In today’s security-conscious environment, the loyalties and allegiances of migrant communities are increasingly being brought into question. Drawing on the collected knowledge of a number of Australian experts investigating interwar issues of security, surveillance and civic rights from the perspective of migration studies, this book aims, through the examination of individuals and groups in Oceania who were targeted for potential subversion or believed to hold National Socialist sympathies (including local National Socialists, Italian-Australians, Russian exiles, members of the right-wing movements the New Guard and Australia First), to consider how issues of security were regarded at another critical point in world history and what lessons we may learn from that period today. This book examines a variety of motives for embracing National Socialism and investing hope in the Third Reich. Attitudes shifted over time from enthusiasm to scepticism and disappointment. But, most importantly, beyond support and opposition, there was a surprising level of disengagement and indifference from sister movements on the radical right. This groundbreaking study defies easy answers and previously-held understandings, and will stimulate debate and further research.