Digitalization and Future of Digital Society

by Suat Kolukirik (Volume editor)
©2020 Edited Collection 396 Pages


In today’s world where reality is simulated, societal relations are increasingly virtualized and social relations have started to be realized in digital environments. Individuals gaining belonging in the virtual universe by adopting digital identity produce daily life practices through social networks and cyberspaces and create new social structures. In our digitalized practices, the individual uses the delights and pleasures that they suppress and cannot reveal in the real universe in the transparent depth of the virtual universe and share their feelings and thoughts. Along with the identity created by the individual, who is not visible in the social sphere, in the virtual universe, their desires and pleasures have also become visible, known, and traced. In this sense, digital society is a way of effecting the similarities between ways of doing business, forms of visibility, and understandability protocols.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Introduction
  • A Period in Which Childhood Is Idled Away: Being a Child in the Digital World
  • Capitalism 5.0: Digital Capitalism and Its Political Economy in the Context of the Evolution of Capitalism
  • Digitization in Health Care: A Global Perspective
  • Deindividuation, Disinhibition, and Anonymity on Social Media: A Field Study on Online Behaviors of Turkish Users
  • Evaluation of Taxation of Cryptocurrencies in the Context of Schumpeter’s Creative Destruction
  • “The Overview of Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 Paradigms”
  • The State, Tech Companies and Surveillance in the Psychopolitical Era
  • Evaluating Perception of Youths Toward Digital Identity
  • Digitalization and Augmented Reality Applications: Whether Augmented Human or Lost Humanity?
  • Digital Technology and Sociopolitical Transformations
  • Digitalization and the Changing Structure of the Government: An Evaluation on Turkish Public Administration
  • A New Form of Violence in the Reality of Risk Society: Digital Violence
  • The Problematic of Digitalization as the Social Dimension of Fiscal Transparency
  • Digitalization of Sports: The Case of Video Referee System in Football
  • The Effects of Digital Media on the Ways of Thinking of Young People in Secondary Education
  • Virtual Reality Technologies in Our Digitalized Education World: Its History, Usage Areas, Limitations and Future
  • Marketing of Sports and Communication in Digital Area: E-Sports and the Case of Turkey E-Sports Football League
  • Transformation of Higher Education in Electronic Environment: The Sample of Digital Higher Education Project
  • Your Attention, Please: You’ve Got 15 Seconds! TikTok and How Organizations Can Make Use of It
  • Impact of Digitalisation on the Education System in India: A Critical Perspective

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List of Contributors


Prof. Dr. Suat KOLUKIRIK


Akdeniz University

Department of Sociology


Chapter 1

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gül AKTAŞ


Pamukkale University

Department of Sociology


Chapter 2

Dr. Abdilcelil KOÇ


Isparta University of Applied Sciences

Department of Management and Organization


Chapter 3



Missouri State University

Benefits Advisor


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Subhasree Basu ROY


Missouri State University

Department of Economics


Chapter 4




Chapter 5

Assist. Prof. Sevilay Ece GÜMÜŞ ÖZUYAR


Necmettin Erbakan University

Faculty of Political Sciences


Chapter 6

Lect. Emre Kadir ÖZEKENCİ


Çağ University

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences


Chapter 7

Dr. Mehmet ÖZYÜREK


Yalova University

Faculty of Law


Chapter 8

Assist. Prof. Seda Gökçe TURAN


Bahçeşehir University

Department of Child Development


Chapter 9

PhD Candidate Eren KESER


Akdeniz University

Department of Communication


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Fatih USLU


Akdeniz University

Faculty of Education


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Chapter 10

Dr. Eyüp ÖZ


Haliç University

Department of Political Science and International Relations eyupozum@hotmail.com

Chapter 11

Dr. Esra Ebru MAVİ


Council of Higher Education


Chapter 12

Lecturer Hatice OĞUZ


Isparta University of Applied Sciences

Therapy and Rehabilitation Department


Prof. Dr. Metin ÖZKUL


Süleyman Demirel University

Department of Sociology


Chapter 13

Dr. Esra DOĞAN


Eskisehir Osmangazi University

Department of Public Finance


Chapter 14

MA Student Defne Nazlı BAŞ


İzmir Bakırçay University

Department of Sociology


Chapter 15

Dr. İbrahim YÜKSEL


Ministry of National Education


Chapter 16

Dr. Murat ÇOBAN


Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University

Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology


Chapter 17

Lecturer Mehmet Akif BAL


Süleyman Demirel University

Faculty of Sport Science


Chapter 18

Lecturer Muhammed Fatih AKSARAYLI


Süleyman Demirel University

Department of Business Management


Chapter 19

Prof. Dr. Andreas KAPLAN


ESCP Business School Berlin & Paris


Chapter 20



Bengaluru Central University

Indian Institute of Psychology and Research




St. Joseph’s College

English Literature

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In today’s world, which is called digitalization or technological era, our life practices, habits, and ways of doing business continue to change skin every passing day. Perhaps we are witnessing a period in which the concepts of time and space become difficult and complicated as the subject of a world that is running away. Topics such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, innovation, augmented reality, cloud computing, and cybersecurity have become part of our daily lives. Moreover, more than half of the 7.5 billion world population uses the internet, and two out of every three adults have mobile phones. People shop digitally, watch movies or TV shows in their native language, plan a vacation, and play games. People live and move with artificial intelligence, big data, learning machines, and new robotics.

Our lives, which differed after the Industrial Revolution, are progressing mostly through technological addictions and phenomena in today’s world. In a way, a life connected to the digital has turned into a new social structure and culture. So to speak, humanity is shaped through social media trends, virtual agendas, and visuals, and virtual simulations determine our identity and personality. The Internet determines and transforms the individual, identity, and culture, especially through social media platforms. Today’s humans’ shuttle between the real and virtual lives and our definitions of social values, norms, privacy, communication, production, and consumption habits are radically changing.

In addition to the facilities provided by our digitalized social life in terms of access to data and access to information, it also carries concerns such as data pollution and insecurity. Concerns about robotization, Humanity 2.0, the surveillance society, and human enslavement are often voiced in future planning and lead to different debates about the nature of human–system interaction. Moreover, rather than where it is in the world, what is done and how it is made becomes important, and it is a reality to make the effects of digitalization, which has leaked into every area of our lives and become invisible by becoming ordinary, understandable on our social life.

From the way our digitalized social life processes information to our production processes, from socialization to our understanding of consumption, our diverse profiles stand in front of us in understanding the time we are in. Because the face-to-face relationships that exist in the traditional process are seeking their legitimacy in the virtual reality world, which is compared to reality and needs rational explanations. Concepts such as digital identity, culture, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, digital economy, and hypnotic society surround us and keep getting more and more evident.

This book in your hand deals with changes in the context of digitalization and the future of the digital society in the context of identity, culture, economy, surveillance, production, and consumption and includes examples of new life ←9 | 10→practices. In other words, the profiles of digital life are interpreted and discussed by different social scientists. I hope the study will contribute to the digital sociology literature and be useful, and I thank the academicians involved in the project.

Prof. Dr. Suat KOLUKIRIK

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A Period in Which Childhood Is Idled Away: Being a Child in the Digital World

1 Introduction

Technological developments changing at a striking speed, information-communication networks determining many parameters in all areas of human life have profoundly affected the meaning of world for children as well as adults. Today, the digital world has provided facilities that will save life, time and energy to make life easier in every segment of the society. In this way, individuals can easily access information wherever they are in the world, receive immediate news about the developments in the fields of economy and politics, and money flow becomes quick, thus providing a significant comfort area for individuals. But when we evaluate the comfort in question sociologically, it also deforms the life of the individual. While this subject is frequently mentioned in the field, psychologists, psychiatrists, and sociologists underline that the negative impacts of the digital world should not be ignored. According to experts, because social relations with the digital world have taken on a new quality, we are more often faced with alienation, withdrawal from real life and loneliness from time to time.

When we approach from this point, this study aims to make a sociological comment on the issue of the digital age and its implications creating important usefulness and opportunities as well as involving risk and threats in children’s lives. It is an important process for children, who constitute an important part of the future of the society, to develop their creativity; to acquire skills focused on solving problems and crisis; and to provide the capacity to speak, which is one of the most essential requirements of being an individual, empathize, understand, and interpret. However, since digital technologies provide unlimited access, children move away from socialization and meet their play, friendship, and communication needs in a virtual environment.

In the premodern era, children practiced traditional learning methods—by living, experiencing and developing new learning strategies—in the process of understanding and interpreting the social, cultural, and economic world. Therefore, in times when digital tools had not penetrate our lives, children mostly learned by interacting with social groups and experiencing the necessities of being an individual. Traditional games helped children develop their roles and responsibilities, discover methods of reaching the truth by making mistakes, socialize with peer groups, and develop practical skills in problem-solving. Whereas today, digital tools, which provide a wide range of use, gradually eliminate the way children learn through trial and error. The digital world provides services to children through ready-made package programs, thus enabling them to be involved in the ←11 | 12→social space virtually without getting tired, with multiple mechanisms capable of instantly changing and correcting mistakes. In this respect, it is a preliminary matter to look at the areas where it creates problem without ignoring that digital tools have become an important part of our life and that they provide comfort and convenience. In this framework, it is desirable for children to try to recognize and understand social reality in social life. For this, children must have an awareness that can distinguish between the virtual reality created by technology and the profiles that the fictional world presents to them and the pure forms of social reality. As such, analyzing the perceptual world created by digitalization in a sociological context will also be important for us to see how technological changes affect children’s different living spaces.

2 From Traditional to Modern Societies, Children Meeting the Digital World in a Nutshell

The age of information and communication is changing at a dizzying pace in many areas of human life. The globalizing world has changed people’s lifestyles, class structures, and cultural and social environment from different perspectives. Twenty-first century is an era in which people’s traditional habits, social values, customs, and traditions are deeply influenced. Traditional learning and application methods have changed; technological tools and equipment can do many things people take more time to do with less energy.

The age of information and communication has caused a multifaceted change in childhood, as in many stages of our lives. A few questions arise here. One of them is whether the change of the child and childhood corresponds to the same period with technological change. The other one is how the digital age affects which stages of children’s life.

In order to answer these questions, it is useful to clarify the concept of childhood primarily on the historical axis. The concept of family is the basis of the concept of childhood and the views on childhood. How the family is structured and the family models change in the historical process are reflected in childhood, thus reshaping it. In the antiquity, when children served roles such as good citizens, safeguards in intergovernmental treaties, and being a part of kinship relations, childhood was a concept toward which enough attention was not paid (Uğur, 2018: 228). During this period, children were regarded as “small citizens,” who should be educated within the laws and culture of society. In the Middle Ages, the foundation of the institution of the family was based on the ideology of slavery, and family referred to the slaves of a father and a community consisting of wife and children. In this community, the father had all kinds of rights over the child and the children had no special status and rights to protect themselves. Being economically nonfunctional and not contributing to reproduction were the main dynamics behind the low status of children in the Middle Ages. In these times, when fatal diseases and difficult living conditions were common and lack of ←12 | 13→information about childcare caused high infant mortality rates, children were left indifferent to their existence and the concept of childhood as a separate stage of life did not develop. Until the sixteenth and seventh centuries, children were considered slightly more than miniature versions of adults. The view that childhood is a limited version of adult life has lost its effect due to various factors such as the formation of various currents of thought, change of production style, and the emergence of the bourgeoisie.

With the Renaissance, which enabled the discovery of the value of the individual, the meanings attributed to childhood began to change. The view that a child is an “innocent being” expected to reach adult life was adopted, and childhood started to be seen as a life cycle separate from adulthood. The development of awareness that childhood has a special nature created special interest in raising children in accordance with their nature. Enlightenment thinkers and childhood advocates such as Locke and Rousseau emphasized that it is an investment in the society that children, who can make and implement decisions by themselves, have high self-esteem, can express themselves, can solve problems faced by them, can control their behavior, and should be raised peacefully and in harmony with their own nature. It can be stated that the new conditions that emerged due to these developments starting with the Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment changed the state of children in the society and the family and removed the obstacles to the recognition of the nature of children.

These developments also changed the establishment of the relations between the child and the family. In this new order, where all children had a universal childhood nature, it was the primary task of parents to raise children in accordance with their own nature, protecting them from religious dogma and immorality in society. The perception that children are innocent and naturally weak creatures led families to treat their children with care and compassion and to protect their children from the harsh realities of adult life. In addition to separating the worlds of children and adults, the new understanding of childhood also protected individual values by separating siblings. In this period, with the opinion that the child was not an entity under absolute control of the father, the father’s authority shifts to institutions such as medicine, pedagogy, and education, which indicates that childcare has gained a professional quality. The mother–child relationship gaining importance with the discovery of motherhood was the result of the steps taken in this period. In the modern period, a childhood phase different from the thoughts of adults was designed. The bourgeois class led the idea of childhood with individual value throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and by the twentieth century, the view of childhood as a separate individual began to spread among the middle classes and lower classes. In this context, it can be stated that a special childhood idea, which needed to be protected with the developments that transformed social, economic, political, cultural, and social conditions, began to occur, and this transformation, which primarily affected the values of the bourgeoisie about the child, spread to all classes of the society over time and formed the roots of today’s modern childhood image (Uğur, 2018: 228–229).

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In today’s world, childhood is shaped around different variables. A wide range of internet and technological networks, social activities, cultural events, the world of games and entertainment, urban dynamics, and diversity in educational materials have encompassed the social and personal worlds of children. Children embraced by an intense digital world have gradually started to lose the distinction between the real and the virtual world. Especially the world of game on the internet is sometimes defined as an achievement and a tension point for children and puts any other perception of reality in their lives aside. İdris (2017: 599) evaluates the phenomenon of the child in digital age as follows:

The reality of children, born into a digital world after 2000s, opened the door to new times, the effect of which has not diminished, and is also irreversible. Even though adults entered before this new temporal door opened, it was seen that the finger of the child started to quickly move around the keys. As perhaps the first example in history, a period began when fathers learned something from their children. The children were quick. The digital environment has set up armies to keep up with their biological, cognitive and spiritual pace. Numerous software developers, artists and writers began to produce and spread extremely attractive programs and games for children/youth. Global village discourse turned into real-time action through games and interests. The children who were called to the table from the game on the street before the evening, started to be called from the game on the computer screen. The child, who was previously criticized as ‘not entering the house from the street,’ is now being criticized as ‘not going out of their room’. The voices expressing the boring life of education in the face of the game world in the internet cafes and the visual world with plenty of effects on the screen are now on the agenda with high impact. The children, who were fleeing and ‘escaping’ from the school with joy when the last lesson bell rings, are now slowly and absent-minded by playing games with the smartphones and tablets they carry in their pockets and bags—despite some limitations. They shoot and broadcast each other’s videos, ‘sharing’ their classes and themselves in digital platforms. They take and share other shares with all kinds of cultures and cookies in and out of them.


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2021 (March)
Marketing Migrant Literature Political Science Economics Globalization Law
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2020. 396 pp., 42 fig. b/w, 17 tables.

Biographical notes

Suat Kolukirik (Volume editor)

Suat KOLUKIRIK is the head of department at the Sociology Department, and director of the social sciences institute and continues his studies on digitalization, international migration, cultural studies, and disadvantaged groups.


Title: Digitalization and Future of Digital Society