Remote and Hybrid Working: Variants, Determinants, Outcomes

by Sevgin Batuk (Volume editor) Alev Özer Torgalöz (Volume editor)
Edited Collection 418 Pages


With the outbreak of the current Covid-19 pandemic, work life has changed dramatically.
Remote working has become a monumental topic for the business world. This
change, in fact, induces some notable impacts for work-life and is likely to sustain
for a very long time, as companies increasingly report working outside the office and
tend to continue adopting this even after the pandemic. In this regard, this book is
based on the idea that a comprehensive approach on remote working needs to be
provided with a multi-dimensional perspective. This edited book is based on chapters
in the fields of remote working practices addressing current critical debates and
strings together with theories and findings through novel data-driven insights. In this
context, the book presents the ongoing discussion on remote working by including
studies mainly on work-life balance, work-family conflict, leadership, motivation,
HR policies, ethics, training and other related topics. The studies in this book are
expected to provide answers to questions raised by problems resulting from remote
working practices.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Reviewers
  • Work-Life Balance
  • Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict, and Job-Related Affective Well-Being: Mediating Role of Work Stress (Fatma ÇAM KAHRAMAN & Adviye Aslı DENİZLİ)
  • Self-Reported Differences between Remote and On-Site Working in Terms of Work-Life Balance (Nevra BAKER ARAPOĞLU)
  • The Effect of Remote Working on Providing Work-Life Balance and Future of Hybrid Working (Esin ERTEMSİR & Yasemin BAL)
  • Work-Nonwork Balance: Turkish Validation of the Global and Multidimensional Measure (İlksun Didem ÜLBEĞİ)
  • The Subjective Experiences of Flexible-Working Mothers in Pre-Covid-19: “A Kind of Holiday” (Övgü TORLAK & İdil IŞIK)
  • Ethics
  • Ethical Considerations of Digital Surveillance in Remote and Hybrid Working (F. Oben ÜRÜ, Ebru GÖZÜKARA, Yağmur ÖZYER AKSOY & Yasin AKSOY)
  • Remote Working and Ethics (Rıza DEMİR)
  • Training and Education
  • Multimodal Learning Design for the Social Sciences: The Case of Remote Workplace Education (Hasibe AYSAN)
  • Learning from Home: Can We Learn Better from Stories than from Textbooks? (Yevgen BOGODISTOV, Moritz Martin BOTTS & Martin DINTER)
  • The Future of Universities from an Institutional Perspective (Anıl DİVARCI ÇAKMAKLI & Cem ÇAKMAKLI)
  • Blockchain Meets Education: A Blockchain-Enriched Model of Remote Higher Education (Margareta TEODORESCU, Müge KLEIN & Ela Sibel BAYRAK MEYDANOĞLU)
  • Culture
  • Understanding Intercultural Online Communication via Cultural Tendencies (Moritz Martin BOTTS)
  • The Relationship between Remote Work and Organizational Culture (Banu SARIBAY)
  • A Critical Inquiry on Current Arrangements of Remote Work in Turkey and the Global North (Canan URHAN)
  • Change
  • Building Strong HRM Systems to Effectively Manage Virtual Work Climate (Eda AKSOY & Didar ZEYTUN)
  • Change Management (Sinan GÜRCÜOĞLU & Makbule Hürmet ÇETİNEL)
  • Emotions and Wellbeing
  • A Pandemic Experience of Remote Working: Reflections on Emotions (Hande Sinem ERGUN, S. Begüm SAMUR TERAMAN & Özge PEKSATICI YANIKOĞLU)
  • Reflections of Remote Working on Positive Organizational Behavior Issues in Workplace: Looking at Happiness, Wellbeing and Psychological Resilience (Selin KARACA & Emel ESEN)
  • A Discussion of the Potential Effects of Remote Working on Antisocial Behavior in Organizations (Yeliz GEDİK)
  • Managing Flexible-Working Effectively: Impact on Employees’ Organizational Resilience and Business Continuity Perceptions’ (İdil IŞIK, Kağan GÜNEY & Esin ÇETİN ÖZBUDAK)

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List of Contributors


Asst. Prof. Dr., Koc University, eaksoy@ku.edu.tr, ORCID: 0003-1028-3713


Asst. Prof. Dr., Istanbul Arel University, yasinaksoy@arel.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-3253-5611


Asst. Prof. Dr., Istanbul Aydin University, nbakerarapoglu@aydin.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-5557-8235

Hasibe AYSAN

Asst. Prof. Dr., Ostim Technical University, Ankara, Turkey hasibe.aysan@ostimteknik.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0001-6485-9824

Yasemin BAL

Assoc. Prof. Dr., Yildiz Technical University, ymutluay@yildiz.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-3718-3424


Prof. Dr., Turkish-German University, meydanoglu@tau.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-3357-592X


Dr., MCI, The Entrepreneurial School, Yevgen.Bogodistov@mci.edu, ORCID: 0000-0002-5904-8362

Moritz Martin BOTTS

Dr., University of Vechta, moritz-m-.botts@uni-vechta.de, ORCID: 0000-0003-2514-5065


Asst. Prof. Dr., Koc University, adivarci@ku.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-0841-2072


Asst. Prof. Dr., Koc University, ccakmakli@ku.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-4688-2788

←11 | 12→


Asst. Prof. Dr., Istanbul Kent University. fatmacamkahraman@gmail.com, ORCID: 0000-0002-8053-1287


Project Coordinator, Istanbul Bilgi University, esin.ozbudak@bilgi.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-6709-9717

Makbule Hürmet ÇETİNEL

Asst. Prof. Dr., Usak University, hurmet.cetinel@usak.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-3260-7432


Assoc. Prof. Dr., Istanbul University, rdemir@istanbul.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-2896-1271

Adviye Aslı DENİZLİ

Res. Asst. Dr., Marmara University. asli.denizli@marmara.edu.tr ORCID: 0000-0002-5342-8049


Res. Asst., MCI, The Entrepreneurial School, Martin.Dinter@mci.edu, ORCID: 0000-0001-8212-803X

Hande Sinem ERGUN

Prof. Dr., Marmara University, sergun@marmara.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-3885-8902


Asst. Prof. Dr., Yildiz Technical University, ertemsir@yildiz.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-5906-985X


Prof. Dr., Yildiz Technical University, emeloz@yildiz.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0001-5753-3252


Asst. Prof. Dr., Firat University, ygedik@firat.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-2795-9302

←12 | 13→


Assoc. Prof. Dr., Istanbul Arel University, ebrugozukara@arel.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-0337-5337


Program Graduate, Istanbul Bilgi University, Organizational Psychology Master’s Program, kaganguney1@gmail.com, ORCID: 0000-0003-0711-1881


Asst. Prof. Dr., Usak University, sinan.gurcuoglu@usak.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-1000-4761


Assoc. Prof. Dr., Istanbul Bilgi University, idil.isik@bilgi.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-6709-9717


Res. Asst., Turkish-German University, selin.karaca@tau.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-1802-5452


Prof. Dr., Turkish-German University, klein@tau.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-2341-2975


Assoc. Prof. Dr., Istanbul Arel University, yagmurozyer@arel.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-7546-7698


Asst. Prof. Dr., Ozyegin University, ozge.peksatici@ozyegin.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0001-9277-6268


Asst. Prof. Dr., Istanbul Kultur University, b.teraman@iku.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0001-8532-4933


Asst. Prof. Dr., University of Turkish Aeronautical Association, bsaribay@thk.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0003-3220-8220

←13 | 14→


Prof. Dr., Koblenz University of Applied Sciences, teodorescu@hs-koblenz.de, ORCID: 0000-0003-2841-9244


Management Consultant, Sineorg Consultancy, Turkey, ovgu@sineorg.com, ORCID: 0000-0002-5754-0695

İlksun Didem ÜLBEĞI

Assoc. Prof. Dr., Cukurova University, idulbegi@cu.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0001-6905-2720


Asst. Prof. Dr., Beykent University, cananurhan@beykent.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0001-6069-6634

F. Oben ÜRÜ

Assoc. Prof. Dr., Istanbul Arel University, obenuru@arel.edu.tr, ORCID: 0000-0002-1960-5857


Res. Asst., Koc University, dzeytun18@ku.edu.tr, ORCID: 0001-7382-8990

←14 | 15→


Our very special thanks go to our valuable reviewers for spending their time to review the chapters and provide their feedbacks. This book could not have been completed without their efforts.

Prof. Dr. Emel ESEN – Yildiz Technical University, TURKEY

Prof. Dr. Müge KLEIN – Turkish-German University, TURKEY

Prof. Dr. Yasin ROFCANIN – Bath University, U.K.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Seçil BAYRAKTAR – Toulouse Business School, FRANCE

Assoc. Prof. Dr. F. Oben ÜRÜ – Istanbul Arel University, TURKEY

Asst. Prof. Dr. Nevra BAKER ARAPOĞLU – Istanbul Aydin University, TURKEY

Asst. Prof. Dr. Sevgin BATUK ÜNLÜ – Turkish-German University, TURKEY

Asst. Prof. Dr. Nurcan Hakan ÇIRAKLAR – 9 Eylul University, TURKEY

Asst. Prof. Dr. Abdullah KIRAY – Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, TURKEY

Asst. Prof. Dr. Alev ÖZER TORGALÖZ – Izmir Democracy University, TURKEY

Asst. Prof. Dr. Banu SARIBAY – University of Turkish Aeronautical Association, TURKEY

Asst. Prof. Dr. Tutku SEÇKİN ÇELİK – Istanbul Medeniyet University, TURKEY.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Didem TAŞER ERDOĞAN – Brunel University, U.K.

←18 | 19→


Adviye Aslı DENİZLİ

Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict, and Job-Related Affective Well-Being: Mediating Role of Work Stress

1. Introduction

For many people who are active in work-life, it is crucial to be able to carry out work and family responsibilities at the same time. Those responsibilities interfere with each other at times. Such interferences are explained with the concept of work-family conflict in the literature (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985; Netemeyer, Boles, & McMurrian, 1996) and this concept also includes family-work conflict. Work-family conflict is work hindering family life and family-work conflict hindering work life.

Many employees, who feel overwhelmed by their roles at work and stuck between work and family life which requires constant care and attention, experience a variety of emotional and behavioral issues. The literature having been searched, it is found that two of such a variety are work stress and well-being. The studies show that work-family and family-work conflicts have positive relations with work stress (Jamadin, Mohamad, Syarkawi, & Noordin, 2015; Karakas & Tezcan, 2019), and negative relations with well-being (Brough, 2005; O’Driscoll, Brough, & Kalliath, 2004). In this study, relations between work-family and family-work conflict, work stress and job-related affective well-being are discussed.

Circumstances during the pandemic have led to many changes not only in daily life but also work-life. It has been observed that flexible working has become prevalent, and some proportion of employees started to work fully from home, and another proportion work a few days from home and work a few days in office, and another notable proportion only in office. It is thought that those circumstances will trigger work-family conflicts in employees’ lives, hence hinder their job-related affective well-being. It is aimed to determine the effects of employees’ work-family and family-work conflict levels on job-related ←19 | 20→affective well-being, and whether or not work stress plays a mediator role in this process, via a study conducted during the pandemic.

2. Conceptual Framework

2.1. Work-Family and Family-Work Conflict

The two main focuses in adulthood family and work-life (Netemeyer et al., 1996: 400). According to Border Theory, there are borders between family and work life. Employees transition between the two domains on a daily basis. While this transition is more frequent for some employees however, it is less frequent for some compared to others (Clark, 2000). The expectations of the two domains with regards to roles are not always compatible, and this leads to conflicts between work and family life (Netemeyer et al., 1996: 400). The concept of work-family conflict is a kind of inter-role conflict where work and family related role pressures are mutually incompatible from various perspectives. That is to say that it becomes more difficult to participate in the work (family) role due to the participation in the family (work) role (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985: 77).

Work-family conflict is addressed as the employee’s fulfillment of work-related duties at home instead of the work environment. Consequently, the job negatively affects the fulfillment of family responsibilities (Noor, 2004: 390). For example, work-family conflict may occur because family meals are missed due to long meetings, or a movie night with friends is interrupted by a work-related phone (Messersmith, 2007: 430). On the contrary, family-work conflict is conceptualized as the employee’s inability to fulfill his/her responsibilities at work due to undertaking responsibilities related to family life (Frone, Russell, & Cooper, 1992: 66).

In the literature, three main forms of work-family conflict were identified: (a) time-based conflict, (b) strain-based conflict, and (c) behavior-based conflict (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985: 77). Time-based conflict is defined as interference of the amount of time required for the role at work with fulfillment of the responsibilities in family, strain-based conflict as impairment in one role due to the nervousness and mental strain due to the second role, and behavior-based conflict as prevention of one role owing to the demand in the second role (Netemeyer et al., 1996: 401).

Work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts were found to be related with employee behaviors such as work satisfaction (Ernst Kossek & Ozeki, 1998), organizational citizenship behavior (Bragger, Rodriguez-Srednicki, Kutcher, Indovino, & Rosner, 2005), inclination to quit job (Yavas, Babakus, & Karatepe, ←20 | 21→2008), in addition to aspects of work and organization such as type of employment (Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001) and supportive work-family culture (Premeaux, Adkins, & Mossholder, 2007). Furthermore, it is associated with some emotional and physical outcomes such as depression and physical health (Frone, Russell, & Cooper, 1997), emotional exhaustion (Yavas et al., 2008) and well-being (Brough, 2005; Hussin, 2014; Kinnunen & Mauno, 1998).

2.2. Work Stress

Despite the fact that the definition of the concept of stress lacks any certainty, work stress can be defined as one’s feeling of malfunction or awareness of such as a result of conditions or events in her/his workplace (Parker & DeCotiis, 1983:161). In another definition, it is conceptualized the deviation of one’s physical and mental functioning from its normal state in consequence of interacting with the factors in workplace (Beehr & Newman, 1978).

It is stated that work stress, which means an individual’s reaction to excessive workload or job demands that exceed their abilities, is caused by the mismatch between the individual’s competencies and the demands of the business environment (Karasek, 1979). It is argued that the more compatible an individual is with the work environment, the less likely she/he will experience work stress (Morrow & Brough, 2019: 467). It is suggested that many different stressors cause work stress alongside of compatibility. For example, Sonnentag and Frese (2003) mention physical, social, career-related, and role stressors, whereas Parker and DeCotiis (1983) mention other stressors such as aspects of work, organizational structure, relationships, external responsibilities.

Work stress has many different kinds of impact on employees. It is found in the literature that these impacts are often discussed as physiological, psychological, and behavioral outcomes (Beehr & Newman, 1978; Landy & Conte, 2007). For example, cardiovascular diseases (Ross & Altmaier, 1994), gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory and immune system disorders are associated with physiological results. Depression, anxiety, exhaustion (Beehr & Glazer, 2005), impaired well-being (Sonnentag & Frese, 2003), and insomnia (Sabuncuoglu & Tuz, 1996) are associated with psychological results. Alcohol and substance use (Okutan & Tengilimoglu, 2002), quitting job, interpersonal conflict, and diminished performance (Sabuncuoglu & Tuz, 1996) are associated with behavioral results.

2.3. Job-Related Affective Well-Being

It is asserted that affective well-being entails either life in general (e.g. “context-free”) or a specific area (e.g. “job-related” and “factor-specific”) (Warr, 1990). ←21 | 22→“Context-free” well-being covers a large focal point, and whereas it encompasses emotions in any setting, “job-related” well-being involves one’s emotions about herself/himself with regards to work (Warr, 1999:393).

Warr (1990) discusses two main dimensions (pleasure and arousal) which are in diagonal axes. Three key indicators of affective well-being are included into “pleasure dimension” and the indicators are sorted as follows (a) displeased-pleased, (b) anxious-contented, and (c) depressed-enthusiastic. Warr remarks that principal types of affect may be located anywhere along those axes, and that the “arousal dimension” on its own is not considered to reflect well-being and its poles are therefore left unlabeled.

Two of the prominent models in literature about well-being are the Vitamin Model (Warr, 1987) and Demand-Control Model (Karasek, 1979). According to the Vitamin Model, which examines the relationship between stressors at work and well-being, there are nonlinear relationships between aspects of job and individual outcomes. Certain aspects of workplace (e.g., salary, meaning of work) has positive impact on well-being to some level, meaning the more does not bring any benefits. This impact is defined as fixed effect and is compared to the effect of vitamin C on the body (Warr, 1987). According to Demand-Control model, the combination of high demands and low autonomy in decision making in jobs which involve high level of strain is harmful to employees’ well-being (Karasek, 1979).

There are many studies which show that factors such as job demands, perceived control, social support in the organizational work environment are important for the well-being of employees (Gilbreath & Benson, 2004; Wong, Hui & Law, 1998). Warr reported (1999: 392) in his review that high level of employee well-being was meaningfully associated with better job performance, lower absenteeism rate, and intention to quit.

2.4. Relationships Between Work-Family Conflict, Work Stress, and Job-Related Affective Well-Being

2.4.1. Work-Family Conflict and Work Stress

Work-family conflict and family-work conflict are two stressors that are important in the process of work stress. Studies show that both stressors have different relationships with work stress. Efeoglu and Ozgen’s (2007) study conducted on employees in the pharmaceutical industry revealed that work-family conflict has a significant positive effect on work stress, whereas family-work conflict has no effect on work stress. In two studies conducted in the health sector (Tekingunduz, Kurtulmus, & Oksuz, 2015) and the tourism sector (Karakas & Tezcan, 2019), it ←22 | 23→was found that both types of conflict (work-family and family-work conflict) positively affect work stress.

In a study on job performance, social support and management of work-family conflict to reduce work stress, it was found that work-family conflict was positively associated with workplace stress (Foy et al., 2019). Similarly, in a study conducted in Malaysia, it was reported that there is a significant positive correlation between work-family conflict and work stress (Jamadin et al., 2015).

2.4.2. Work-Family Conflict and Job-Related Affective Well-Being

It has been observed that studies in the literature mostly focus on the employees’ relationship of work-family and family-work conflict with general well-being rather than job-related affective well-being.

Kinnunen and Mauno (1998) mentioned that work-family conflict has negative consequences on job-related affective well-being, and that family-work conflict has negative consequences on family well-being. Karimi, Karimi, and Nouri (2011) revealed in their research that work-family conflict has effects on both the job-related and general well-being of employees, regardless of their job characteristics. According to the longitudinal study conducted by O’Driscoll et al. (2004), work-family and family-work conflict are related to well-being and satisfaction (job and family satisfaction).

While Brough (2005) put forward work-family conflict as a negative predictor of well-being; Hussin (2014) stated that work-family conflict has stronger direct effects on well-being than family-work conflict. However, according to a study conducted on women with working children, family-work conflict is more associated with well-being than work-family conflict (Noor, 2004).

2.4.3. Work Stress and Job-Related Affective Well-Being

Stress is defined as a situation that is perceived as challenging and threatening by the individual in the relationship between the individual and his/her environment and harms the individual’s well-being. In addition, it is argued that high stress level affects well-being by threatening physical and psychological health, especially in cases where the individual lacks resources to cope with stress or applies ineffective coping methods against stress (Bell, Rajendran, & Theiler, 2012). In previous studies, negative relationships were found between work stress and job-related affective well-being (Hadadian & Sayadpour, 2018; Li & Zhang, 2019; Malek, Mearns, & Flin, 2010; Uncu, Bayram, & Bilgel, 2007). Bulut and Maimaiti (2021) also argued that in addition to the advantages of working remotely, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic process, disadvantages such ←23 | 24→as loneliness, conflict, uncertainty for the future may lead to work stress, and that the well-being of employees will also be affected as a result of the inability to control work stress.

In line with all the mentioned research findings, the following hypotheses have been put forward in this study:

H1: Work stress has a mediating role in the effect of work-family conflict on job-related affective well-being.

H2: Work stress has a mediating role in the effect of family-work conflict on job-related affective well-being.

In addition to these hypotheses, the following research question has also been examined;

Research Question 1: Do participants’ job-related affective well-being, work stress, work-family conflict and family-work conflict levels differ according to their working style?

Biographical notes

Sevgin Batuk (Volume editor) Alev Özer Torgalöz (Volume editor)

Alev Özer Torgalöz has her B.A degree in International Relations from Bilkent University, and her M.A degree from Koç University. She received her Ph.D degree in Management from Bog˘aziçi University. Her research interests mainly include organization studies as culture and resilience, behavioral studies, and also alternative work arrangements as remote working. She is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Management at Izmir Democracy University. Sevgin Batuk Ünlü studied economics and management at I˙stanbul Bilgi University and the University of London. She received her M.A degree from Marmara University and Ph.D degree from Bog˘aziçi University. Her research interests include leadership, institutionalization and management theories. She works at the Turkish-German University as an assistant professor.


Title: Remote and Hybrid Working: Variants, Determinants, Outcomes