South Asia Needs Hybrid Peace

by Zia Ul Haque Shamsi (Author)
©2022 Prompt XX, 98 Pages


South Asia is strategically located with amazing topography, enormous natural resources, extremely hardworking human resources, and is home to some of the oldest religions and civilizations. Yet despite all the blessed features, the nearly two billion people are left behind on every account of development due to unnecessary wars and conflicts. The present state of this sub-region is primarily a result of the enduring rivalry between India and Pakistan that spans over seven decades and four decades of continued wars and conflicts in Afghanistan. Therefore, it is necessary to understand that South Asia Needs Hybrid Peace more than ever before to avoid catastrophic outcomes of another major conflict between nuclear neighbours and the resurgence of terrorism around the globe.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I Hybrid Peace between India and Pakistan
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Precepts
  • Hybrid Peace and the Productive Engagement
  • Hybrid Peace and Conflict Resolution
  • Hybrid Peace and Economic Cooperation
  • Hybrid Peace and Information Sharing
  • Hybrid Peace and Sociocultural Cooperation
  • Hybrid Peace and Nuclear Deterrence
  • Chapter II Hybrid Peace in Afghanistan
  • Chapter III Hybrid Peace and the Revitalization of SAARC
  • Regional Complexes
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): A Good Example
  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
  • SAARC Expressway
  • SAARC Information Highway
  • SAARC Trade Potential
  • SAARC Tourism
  • SAARC and the Education, Energy, and Environment (E-3)
  • SAARC Parliament
  • Conclusion
  • Appendix A Brief Country Introduction: Afghanistan
  • Appendix B Brief Country Introduction: Bangladesh
  • Appendix C Brief Country Introduction: Bhutan
  • Appendix D Brief Country Introduction: India
  • Appendix E Brief Country Introduction: Maldives
  • Appendix F Brief Country Introduction: Nepal
  • Appendix G Brief Country Introduction: Pakistan
  • Appendix H Brief Country Introduction: Sri Lanka
  • Bibliography
  • Series index


There has been a lot of discussion on the phrase ‘hybrid war’ particularly since the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2015. The concept is as old as the warfare itself and will continue to be employed as long as the world clings to the international relation’s theory of realism which emphasizes power and security. If the twentieth century was one of the bloodiest (with two great wars and several proxy wars which left Korea divided, Afghanistan destroyed, Kashmir bleeding, and the Middle East in shreds), then the twenty-first century is also showing no signs of respite for poor and developing nations. Perhaps, it is time to shun the talks on hybrid war and instead think about hybrid peace. The concept of hybrid peace is inspired by Pakistan’s founder Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s precepts of ‘peace within and peace without.’ Although it sounds idealistic, it is certainly doable with concepts of productive engagements in external affairs, just distribution of natural resources, universal spread of health and education, and joint development in science, technology, cyber, and informational domains. If there is one sub-region which needs hybrid peace forthwith, it is South Asia. Afghanistan deserves a break, and the Kashmir issue needs to be ←xi | xii→resolved as a priority. The enduring rivalry between India and Pakistan has already had an enormous cost for this region with just under two billion people in terms of development, progress, and prosperity.

This book aims to explore the possibilities of hybrid peace in South Asia with resolution of major disputes between India and Pakistan including Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), enduring peace in Afghanistan, and revitalization of SAARC under the paradigm of hybrid peace.

←xii | xiii→


First of all, I bow my head before Allah Almighty for His Countless Blessings upon me during the entire period of my research and writing.

I offer my sincerest gratitude to all my teachers and colleagues for their support and encouragement in the process on this important subject. An effort has been made to acknowledge and refer their work appropriately; however, if any particular idea or work is not referred properly, I would seek guidance to make suitable correction. I must also mention that some of my articles carrying similar ideas were published in Pakistani newspapers while this book was under review. However, all of these have been referred appropriately.

I am certain that the topic and the dreams for peace and stability in the conflict-ridden region of South Asia would generate discussions and some serious deliberations to navigate through the peace processes in South Asia.

I must thank Peter Lang Publishing Inc., for affording me another opportunity to publish my work.←xiii | xiv→

My heartfelt gratitude are due to my family for being supportive of my endeavors, concurrently saluting the Health Workers across the globe for their sacrifices and contributions during the testing times of COVID-19 pandemic, including my daughter Dr Unum Zia Shamsi.


The phrase “Hybrid War” became a household during the past decade, perhaps because the concept was freely employed against the target states, particularly in the developing world, by the relatively more affluent states. The physical violence accompanied by cyber attacks, informational and propaganda campaigns, economic blockades, and cultural invasions has been deployed unrestrictedly, tearing apart the social fabric of the target states. The people of Afghanistan, Kashmir, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Palestine have suffered immensely on account of peace, progress, prosperity, health, education, and development of the population of these countries. The wars between Unequal Military Powers—US-led alliances against Afghanistan, and Iraq, to name a few—have changed these states, perhaps forever.

Therefore, it is earnestly desired that an academic discussion on the viability of “hybrid peace” finds its rightful place in academia so that the affected states in the developing world can breathe without the fear of fire for at least next fifty years.


XX, 98
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2021 (December)
South Asia Needs Hybrid Peace Zia Ul Haque Shamsi Hybrid war Hybrid peace enduring rivalry Jammu and Kashmir productive engagement SAARC Afghanistan Taliban
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Oxford, Wien, 2022. XX, 98 pp.

Biographical notes

Zia Ul Haque Shamsi (Author)

Zia Ul Haque Shamsi received his PhD in strategic studies from NDU, Islamabad. He is the author of Nuclear Deterrence and Conflict Management Between India and Pakistan and the Urdu version of Sun Tzu’s The Art of War. Presently, he is Director at the Centre for Aerospace and Security Studies (CASS) in Islamabad-Pakistan.


Title: South Asia Needs Hybrid Peace