Gastronomy and Hospitality Studies in Tourism
hospitality in tourism and aims to provide theoretical and practical contributions to
both academicians and sector employees. In line with this purpose, the importance
and awareness of in tourism, especially gastronomy and food, is revealed, so it is
possible to associate conceptual studies with other areas of tourism. In addition, the
content has been enriched with examples of hospitality applications in tourism.
Table Of Contents
- About the editors
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- Table of Contents
- List of Contributors
- Chapter 1 Evaluation of Consumer Attitudes towards Restaurant Businesses in the COVID-19 Period (Gönül GÖKER and İlknur AYAR)
- Chapter 2 Effects of Music in the Food and Beverage Industry (Esra ŞAHİN)
- Chapter 3 The Risk Factors of Food Safety and Precautions to Be Taken in Food and Beverage Businesses (Fuat BAYRAM)
- Chapter 4 Food Waste from the Perspective of Food and Beverage Businesses (Cihan CANBOLAT and Yener OĞAN)
- Chapter 5 The Comparison of Fast-Food and Slow-Food Movements in Terms of Gastronomic Aspects (İhsan KAZKONDU)
- Chapter 6 “Slow” Concept in Tourism: Slow Food, Slow City, Slow Travel, Slow Tourist, Slow Tourism and Sustainability (Bülent DEMİRAĞ)
- Chapter 7 Using Molecular Gastronomy as an Attractive Element in Turkish Cuisine (Mehmet KIZILELI and Kadir ÇETIN)
- Chapter 8 Innovative Culinary Development (ICD) (Hilal KESKİN and Damla BAYLAN KALAYCI)
- Chapter 9 Current Status of Wine Industry and Wine Tourism in Turkey (Öznur CUMHUR and Aysu ALTAŞ)
- Chapter 10 Evaluation of Turkish Coffee in the Scope of Gastronomy Tourism (Songul KILINÇ ŞAHIN and Deniz TAŞDEMİR)
- Chapter 11 Traditional Turkish Tea Culture in Gastronomy Tourism (Ayşe Gülnihal KAHRAMAN, Gülsün YILDIRIM and Ayşen ERTAŞ)
- Chapter 12 Traditional Terebinth Helva, Terebinth Dishes in Turkey and Its Nutritional Effects (Abdullah BADEM)
- Chapter 13 Types of Cheese Used in Traditional Turkish Cuisine (Ufuk SAMAV, Adem YETİM and Mete Han ÜNER)
- Chapter 14 Gastronomy Tourism Resources and Local Food (Melike ÇAKIR KELEŞ)
- Chapter 15 Gastronomy Experience and Sustainable Gastronomy Tourism (Emrah ÖRGÜN)
- Chapter 16 Digital Transformation and E-Gastronomy (Eren YALÇIN, Ayşe Büşra MADENCİ and Ümit SORMAZ)
- Chapter 17 The Place of Nutrition in the Discipline of Gastronomy (Tufan SÜREN)
- Chapter 18 The Components of Gastronomy Image (İbrahim ÇEKİÇ and Adem ADEMOĞLU)
- Chapter 19 Tour Guidance on Gastronomy (Nihat DEMİRTAŞ, Fikret GÖKÇE and Duygu BABAT)
- Chapter 20 The Evaluation of Eating Out Experiences of Local Tourists Visiting Gastronomy Cities Within the Framework of the Expectation Confirmation Theory (Muhabbet ÇELİK and Mustafa AKSOY)
- Chapter 21 The Role of Social Media in Marketing of Gastronomy (Hakkı ÇILGINOĞLU and Kaan Berk DALAHMETOĞLU)
- Chapter 22 Evaluation of Geographically Indicated Products within the Scope of Gastronomy Tourism (Sibel ÖNÇEL and Mehmet Selman BAYINDIR)
- Chapter 23 Health Tourism Practices in Turkey (Mehmet KABACIK)
- Chapter 24 Sharing Economy in Tourism Industry (Yasemin KOÇAK BİLGİN and Şevki ULEMA)
- Chapter 25 From the Discovery of Fire to İndustry 5.0: Past, Present and Future of Gastronomy (Serdar ÇÖP and Mehtap ÇERKEZ)
- Chapter 26 An Experiential Perspective on the World’s Best Restaurants (Burcu Ayşenur SAKLI)
- Chapter 27 The Techniques and Equipment Used in Molecular Gastronomy (Ersan EROL)
- Chapter 28 Specification of Cook Selection Criteria and Importance (Emrah Köksal SEZGİN, Ahu SEZGİN and Burcu ILGAZ)
- Chapter 29 Special Interest Tourism in Kars Province (Seda DERİNALP ÇANAKÇI)
- Chapter 30 Studies to Reduce Food Loss in Tourism (İlkay YILMAZ, Nurten BEYTER and Esra KANOĞLU)
- Chapter 31 The Place of Local Seeds in Sustainable Gastronomy Tourism (Berker ÇİFTÇİ)
Lecturer, Kilis 7 Aralık University, Vocational School of Tourism and Hotel Management, firstname.lastname@example.org
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University Faculty of Tourism, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com. Note: The research has been produced from doctoral dissertation
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aksaray University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Tourism Guidance, Aksaray/Turkey
Dr. Çankırı Karatekin University, Vocational School, Department of Office Management and Executive Assistant, firstname.lastname@example.org
Lecturer, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University Antakya Vocational School, Hotel Restaurant and Catering Services Department, email@example.com
Assist. Prof. Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Vocational School of Social Sciences, Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Catering, firstname.lastname@example.org
Mehmet Selman BAYINDIR
Lecturer, Kırklareli University, Pınarhisar Vocational School, Department of Cookery, email@example.com
Damla BAYLAN KALAYCI
Res. Asst. İstanbul Medeniyet University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
Fuat BAYRAM Ph.D. Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University, Mengen Vocational School, email@example.com←11 | 12→
Asst. Prof. Baskent University, Fine Arts, Desing and Architecture Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
Melike ÇAKIR KELEŞ
Dr. Ondokuz Mayıs University, Vocational School of Tourism in Bafra, Department of Travel, Tourism and Entertainment Services, email@example.com
Dr. Research Assistant, Samsun 19 Mayıs University, Şevket Aşçı Tourism Faculty, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, firstname.lastname@example.org
Lecturer Dr., Kilis 7 Aralık University, Tourism Vocational School, email@example.com
Research Asst. Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University Faculty of Tourism, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
Lecturer, Gelisim University, Vocational School, Culinary, email@example.com
Research Assistant, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org
Lecturer, Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University, Mengen Vocational School, Hotel, Restaurant and Catering Services Department, Cookery Program, email@example.com
Asst. Prof. Kastamonu University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
Assistant Prof. Gelisim University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Tourism Guide, email@example.com←12 | 13→
Dr. Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Tourism Management, Bilecik/Turkey
Kaan Berk DALAHMETOĞLU
PhD. Student, Kastamonu University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Tourism Management, firstname.lastname@example.org
Asst. Prof. Gaziantep University, Oğuzeli Vocational School, Department of Property Protection and Security, email@example.com
Dr. Iskenderun Technical University, Tourism Faculty, Tourist Guidance Department, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Seda DERİNALP ÇANAKÇI
Asst. Prof. Kafkas University, Sarikamis Faculty of Tourism, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, email@example.com
Ph.D. Osmangazi University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Program, firstname.lastname@example.org
Research Assistant. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Ardeşen Faculty of Tourism, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, Aysen.email@example.com
Lecturer, Iskenderun Technical University. Tourism Faculty. Department of Tourism Management, firstname.lastname@example.org
Asst. Prof. Çankırı Karatekin University, Ilgaz Tourism and Hotel Management School, Department of Tourism Guidance, email@example.com
Associate Prof. Akdeniz University, Manavgat Vocational School, Department of Travel Management, firstname.lastname@example.org←13 | 14→
Asst. Prof. Ordu University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Ayşe Gülnihal KAHRAMAN
Lecturer. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Ardeşen Faculty of Tourism, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
Res. Assist. Başkent University, Fine Arts, Desing and Architecture Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Yasemin KOÇAK BİLGİN
Lecturer PhD. Doğuş Üniversity, Advanced Vocational School, Tourism and Hotel Management, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Devrek Vocational School, Cookery Program, email@example.com
Res. Asst. İstanbul Kent University, Art and Desing Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
Songul KILINÇ SAHIN
Lecturer. Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Ula Ali Koçman Vocational School, email@example.com
Research Assistant, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org
Ayşe Büşra MADENCİ
Assist. Prof. Necmettin Erbakan University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Assistant Professor, Artvin Çoruh University, School of Applied Sciences, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, firstname.lastname@example.org←14 | 15→
Asst. Prof., Anadolu University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Asst. Prof. Nevsehir Hacı Bektas Veli University, ÜSETT Vocational High School, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, firstname.lastname@example.org
PhD. Akdeniz University, Manavgat Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Burcu Ayşenur SAKLI
Asst. Prof. Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Ardesen Faculty of Tourism, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
Ass. Lect. Sinop University, Gerze Vocational School, Hotel, Restaurant, and Catering Services Department, email@example.com
Emrah Köksal SEZGİN
Assistant Prof. Aydın Adnan Menderes University, Davutlar Vocational School, Culinary Programme, firstname.lastname@example.org
Lecturer. Aydın Adnan Menderes University, Davutlar Vocational School, Culinary Programme, email@example.com
Assoc. Prof. Necmettin Erbakan University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
Asst. Prof. Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Coffee Consultant, firstname.lastname@example.org←15 | 16→
Assoc. Prof. Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Mete Han ÜNER
Ass. Lect. Düzce University, Gölyaka Vocational School, Hotel, Restaurant and Catering Services Department, firstname.lastname@example.org
Res. Assist. Selcuk University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Ass. Lect. Mersin University, Tourism, Gastronomy, and Culinary Art Department, firstname.lastname@example.org
Assistant Professor. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Ardeşen Faculty of Tourism, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email@example.com
Asst. Prof. Baskent University, Fine Arts, Desing and Architecture Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, firstname.lastname@example.org
The food and beverage industry is one of the most important parts of the service industry. Millions of people are employed in this sector. The sector has significant benefits to the global economy (Dube, Nhamo & Chikodzi, 2020). With the rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the disease as a global epidemic (Sohrabi, Alsafi, O’Neill, Khan, Kerwan, Al-Jabir, Iosifidis & Agha, 2020). The pandemic has had unprecedented effects in every aspect of individuals’ lives. Depending on this situation, different results have emerged for global public health and the global economy (Gössling, Scott & Hall, 2020). Due to the lack of vaccines to prevent the disease and limited medical interventions to treat it, most countries have taken various measures such as home isolation, voluntary/mandatory quarantine, social distancing (Gössling, Scott & Hall, 2020).
The economic blows of the covid-19 epidemic, which has negative effects on the physical and mental health of the society, have also been inevitable. Shopping Malls, Restaurants, Cafes, Bars etc. When the places where people congregate began to become places where the danger of covd-19 was intense, social distance and restrictions were first brought to these places. Restaurants, where people perform the act of eating and socializing, which is one of their most basic needs outside the home, are victims of covid-19. Restaurants are service sector members with almost the highest share in the economic cycle. From past to present, they are places that have been serving food-beverage and accommodation-resting services of individuals and have undergone dynamic diversity in human life, starting with the inn-caravanserai design.
The purchasing decision process of consumers takes place in the literature as a problem solving process. The consumer exhibits information seeking behavior in this decision process. The behavior of eating and ordering food in restaurants is also included in this decision process. Today, consumers continue this process ←17 | 18→by obtaining information from online platforms, especially within the scope of accommodation and food and beverage sector.
Eating Out and Restaurant Management
Eating out is when individuals consume food produced in a food and beverage establishment outside their homes for a fee (Özdemir, 2010; Warde & Martens, 2003). In this sense, there are many eating out events; Examples can be multiplied such as eating a packet of chips or fish and chips on the street, eating a sandwich at the office, having a barbecue at a friend’s house and an elaborate dinner at a restaurant, a take-out pizza or a made pizza (Warde & Martens, 2003).
The habit of eating out begins with the houses in the historical Ancient Greece where the passengers stayed and ate at night (Genç, 2009). The city of Pompeii during the Roman period can be shown as the place where the first examples of restaurant and bar culture were common. It is known that Via dell’Abbondanza street, one of the Fifth Avenues of the ancient world, was full of popular eating and drinking places visited by the rich and the poor, and even Emperor Nero frequently visited such taverns. Archaeologists excavating at Pompeii have identified around 160 properties that appear to be bars and restaurants, as well as numerous hotels (Sitwell, 2020).
The phenomenon of eating out in Turkish culture first appears in the soup kitchens in Bektashi and Mevlevi lodges, and as food and beverage services in the Ottoman Palace Organization and Janissaries (Türksoy, 2002).
In the last period of the Ottoman Empire, interaction with Western cultures increased. Chefs specializing in European cuisine were brought in. Some of the palace and mansion cooks opened restaurants in the city and joined the chain of Esnaf Restaurants. The first foundations of modern restaurant management, especially It is thought that he came to life after the Constitutional Monarchy (II) (Doğdubay, 2000).
Many types of organizations provide food in a wide variety of forms. Restaurants, bistros and cafes specialize in providing food. But for others, food isn’t the only service or product—hotels, public houses, hospitals, and highway service stations are only partially concerned with food. In addition, catering industries include businesses whose purpose is not to provide on-site catering (Warde & Lydia Martens, 2003).
Food and Beverage businesses have a very important place in the world economy (Kendir & Arslan, 2020). Today, in England, which has the world’s largest restaurants such as Dinner by Heston Blumenthal, Ledbury, The Fat Duck, ←18 | 19→the contribution of the food and beverage industry to the economy is around 15 %. The sector provides direct employment to 440,000 people (Kurnaz, 2016).
Restaurants also have indirect and direct effects on tourism. Especially restaurants serving local food have been a center of attraction for tourists. Ethnic and regional food restaurants have become popular with the increasing interest in natural foods. 70 % of the tourists who make their travels for gastronomic purposes taste the local products in the region they visit (April, 2018).
Attitudes of Consumers towards Restaurants During Covid-19
The pandemic has caused the hospitality industry to experience great difficulties (Gursoy & Chi, 2020). The hospitality and tourism industries are the most vulnerable to extraordinary situations such as natural disasters and epidemics. Unfortunately, this often results in significant financial losses (Kim, Kim, Lee & Tang, 2020).
That is, the association of the first COVID-19 viral spread with a food market is one of the factors (Chen et al., 2020). Strategies developed to curb the progression of COVID-19 have resulted in the temporary closure of many hospitality businesses. Quarantine and isolation, social distancing practices and travel restrictions have caused a serious decrease in the demand for accommodation businesses (Gursoy & Chi, 2020). In some countries, restaurants have closed completely, while in some countries they have switched to take-out/delivery sales, and some have been allowed to continue their operations (Gössling, Scott & Hall, 2020).
Immediate effects have now become more pronounced and are subsequently reflected in disrupted cash flows caused by sudden closures. Such closures, albeit temporary, have jeopardized the business life of many hospitality businesses by reducing revenues and fragmenting long-established supply chains (Nicola et al., 2020). This has resulted in a permanent loss of tourism revenue, as unsold capacity in the tourism sector – for example in accommodation – could not be marketed in subsequent years (Gössling, Scott & Hall, 2020).
According to Gürsoy et al. (2020) research, more than 50 % of individuals do not want to eat at a restaurant during the pandemic period. Likewise, people do not intend to stay in hotels. More than 50 % of the respondents did not want to visit a destination. Again, the same majority did not want to stay in a hotel. Only a quarter of customers preferred to dine in a restaurant. Only one-third of respondents said they were willing to travel to a destination and stay in a hotel within a few months.←19 | 20→
In fact, during the pandemic period, customers still do not feel safe to dine at a restaurant. The same is true of traveling to a destination and staying in a hotel. The issue of crisis management has a special importance for the hospitality industry. Because, as in other service industries, the breaking point in the hospitality industry is relatively high. Namely, hospitality businesses can only survive depending on the increase in demand for their products. The fact that the COVID-19 epidemic has reduced the demand for accommodation services has made it difficult for accommodation businesses to survive. That’s why it’s so important to develop strategies for what will keep customers coming back. In addition, this subject requires intensive research efforts. Both businesses and academia urgently need marketing and management research to guide their hospitality operations during the COVID-19 pandemic (Gürsoy & Çi, 2020).
Online reviews remain important as they help customers make safe eating decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic (Luo & Xu, 2021). Luo and Xu (2021) drew attention to the impact of online reviews on customers’ decision-making processes and product sales.
It was concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of businesses received 1-star ratings for spreading the virus (Chatmeter, 2020 cited by Luo & Xu, 2021). Some customers have given low-star reviews and complained of slow service or heatwaves in outdoor seating (Kragen, 2020 cited in Luo & Xu, 2021). These scrutiny during the pandemic make the survival of these embattled restaurants even more difficult. Based on these explanations, it is important that customers better understand and analyze their opinions in order to improve the quality of restaurants during COVID-19. One of the best ways to ensure this is by following customers’ online reviews. Customers are now sharing their opinions and thoughts online. Business managers must monitor these environments and accurately collect and analyze these reviews. In this way, it will be possible to eliminate the problems brought by the pandemic period to some extent. Timely online reviews can help potential customers stay up-to-date on the operation of a restaurant during the COVID-19 crisis. A single negative review can deter potential customers, making it even more difficult for restaurants to recover from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic (Luo & Xu, 2021).←20 | 21→
In their study aimed at measuring the impact of online restaurant menus on consumers’ purchase intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Stimulus-Organism-Response model was developed to predict participants’ purchase intentions in the context of an online food ordering. According to the results of the research, the visual appeal and informativeness of the menu and the risk perception of COVID-19 have indirect effects on consumer purchase intentions. This causal relationship was mediated by consumers’ perceived comfort in food cravings and online food ordering (Brewer & Sebby, 2021). In addition, consumers tended to avoid other people in public places. In terms of service, consumers are also reluctant to visit restaurants and bars. Therefore, under these circumstances, it is important to consider several factors that may reinstate consumers’ intention to visit restaurants (Kim & Lee, 2020).
In the research measuring the risk perceptions of consumers about restaurant food and packaging during the pandemic, it was revealed that consumers perceive more risk from the food served in restaurants compared to general food, and they think that cold and raw food will transmit more covid-19 (Byrd, Her, Fan, Almanza, Liu & Leitch, 2021).
According to researchers, consumers find home-made meals safer than meals in restaurants, even outside the pandemic period (Young & Waddell, 2016). While consumers are not so concerned about contracting the COVID-19 virus from the food they prepare at home, they are more concerned about contracting the virus from the food served in restaurants.
In terms of operation, restaurants may have to make adjustments to their menus during extraordinary times such as pandemics. They may also need to re-evaluate their distribution options. Namely, research results show that consumers are less confident in foods that are served raw, cold or uncooked. For this reason, it would be good to redesign the menus by removing these foods from the menus if possible or reducing their number. While making these changes, sales and consumer attitudes need to be closely monitored (Byrd, Her, Fan, Almanza, Liu & Leitch, 2021).
During the epidemic, many academic studies have been conducted on the economic conditions of restaurants and consumers’ attitudes towards restaurants. Compilations from the studies conducted are presented in Table 1.
Özel, G. and Yıldız, F. (2021)
- ISBN (PDF)
- ISBN (ePUB)
- ISBN (MOBI)
- ISBN (Softcover)
- Publication date
- 2021 (November)
- Cultural Heritage Gastronomy Hotel Management Marketing Recreation Tourism Industry
- Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2021. 512 pp., 43 fig. b/w, 33 tables.