Table Of Contents
- About the editors
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- Introduction Football: A Myth Machine. The Second World War, National Socialism and Anti-fascism (Markwart Herzog)
- Part I Greater German Reich
- 1 The German National Team: From the Last International Match During the War in 1942 to the First Postwar International Match in 1950 (Ulrich Matheja)
- 2 Viennese Football Players and the German Wehrmacht: Between ‘Duty’ and Evasion (David Forster / Georg Spitaler)
- 3 Football in Graz during the Second World War: The Traditional Clubs SK Sturm and GAK from 1939 to 1945 (Walter M. Iber / Harald Knoll)
- Part II Allied and Neutral Countries
- 4 Between Political Instrumentalization and Escapism: Spanish Football during the Second World War (Jürg Ackermann)
- 5 Football in Rome during the German and Anglo-American Occupation (1943–1945) (Marco Impiglia)
- 6 Neutrality as the Norm? Football and Politics in Switzerland during the First and Second World Wars (Christian Koller)
- 7 Switzerland’s International Matches during the Second World War: Sport and Politics, Continuities and Traditions (Grégory Quin and Philippe Vonnard)
- Part III Great Britain and Mandated Territories
- 8 War Heroes or ‘D-Day Dodgers’? English ‘Wartime Football’ (Fabian Brändle)
- 9 Bombs on Seats: Football and the Consequences of War in an English City (Gary Armstrong / Matthew Bell)
- 10 Football in the British Mandate for Palestine during the Second World War (Manfred Lämmer and Haim Kaufmann)
- Part IV Eastern European Countries
- 11 Football in the Occupied Soviet Territories: Leisure and Entertainment, Sport and Health, Politics and Ideology (Alexander Friedman)
- 12 Football during the Nazi Occupation of Kiev: A Contribution to the History and the Historical Context of the So-Called Death Match in Kiev (Maryna Krugliak and Oleksandr Krugliak)
- 13 Football in Occupied Zhytomyr (1941–1943): An Oasis of Normality amid War, Occupation and Genocide (Victor Yakovenko)
- 14 Football in Occupied Serbia (1941–1944) (Dejan Zec)
- 15 Football ‘Only for Germans’, in the Underground and in Auschwitz: Championships in Occupied Poland (Thomas Urban)
- Part V Football during the War as a Subject of the Arts
- 16 Football on the Front Line: The Silver Tassie, an Opera by Mark-Anthony Turnage (Martin Hoffmann)
- 17 Football as Politically Neutral Entertainment during the Nazi War: Content and Impact of Robert Adolf Stemmle’s Romantic Football Movie Das große Spiel (Markwart Herzog)
- 18 The Kiev Death Match: A Myth and Its Various Manifestations in Cinematic and Literary Works (Jan Tilman Schwab)
- Abbreviations and Short Terms
- Authors and Editors
- Series Index
European Football During
the Second World War
Training and Entertainment,
Ideology and Propaganda
Markwart Herzog and
Fabian Brändle (eds)
Translated by Karina Berger
Oxford • Bern • Berlin • Bruxelles • Frankfurt am Main • New York • Wien
Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek
Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available on
the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de?.
British Library and Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data:
A catalogue record for this book is available from The British Library,
Great Britain, and from The Library of Congress, USA
The translation of this work was funded by Geisteswissenschaften International – Translation Funding for Work in the Humanities and Social Sciences from Germany, a joint initiative of the Fritz Thyssen Foundation, the German Federal Foreign Office, the collecting society VG WORT and the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels (German Publishers & Booksellers Association)
Translation from Europäischer Fußball im Zweiten Weltkrieg
by Markwart Herzog and Fabian Brändle
© 2015 W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart.
Cover image: Ritual of welcoming two German soldier football teams before the final match of the Military Football Championship of ‘Greater Paris’ 1942, Princes’ Park Stadium (Stade Vélodrome du Parc des Princes), Paris Saint-Germain, photograph provided by † Georg Lichtenstern, Pöcking.
isbn 978-1-78874-474-4 (print)
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Published by Peter Lang Ltd, International Academic Publishers,
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This publication has been peer reviewed.
Markwart Herzog PhD is a philosopher of religion and sports historian and director of the Schwabenakademie Irsee. He works on topics related to the history of religion and history of sport. His main research interests include the cultural history of football, the commemorative and funerary culture of club football, the history of women’s football, sport in the National Socialist period and the media history of sport. He is a member of the International Society of Olympic Historians (ISHO), International Society for the History of Physical Education and Sport (ISHPES), Rotary Club Kaufbeuren, Deutsche Akademie für Fußballkultur and 1. FC Kaiserslautern.
Fabian Brändle PhDis a historian and author with a research focus on ‘history from below’, the history of folk and mass culture, the history of poverty, the history of childhood and youth, the history of the two world wars, Alsace, Tyrol and Ireland as well as the social and cultural history of sport, football and ice hockey in Switzerland.
About the book
When German troops marched into Poland on 1 September 1939, this also affected sport – sometimes dramatically. Official propaganda no longer viewed football as a game that was played for fun, but one that could be instrumentalized for political goals and military strategy. Due to the unpredictability of the game, football did not appear to be well suited to such a purpose. However, as the sport was able to create a politically neutral space that offered exciting entertainment and an escapist distraction, it was eminently important for the dictatorship. Soldiers and the civilian population benefited from this, as did the National Socialist regime itself. Football was vital for the war effort and also helped to stablilize the system precisely because it was not a vehicle for political propaganda. In this edited volume, an international team of authors examines the development of football during the Second World War in a dozen European states. The volume concludes with essays on the representation of the topic in the arts and the media.
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Index←viii | ix→
Figure 1.2: Reichssportführer Hans von Tschammer und Osten (right) presents player Franz Schmeiser of TSV München 1860 with the Tschammer-Pokal (today DFB-Pokal). 1860 had won the German cup a week before the game in Bratislava after a 2–0 victory against FC Schalke 04. Photo in: Der Kicker, 24 November 1942. (Archive Der Kicker/kicker-sportmagazin)
Figure 1.4: Forward Josef Gauchel of TuS Neuendorf (today TuS Koblenz), who scored thirteen goals in sixteen international matches between 1936 and 1942. Photo in: Der Kicker, 6 February 1943. (Archive Der Kicker/kicker-sportmagazin)
Figure 1.5: List of names of the 169 players appointed by Herberger during the war – both national and younger up-and-coming players. In: Joint war edition of Der Kicker-Fußball (last edition), 26 September 1944. (Archive Der Kicker/kicker-sportmagazin)←ix | x→
Figure 1.7: The first postwar German national team. From left: Jakob Streitle, Fritz Balogh, Karl Barufka, Richard Herrmann, Gunther Baumann, Max Morlock, Bernhard Klodt, Ottmar Walter, Herbert Burdenski, Toni Turek, Andreas Kupfer. Photo in: kicker-sportmagazin, 22 November 2010. (photo Schirner)
Iber and Knoll
Figure 5.1: Campionato Romano: Fulvio Bernardini, captain (number 9, Mater), puts pressure on the goalkeeper of Vigili del Fuoco during a match at the Velodrom Appio on 22 January 1944. (Marco Impiglia, archive)←x | xi→
Figure 5.4: Referee Generoso Dattilo at a match during the 1942–43 championship. Dattilo had enjoyed running a ‘palletta’ tournament in the courtyard of a rectory in the Testaccio neighbourhood during the German occupation of Rome, where they used balls the size of a grapefruit, as well as goals that were about three metres wide and two metres high. (Marco Impiglia, archive)
Figure 5.7: Brochure which the Sicilian journalist Tarcisio Del Riccio published on behalf of Eugenio Danese, the director of Corriere dello Sport in 1945; it kept fans in the south up to date with all the results of the championship in the north. (Marco Impiglia, archive)←xi | xii→
Figure 5.8: The former Piedmontese partisan ‘Nasone’ [big nose] with Juventus players during a practise break near Turin on 10 September 1945. From left: ‘Nasone’, Pietro Rava, Alfredo Foni and Felice Borel. (Marco Impiglia, archive)
Figure 6.2: General Henri Guisan, Commander-in-Chief of the Swiss army, welcomes national players Severino Minelli and Alfred Bickel before the international match against Italy on 12 November 1939. (Swiss Football Association, archive)
Krugliak and Krugliak
Figure 12.5: A monument commemorating the victims of the Death Match in front of the Dynamo stadium, created by sculptor Ivan Horovy and architects Voldemar Bogdanovsky and Igor Maslenkov in 1971. (Jan Tilman Schwab, Kiel)
Figure 12.6: Memorial by sculptor Anatoly Kharechko and architect Anatoly Ignashchenko at the Zenit stadium, the venue of the Death Match (now Start stadium), which was put up in 1981. (Jan Tilman Schwab, Kiel)
Figure 14.4: Caricature from 1943 about the passionate rivalry between Sport Club 1913 (formerly Sport Club Jugoslavija) and Beogradski Sport Club. (Ljubomir←xiii | xiv→ Vukadinović, Večiti rivali, Belgrad: Knjižara Ivan Gundulić, 1943)
Figure 15.1: Photo of a league match between Polonia Warsaw (black jerseys) and Cracovia Krakow (striped jerseys) in 1936, which Polonia won 3–2; Władysław Szczepaniak (middle) was captain of the national team and became one of the Figureureheads of the Polish resistance. (R. Gawkowski collection, Warsaw)
Figure 15.4: Caricature about the first round of the football championship in the General Government; the Figureures represent the individual clubs: Heer, Luftwaffe, Reichspost, Ostbahn, Ordnungspolizei. (Warschauer Zeitung, 24/25 November 1940)
Figure 15.5: SA-Gruppenführer Ludwig Fischer, the governor of the Warsaw district, deported Polish football players to Auschwitz and had his men shoot on spectators; in 1947, he died on the gallows of Warsaw Mokotów prison. (SMH Konstancin)
Figure 15.6: Ernst Willimowski, Polish and German footballer from Upper Silesia, played twenty-two times for the Polish national team and eight times for the German←xiv | xv→ national team. (Deutsche Sport-Illustrierte, no. 42, 1942, front page)
Figure 17.1: Fans and players of FC Gloria Wupperbrück celebrate the top scorer Heini Gabler with an enormous laurel wreath and scarves decorated with swastikas in the Berlin Olympic Stadium. (Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Stiftung, Wiesbaden)
Figure 17.2: Players celebrate after the FC Gloria Wupperbrück vs VfB Sportfreunde Dresden semi-final; on the wall hangs a portrait of the Reichssportführer Hans von Tschammer und Osten. (Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Stiftung, Wiesbaden)
Figures 1.1–1.5: Archive Der Kicker/kicker-sportmagazin.
Figure 6: Festschrift 100 Jahre DFB, p. 42.
- XVIII, 510
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- Publication date
- 2018 (December)
- football under the Swastika political football myths amusement and war entertainment in the everyday culture of soldiers and civilians
- Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, New York, Wien, 2018. XVIII, 510 pp., 48 fig. b/w