Helena Rausell

University of Valencia (Spain)

Tania Riveiro-Rodríguez

University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Jairo Rodríguez-Medina

National University of Distance Education (Spain)

Raimundo A. Rodríguez-Pérez

University of Murica (Spain)

José-María Romero-Rodríguez

University of Granada (Spain)

Bartolomé Rubia Avi

University of Valladolid (Spain)

Jorge Sáiz

University of Valencia (Spain)

Jesús Molina Saorín

University of Murcia (Spain)

Daniel Schugurensky

Arizona State University (USA)

Xosé Manuel Souto González

University of Valencia (Spain)

Francisco Javier Trigueros Cano

University of Murcia (Spain)

Rafael Valls

University of Valencia (Spain)

←14 | 15→

Cosme J. Gómez-Carrasco, Pedro Miralles-Martínez, and Ramón López-Facal

Introduction Research challenges regarding trainee geography and history teachers

Knowledge of the opinions, practices and expectations of trainee and practising teachers is necessary in order to be able to improve teacher training and teaching practice. This Handbook addresses the challenges faced by history and geography teachers, who, in several European countries, such as Spain and France, share their initial training and teaching in both subjects. It includes contributions by researchers from eight countries. The majority of them (eleven) are from Spanish universities and have participated in a wide-ranging research project, enjoying the collaboration and participation of researchers from seven other countries (Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Portugal, Sweden and the United States). Rather than being the sum of individual contributions, this work is the fruit of collaboration by a network which incorporates the main Spanish research groups in the teaching of the social sciences: history, geography, heritage and other social sciences (Red 14).

An emerging academic knowledge domain

In recent decades, the initial and ongoing training of teachers has become a key issue (González & Skultety, 2018). Studies carried out in several countries have agreed on the need to update teacher training programmes in order to improve teaching and learning processes in compulsory education (Barnes, Fives, & Dacey, 2017; König & Blömeke, 2012; Korthagen, 2010). The research carried out points towards the need for comparative studies, thereby making it possible to transfer these findings into practical teaching (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2005; König, Ligtvoet, Klemenz, & Rothland, 2017; Schmidt, Blömeke, & Tatto, 2011).

Researchers in the field of teacher training agree on the fact that it is of prime importance to analyse the knowledge and conceptions of teachers in order to guide initial teacher training programmes (Darling-Hammond, 2006; Fives & Buehl, 2012; Virta, 2002). Their studies highlight research which aims to calibrate the different types of professional knowledge of teachers, placing ←15 | 16→emphasis on the mastery of everyday tasks in the classroom (König & Pflanz, 2016; Oliveira, Lopes, & Spear-Swerling, 2019).

Shulman’s (1989) proposals have been influential in the definition of the categories designed for research in the field of teacher training. Based on his analysis, when evaluating teaching competencies, researchers tend to differentiate between Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and General Pedagogical Knowledge (GPK) (Kleickmann, Richter, Kunter, Elsner, Besser, Krauss, & Baumert, 2012). CK refers to the knowledge of a specific subject and is related with the contents which teachers are obliged to teach. GPK implies the broad principles and strategies of management and organisation within the classroom (Blömeke, Busse, Kaiser, König, & Sühl, 2016). PCK implies the capacity of relating the specific material of the subject with teaching aims (Monte-Sano, 2011). The latter is a type of knowledge which explores the social representations of those learning a specific subject, how the learner understands this knowledge, the methods and resources required for teaching that subject and the selection and organisation of the specific contents in order to make them appropriate to the reality of the classroom (Meschede, Fiebranz, Möller, & Steffensky, 2017).

Several decades ago, studies on the teaching of history underwent a cognitive change, which did not occur at the same time or at the same pace in all countries. Wilschut (2011) has situated the origin of this trend in the 1970s, when Bruner’s theories and Bloom & Krathwohl’s taxonomies of educational objectives began to have a decisive influence on proposals relating to history education. A landmark in this change took place in the United Kingdom in 1972 with the setting up of the History Project 13–16, which later became known as the Schools History Project (SHP). The idea of this project was that pupils should “make” history rather than simply memorising events of the past. This project was the origin of the Concepts of History and Teaching Approaches Project. Thus, a research line was initiated linked to what is known as historical thinking (Martínez-Hita & Gómez, 2018). This approach attempts to provide students with the necessary intellectual tools to be able to analyse the past and relate it with understanding the problems of the present (Chapman, 2011; Counsell, 2011; Lee, 2005; Lee & Ashby, 2000).

In the United States, this line of research has given rise to studies influenced by cognitive psychology and the expert-novice analytical technique (VanSledright, 2011, 2014; Wineburg, 2001). Such research has generated studies in which the use of historical sources and the work of the historian occupy a prime role (Levstik & Barton, 2008; Monte-Sano, De la Paz, & Felton, 2014; Reisman, 2012; Wineburg, Martin, & Monte-Sano, 2013). In Canada, the ←16 | 17→work carried out at the Centre for the Study of Historical Consciousness, led by Peter Seixas, stands out. This centre has worked hard to define historical consciousness and historical thinking and to adapt these ideas to the reality of the classroom in a practical way via projects such as the Historical Thinking Project and the Assessment of Historical Thinking (Lévesque, 2008; Seixas & Morton, 2013). In addition to the work of this group in Canada, there has been a significant increase in studies on history education which attempt to combine the two concepts mentioned above (Létourneau, 2014; Zanazanian, 2015). These studies have had a great impact on the academic production of other countries, such as Australia (Parkes & Sharp, 2014) and the Netherlands (Bjorn, Sanne, Itzél, & Theo, 2018; Grever, Peltzer, & Haydn, 2011; Van Boxtel & Van Drie, 2012; Van Boxtel, Grever, & Klein, 2015; Van Drie & Van Boxtel, 2008).

In the Ibero-American sphere, the work by Barca (2005), Cerri and Amézola (2010), Domínguez (2015), Gómez and Miralles (2015, 2016), López-Facal (2014), Mora and Ortiz (2012), Sáiz and López-Facal (2015), and Schmidt (2017) shows how the afore-mentioned Anglo-Saxon proposals have been adapted to research on history education, including contributions influenced by German educational science, which place emphasis on the ethical dimension of history teaching.

This increase in research in the area of history education has, in recent years, led to the publication of many monographs. Among these publications, those by Counsell, Burn and Chapman (2016), Carretero, Berger and Grever (2017) and Metzger and Harris (2018a) stand out for examining key methodological concepts, current research lines, teaching praxis and the uses and objectives of the teaching of history. These reviews agree on the fact that there has been a significant increase in research in this area since the 1990s (Metzger & Harris, 2018b). They show that historical thinking and historical consciousness are two fundamental axes of research in this area in recent decades (Seixas, 2017), and that these studies have primarily focused on the curriculum, textbooks and, to a lesser degree, on interviews, pupils’ perceptions, observation records for the assessment of intervention proposals and case studies (Epstein & Salinas, 2018). In recent years, validated questionnaires have begun to have a greater impact in this field of knowledge, in the same way as other data collection tools and observation scales (De Groot-Reuvekamp, Anje, & Van Boxtel, 2017; De Groot-Reuvekamp, Ros, & Van Boxtel, 2018a, 2018b; Van Straaten, Wilschut, & Oostdam, 2018).

In spite of the increase in research over recent decades, there is still a limited number of studies dealing with the issue of PCK in the teaching of history and other social sciences, such as geography, from a global perspective ←17 | 18→and with a solid empirical basis (Pollock, 2014). Banks & Parker (1990) and Adler (2008) have pointed out that the majority of research on teacher training in the social sciences has been carried out on the basis of specific experiments which cannot easily be generalised. They highlight several classic studies in this area, such as those by Wilson and Wineburg (1993), McDiarmid (1994), Seixas (1998), Fragnoli (2005) and Bain and Mirel (2006), which made it possible to verify the epistemological and methodological conceptions of trainee teachers (Sáiz, Gómez, & López-Facal, 2018). The studies by Korthagen (2010), Lévesque (2014), Monte-Sano (2011) and Westhoff and Polman (2008) have examined in depth the interrelationship between the epistemological conceptions of teachers in relation to the concepts of historical thinking and the objective of the teaching of history (Pollock, 2014). In recent years, the studies carried out in the Netherlands, particularly by Van Boxtel’s group, have made it possible to make progress in robust empirical analyses, both in terms of statistics and in conceptual depth (Stoel, Logtenbergb, Wansink, Huijgend, Van Boxtel, & Van Drie, 2017).

Later, Tuithof et al. (2019) carried out a systematic analysis of the research on Pedagogical Content Knowledge in history education. They highlighted the great number of qualitative studies with small samples and also indicated that a considerable amount of the existing research focuses on disciplinary strategies of history, such as argumentation and the use of primary sources in the classroom (Ledman, 2015; Monte-Sano & Budano, 2013). Only a few studies deal with issues of teaching methodology and, when they do so, they focus on some specific aspect of the subject, such as critical pedagogy in the classroom (Blevins, Magins, & Salinas, 2020).

The majority of the research which evaluates training programmes focuses on the analysis of exercises carried out by teachers, direct observation and perception questionnaires (De Groot-Reuvekamp, Ros, & Van Boxtel, 2018b; Gómez, Monteagudo, Moreno, & Sáinz, 2019). Few are the studies which evaluate the improvement of these teachers’ skills in initial training when they begin their teaching practice in order to verify the effectiveness of the programmed activities. When this has been done, it has been with small samples and with qualitative techniques (Domínguez-Almansa & López Facal, 2017).

It is necessary to approach PCK from a holistic point of view in order to improve the teaching of history and for trainee teachers to abandon the epistemological baggage which conceives of history as a closed set of knowledge. Carrying out research on the training of future teachers may provide a diagnosis of what must be changed and the tools which should be employed. Therefore, it is considered necessary to perform a diagnostic analysis of the opinions and ←18 | 19→perceptions of trainee teachers with the aim of bringing about an improvement in teaching skills in terms of Pedagogical Content Knowledge.

The proposal of this handbook

In the first part of this book, the approaches of research in history and geography teaching are analysed, along with their relationship with teacher training. The first two chapters examine research methods. In the first chapter, Víctor Arias, Benito Arias and Jairo Rodríguez (from the Universities of Valladolid and Salamanca) explore in depth the quantitative approaches of research, both in terms of experimental designs and those which use greater internal controls in the research processes. Measurement and statistics are fundamental for quantitative research, as they constitute the link between the data observed and explanatory theoretical models. The chapter begins with an introduction to research trends in teacher training and a review of the main lines of research in this field. They conclude by describing the main designs in quantitative research in the context of education, which they illustrate with examples.

The second chapter addresses mixed methods. The techniques and procedures of quantitative data analysis have a great presence in high impact journals in education. Researchers in education sciences increasingly assume the complementarity of the paradigms and both conventional models are considered significant and valuable. Working with mixed methods seems to fit well with educational research in history education and in social studies. The research questions posed in the field of geography and history teaching and learning obtain more precise answers via the use of mixed methods, surpassing those obtained with quantitative and qualitative approaches when these are applied separately. Rodríguez-Medina and Rubia-Avi (the University of Valladolid) present the main research designs proposed from the mixed methods approach, along with some recent examples which illustrate their practical application in the field of education and also in geography and history teacher training.

The third chapter deals with narrative analysis in the area of history education and its potentiality. Levésque (the University of Ottawa) and Croteau (the University of Sichuan) highlight the importance of the theories of historical consciousness for the teaching of history, as they focus on the role played by narration in the attempts of contemporary peoples to define and orient themselves in time. History is a narrative act of (re)construction of the past. It uses cognitive means to interpret past realities connecting the dimensions of time (past, present, foreseen future) into coherent histories which create meaning. Far from being an oversimplification of realities, narration is a realisation of ←19 | 20→how we translate knowing how to narrate. The ability to provide meaning to the past is unavoidably related with narrative acts, or what Jürgen Straub calls “narrative competence.”

In the fourth chapter, Fredrik Alvén (the University of Malmö) addresses an issue of great interest for teacher training, namely the difference in the conceptions of historical knowledge according to the sex of the pupils. He contributes the results of a study carried out in the context of the national history test in Sweden between 2013 and 2019. At the beginning of the study period, the national test mainly required methodological skills (source analysis, argumentation, etc.) but, later, factual knowledge was added. According to the results of the test, girls were more successful in the first type of knowledge and boys in the second. The test writers could decide whether they wanted boys or girls to perform better, thus conferring upon them a moral responsibility. What principles could they base themselves upon when writing the test?

The second part of the book brings together contributions on the opinions and perceptions of trainee geography and history teachers. Their knowledge, prejudices and attitudes regarding history, geography and heritage education and the teaching of socially conflictive issues are analysed. Schools are not currently the main sphere in which knowledge is produced, reproduced and socialised. Neither are teachers the only or main agents of its transmission, nor is education a mere accumulation of knowledge. The role and functions of teachers and the concept of education itself are questioned and relativised as the result of social, cultural and technological changes: the omnipresence of social networks and the diversity of the mass media; the immediate access offered by technology and devices; the advancements in knowledge and the vastness of its scope; the modification of the role of the family in its responsibility in children’s education; and the need to educate free and autonomous citizens who are able to fulfil their potential to bring about a democratic, multicultural, changing and diverse society.

These social and cultural changes imply the need to train teachers to diagnose the learning situation of their pupils, to design more appropriate teaching and learning strategies and to intervene in the classroom in the most appropriate way for each situation.

Teachers should be trained to carry out their job in a context of accelerated and unpredictable changes. They need to acquire autonomy and, at the same time, work in collaboration with other colleagues and assume a curricular approach which is open, flexible and adaptable to its environment and a society which is ever more diverse and mixed. They must have rigorous and updated knowledge of the subjects of geography and history and also of innovative ←20 | 21→theories, methodologies and teaching practice. Being a teacher implies a commitment to society and to one’s surroundings.

Chapter 5 presents an Ibero-American perspective, with the contributions of Drs Parra and Souto (the University of Valencia) and Palacios (the University of The Andes). Their research was carried out by way of study reports reflecting the conceptions of 200 trainee teachers studying a primary education degree and a master’s degree in secondary education. Tradition and individual memory, both based on life experiences and personal memories, are remodelled and mixed with the collective memory of school. This research aims to demonstrate that the influence of this phenomenon has created a consensual common sense which hinders change, normalises codes and guarantees the continuity of certain narratives, practices and uses which are not useful for a civic and democratic education. The authors evaluate the degree of influence of school experiences on the participants, the impact of pedagogical and disciplinary education and the effect of a system and curricular framework in which the configuration and reproduction of these representations are produced.

In Chapter 6, Cambil (the University of Granada), Jiménez (the Complutense University of Madrid), Delgado (the University of the Basque Country) and Pastor (the Autonomous University of Madrid) analyse the perceptions of trainee secondary teachers regarding current historiographical trends. Historiography and the teaching of history have not mixed well in spite of the significant influence of the former on the latter. The authors study the perceptions regarding traditional and current historiographical approaches of these future teachers once they have finished their period of teaching practice. The aim is to analyse which historiographical trends currently have greater presence in the teaching and learning of history, how they influence teaching methodology and the focus of activities carried out in the classroom. The difficulties and advantages of their use are also examined, along with the challenge supposed by methodological innovation from current historiographical approaches, such as the history of the present, the history of everyday life, gender perspective, etc., and how the capacity for historical thinking in secondary education can be improved based on these aspects.

In Chapter 7, Colomer, Sáiz and Morales (the University of Valencia) analyse the historical and geographical knowledge and the thinking aptitudes and abilities of training teachers and to what extent they incorporate disciplinary and didactic knowledge. Their study aims to verify whether trainee teachers only acquire these aptitudes in a theoretical way or whether they are capable, or not, of putting them into practice when necessary.

←21 | 22→

Chapter 8 deals with the perceptions of trainee geography and history teachers regarding historical competences. For Gómez-Carrasco (University of Murcia), Felices and Chaparro (the University of Almería) and Inarejos (the University of Castilla-La Mancha), the changes which have taken place in our society require new teaching strategies and new objectives to build society in a broad and multicultural world. The data revealed by the questionnaire employed in the research show the unanimous preference for skills of a procedural and methodological nature. A clear preference among women for second-order contents and methodological concepts is also shown.

In Chapter 9, Trigueros, Campillo, Miralles and Molina (the University of Murcia) approach the acquisition of historical skills in Spanish teachers. They analyse the perceptions of teachers on history education with the aim of promoting significant practices, competency-based learning and mutual consciousness and cooperation. They note the lack of agreement among teachers regarding progress which should be made and the necessary fundamental changes in direction. They conclude that both teachers and students should advance towards a form of history education which places specific skills in the foreground. In their opinion, the nucleus of history teaching in the classroom must ensure that the central concepts of historical thinking are put into practice.

Chapter 10 focuses on social representations and the teaching of crosscutting issues to trainee geography and history teachers. Rausell, Morote and Valls (the University of Valencia) and Domingos (the University of Rio Grande do Norte) evaluate the representations of trainee teachers regarding socially relevant cross-cutting issues: questions of gender and environment. Their aim is to evaluate how trainee teachers incorporate these issues into teaching and learning processes. The authors analyse and classify discourse and representations relating to gender identity and environmental issues via initial surveys, self-evaluation surveys and narratives. The results indicate, along the same lines as the study by Armas, Conde, Alves and Maia (Chapter 10), that the prior training received by the students generates significant differences when defining and, consequently, understanding the concept of gender. Greater limitations are identified in the activities which they proposed for their future pupils, in spite of the fact that all of them claimed to have received specific training on this issue.


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2021 (March)
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2021. 410 pp., 39 fig. b/w, 67 tables.

Biographical notes

Cosme J. Gómez Carrasco (Volume editor) Pedro Miralles Martínez (Volume editor) Ramón López Facal (Volume editor)

Cosme Jesús Gómez Carrasco is senior lecturer of Social Sciences Education at University of Murcia (Spain). Pedro Miralles Martínez is senior lecturer of Social Sciences Education at University of Murcia (Spain). Ramón López Facal is senior lecturer of Social Sciences Education at University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain).


Title: Handbook of Research on Teacher Education in History and Geography
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