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Translation, Interpreting and Culture

Old Dogmas, New Approaches

by Emília Perez (Volume editor) Martin Djovčoš (Volume editor) Mária Kusá (Volume editor)
Conference proceedings 286 Pages

Summary

This book about the clash between old and new approaches to translation and interpreting focuses on the theoretical, methodological, empirical as well as paradigmatic tensions and intersections between various traditions in translation and interpreting studies. It does so not only from a generational perspective but also from geographical, sociocultural and political points of view, aiming to foster communication among them and reveal synergies between the latest research trends and pre-existing methodologies and approaches. It includes chapters on translation theory, history and criticism, interpreting in changing contexts, translation of texts that transcend genre, text type and media borders, and changes and challenges in translator and interpreter training. The book provides a platform to new voices in translation and interpreting studies and presents the ideas of traditionally less represented geographical areas in the mainstream of our discipline.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the editors
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Acknowledgement
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Introduction
  • Translators and Publishers in Czechoslovakia (1968–1989): Following and Subverting the Ideology (Marianna Bachledová)
  • The Translation of Yiddish Literature into Czech in Jewish Periodicals: The Impact of the Medium and the Genre of the Source Text on the Choice of Translation Strategies (Marie Krappmann)
  • Paratexts of Academic Texts: Polish History from a Czech Perspective (Ludmila Lambeinová)
  • The Factors Influencing the Role of Sign Language Interpreters: The Case of Turkey (İmren Gökce Vaz De Carvalho)
  • In A League of Their Own? Conference Interpreters Viewed Through the Prism of Elite Sociology (Antony Hoyte-West)
  • Fluency and Delivery in the Evaluation of Interpreter Performance: Evidence from Evaluations from Trainers and the Target Audience (Mária Bakti)
  • Hybridity and (Re)Contextuality as a Conceptual Tool in Selma Ekrem’s Unveiled and Its Turkish Translation (Büşra Yaman)
  • Quality in Translation Crowdsourcing: A Case Study with Professional and Non-Professional Translators (Maria Stasimioti, Vilelmini Sosoni, Katia Lida Kermanidis)
  • Toward a Context-Based Definition of Localization (Marián Kabát)
  • Training Future Professionals in Slovakia: Contexts, Changes and Challenges in Translator Training (Martin Djovčoš and Emília Perez)
  • To Be or Not to Be an Interpreter? Should Interpreter’s Training Change the Personality or Subordinate Itself to It? (Soňa Hodáková)
  • Students’ Motivation and Their Subjective Readiness to Enter the Translation Profession: A Survey of Four Different Universities in One Country (Pavol Šveda)
  • Conclusion

←8 | 9→

List of Contributors

Marianna Bachledová

Department of English and American Studies

Faculty of Arts, Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica

Slovakia

marianna.bachledova@umb.sk

Mária Bakti

University of Szeged, Juhász Gyula Faculty of Education

Szeged, Hungary

baktimarcsi101@gmail.com, bakti.maria@szte.hu

İmren Gökce Vaz De Carvalho

The Universidade Nova de Lisboa and Universidade de Aveiro

Portugal

igokce@fcsh.unl.pt

Martin Djovčoš

Department of English and American Studies

Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica

Slovakia

martin.djovcos@umb.sk

Soňa Hodáková

Department of Translation Studies

Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra

Slovakia

shodakova@ukf.sk

Antony Hoyte-West

Independent Scholar

United Kingdom

antony.hoyte.west@gmail.com

Marián Kabát

Department of British and American Studies

Faculty of Arts, Comenius University in Bratislava

Slovakia

marian.kabat@uniba.sk←9 | 10→

Katia Lida Kermanidis

Department of Informatics

Ionian University Corfu

Greece

kerman@ionio.gr

Marie Krappmann

Department of German Studies

Faculty of Arts, Palacký University in Olomouc

Czech Republic

marie.krappmann@upol.cz

Ludmila Lambeinová

State Regional Archives – Litoměřice - Kamýcká

The Czech Republic

lambeinova@soa.cz

Emília Perez

Department of Translation Studies

Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra

Slovakia

eperez@ukf.sk

Vilelmini Sosoni

Department of Foreign Languages,

Translation and Interpreting

Ionian University Corfu

Greece

sosoni@ionio.gr

Maria Stasimioti

Department of Foreign Languages,

Translation and Interpreting

Ionian University Corfu

Greece

stasimioti@ionio.gr←10 | 11→

Pavol Šveda

Department of British and American Studies

Faculty of Arts, Comenius University in Bratislava

Slovakia

pavol.sveda@uniba.sk

Büşra Yaman

Department of Translation and Interpreting

Kırklareli University

Turkey

busrayaman@klu.edu.tr

Introduction

Tradition, innovation, current trends, developments, shifts, new contexts and new challenges – these are all concepts that have abounded in numerous works of translation and interpreting studies (TIS). The dynamic character of a discipline that has constantly had to react to a rapidly developing market and profession has for decades fascinated scholars attempting to capture its essence in time and to encompass the gaps between its theory and practice. The central themes of this publication carry on this tradition. Presented are a selection of high-quality, cutting-edge contributions from the conference Translation, Interpreting and Culture: Old Dogmas, New Approaches (?), held in Nitra, Slovakia, in September 2018. The conference was attended by eminent speakers from all over Europe, the USA and Asia, and featured world-renowned keynote speakers Edwin Gentzler, Andrew Chesterman and Daniel Gile. The titular scope of the conference and this publication – the clash between old and new approaches to translation and interpreting – focuses on the theoretical, methodological, empirical and paradigmatic tensions and intersections between various traditions in translation and interpreting studies. These are approached not only from a generational but also from a geographical, sociocultural and political point of view, aiming to foster communication among them and reveal synergies between the latest research trends and pre-existing methodologies and approaches.

The concept of confronting the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ has been a recurrent one in the discipline, and efforts to reflect on the forces behind modern developments, discussing whether, where and why the paradigm of the discipline is shifting, are alluring. Dealing with such an issue in a single coherent volume might be considered excessively challenging, but the editors of this publication believe that mapping the discipline in the context of current developments and more traditional approaches might contribute to future debate. This aim can also be seen in the structure of the publication, bringing into focus contributions from the less-represented spaces in traditional TIS, offering the views of authors from Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Turkey, Poland and Greece. Our goal is to connect authors from these regions, providing their perspectives on translation theory, history and criticism regarding not only developments in translation and interpreting in changing contexts and the challenges in working with ←13 | 14→texts that transcend genre and media, but also reflection of the developments in translator and interpreter training. We look at these areas from the point of view of interpreting, translation history and new trends in translation studies (TS) research which cannot fit into any specific paradigm. We are not aware of many similar attempts to unite such diverse approaches. Publications are usually focused on specific aspects of translation, interpreting and methodology, and they only rarely look at the issue from such a wider perspective. We believe that such a broader approach might bring some fresh stimuli into the discussion on TIS. This publication thus provides a space to look at translation and interpreting from various and diverse perspectives in a coherent way, welcoming often newer and yet unfamiliar voices which may bring new insights into the traditional TIS mainstream.

The publication is structured into four main sections. The first one is dedicated to the geographical, sociocultural and political potential and limitations of translation theory, history and criticism. The authors of the contributions reflect on translation history in relation to censorship and ideology, revealing the extent of political control exerted via translation and literature. The introductory study of this section by Marianna Bachledová reflects on the practices of Czechoslovak publishing houses during the socialist period of 1968–1989, surveying the presence and character of ideologising elements in the paratexts of translated publications. Paratexts are also the subject of observation in the study by Ludmila Lambeinová who focuses on the projection of political and ideological stereotypes persisting in Czech and Polish cultural contexts. In the context of the limitations emerging from political and ideological development, Marie Krappmann surveys foreignisation and domestication strategies in the translation of Yiddish literature into Czech. She focuses on their publication in periodicals and analyses to what extent the medium of translation transfer, as well as the genre of the source text, influences the choice of translator’s strategies in a particular sociocultural setting.

In the second section the focus moves to selected contemporary issues in interpreting, paying attention to the professional performance and status of interpreters in various settings today. The role of sign language interpreters and their social representation is analysed in a contribution by İmren Gökce Vaz De Carvalho in her case study on the situation in Turkey. It shows that Turkish sign language interpreters regard themselves more as helpers and assistants rather than professionals in interpreting, which might relate to the status of the profession in the country but can also be interpreted in the context of the power relations between the hearing majority and the d/Deaf community. A different perspective is used in Anthony Hoyte-West’s survey of the status of conference ←14 | 15→interpreters, in which he applies the theories of elite sociology with the aim of examining whether conference interpreters actually can be said to represent an elite in the profession. Conference interpreting training from the perspective of high professional requirements lies at the centre of attention of the last of the contributions in the section, by Maria Bakti, and which presents the results of a longitudinal study in training conference interpreting skills from English into Hungarian. The third section is dedicated to the translation of texts that transcend genre, text type and media borders. The authors look at textual and agential hybridity in translation (Büşra Yaman), theoretical concepts of localisation (Marián Kabát) and quality in translation crowdsourcing of professional and non-professional translators (Maria Stasimioti, Vilelmini Sosoni and Katia Lida Kermanidis). Although from different areas, all three contributions manage to operationalise concepts of new hybrid transcending strategies in the process of translation. Similar efforts can be observed in the last section of the publication in the context of training translators and interpreters. In the last three studies, the editors of this book, as well as Pavol Šveda and Soňa Hodáková, attempt to contextualise the new developments in academic training, identifying space for improvement and further potential with regard to the translation and interpreting profession in the region.

The historical themes reflected in this volume (on ideology, culture and censorship) as well as the contributions researching the newest developments in both translation and interpreting practice and training have the potential to provide a sound resource for readers interested in the theory, history, sociology and didactics of translation and interpreting. The editors of the publication would like to emphasise the value of the central motif of the collection – the old versus the new – especially with regards to the dynamic growth of the discipline and the need to address the requirements of changing societies. We hope the publication will contribute to the debate on the ‘old’ and ‘new’ in translation and interpreting theory, training and profession, and that a fruitful opportunity for enlightenment is provided.

Editors

Marianna Bachledová

Translators and Publishers in Czechoslovakia (1968–1989): Following and Subverting the Ideology

Abstract: The research follows previous works dealing with the history of translation in Slovakia (Pliešovská 2016; Tyšš, 2017; Kovačičová and Kusá, 2015, 2017; Bednárová, 2013), investigating the publishing process (Šútovec, 2002) and paratexts (Palkovičová, 2016; Klimová, 2020). It examines certain, previously ‘untouchable’ topics such as constructing a cultural simulacrum through literature, political control and censorship mechanisms, the banned translators and the system of fake authorship which allowed them to continue working by trying to reconstruct at least a part of the historical narrative created by the historical establishment and enforced by cultural institutions.

Keywords: translation history, literary translation, ideology, censorship, foreword, afterword, paratext

1 Introduction

In broader terms, this research follows the works dealing with the history of translation in Slovakia (Pliešovská 2016; Tyšš, 2017; Kovačičová and Kusá, 2015, 2017; Bednárová, 2013), investigating the publishing process (Šútovec, 2002) and paratexts (Palkovičová, 2016; Klimová, 2020). It examines certain, previously ‘untouchable’ topics such as constructing a cultural simulacrum through literature, political control and censorship mechanisms, and banned translators and the system of fake authorship which allowed them to continue working by trying to reconstruct at least a part of the historical narrative created by the historical establishment and enforced by cultural institutions. The research subject is intertwined with the development of the cultural and political situation in Czechoslovakia, and interpretation obviously requires familiarity with its historical background. The aim of this chapter is to provide an insight into the way ideological pressure reflected in the paratexts created during the period of normalisation in Czechoslovakia (1968–1989) through material research: forewords and afterwords written by Slovak authors and incorporated into the translated books were examined for ideological aspects using T. van Dijk’s concept (2006). The mosaic is complemented by accounts ←17 | 18→provided by the translators and cultural workers active at the time (Magová and Passia, 2015; Rubáš et al., 2012).

2 Historical Background

The time frame of the investigation was opened by the Prague Spring, an attempt to partly democratise the regime and revive freedom of expression in Czechoslovakia with Alexander Dubček, the first secretary of the country’s Communist Party in charge at the time. However, the conservative communism that followed the Kremlin line with Vasiľ Biľak at its head assumed this was an attempt at counter-revolution and requested the Soviet leadership to resolve the situation (Jašek, 2012; Kořínek, 2006). As a result, the Warsaw Pact army invaded the territory of Czechoslovakia and the normalisation period started in Czechoslovakia. From 1970, Biľak oversaw the purge in the Communist Party and in 1971, public revolt was completely suppressed (Jašek, 2012).

Details

Pages
286
ISBN (PDF)
9783631853016
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631853023
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631853030
ISBN (Hardcover)
9783631838815
Language
English
Publication date
2021 (August)
Published
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2021. 286 pp., 53 fig. b/w, 21 tables.

Biographical notes

Emília Perez (Volume editor) Martin Djovčoš (Volume editor) Mária Kusá (Volume editor)

Martin Djovčoš is an associate professor at the Department of English and American Studies at Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica, Slovakia. His teaching and translation research currently focuses on sociological aspects of translation, asymmetries in intercultural communication, translation criticism and interpreting training. Mária Kusá is a Russian language and translation studies scholar at the Faculty of Arts of Comenius University in Bratislava and the Institute of World Literature at the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. Her research focuses on translation history and Slovak translation studies as a part of the history of the cultural and scientific space. She concentrates on reception (not only) of Russian literature in Slovakia in broader geographical and cultural relations. Emília Perez is an associate professor at the Department of Translation Studies at Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovakia. Her training and research activities focus on audiovisual translation and media accessibility, standards and procedures in the creative sector, as well as the area of translator competences.

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