Journalism in Nigeria: Possibilities for Professionalisation in the Light of Christian Social Ethics and Culture-driven Values

by Maryann Ijeoma Egbujor (Author)
©2022 Thesis 394 Pages


Professionalisation of Journalism has been a subject under global scrutiny since the nineteenth century. Contemporary studies show how journalism profession grapples with the implementation of standard journalism education and practices across the globe. The author discovered that the development of journalism has remarkable link with the advent of Christianity, however, an apparent decline of ethical values in higher education and professional practices abound thereby revealing the type of quality of education provided and the substandard nature of journalistic Professionalisation. Empirical research conducted in this regard geared towards assessing the socio-ethical relevance of Professionalisation as beneficial to democratic development, and the challenges journalists encounter that hinder the implementation of professional ethics and cultural values as a contribution to human dignity, rights, justice, solidarity and the common good. To critically examine these phenomena, this research study is anchored of scientific materials. It adopted the "see-judge-act" (A Theological methodology approach used in appraising socio-ethical situations) as well as qualitative and quantitative methods. The researcher conducted thirteen semi-standardised interviews as well as analysed 200 data samples (twenty-three questions) with Mayring model and (SPSS) was used to evaluate the quantitative data. The research results showed the thirteen different interview partners unanimously consented that "journalism in Nigeria must be professionalised" and "there is need to integrate Christian social ethics and culture driven values into the training curriculum" if journalists are to regain their credibility and integrity. The tested hypotheses showed statistical significance (p<0,05) among several others tested. Data interpreted illustrate huge consensus from the samples that 46,5% (agree) 29% strongly agree while, 11,5% (disagree), 2,5% (strongly disagree) and 10,5% responded with neutrality to the above statements. Founded on this, the author proposes integrating Christian social ethics and culture driven values in journalism to reinforce its social responsibilities, to serve as guidelines for the practical handling of low Professionalisation in Nigeria and across the globe

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Acronyms
  • List of Diagrams
  • Surveys
  • Co-dependency Diagram
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Background of Study
  • 1.2. Statement of Problem
  • 1.3. Objectives and Limitations of the Study
  • 1.4. Research Statements and Brief Methodology
  • 1.5. Dissertation Structure
  • 2. Historical Development of CSE
  • 2.1. Systematic Basis of CSE
  • 2.2. Baseline Perspectives on CSE
  • 2.3. Demarcation and Definition
  • 2.4. Practical Theological Foundations
  • 2.4.1. Theological Basis of Profession and Labour
  • 2.4.2. Christian Ethical Impact in Professionalizing
  • 2.5. Social Responsibility and Cultural Contexts
  • 2.6. Reflections of the Church on the Media
  • 2.7. Contemporary Issues in Professionalizing Journalism
  • 2.7.1. Worldwide Effect on Media Professionalization
  • 2.7.2. Interdisciplinary Framework on Global Journalism
  • 2.8. Other Scientific-Related Studies
  • 2.8.1. Modern Ethical Dimensions
  • 2.8.2. Emerging Questions on Journalism and Mass Communication
  • 3. An Overview of the Nigerian Context
  • 3.1. Historical, Geographic and Political Context
  • 3.2. Socio-Economic Growth
  • 3.3. Overall Education System
  • 3.4. An Outline of the Nigerian Media Landscape
  • 3.4.1. The State of Professionalizing Journalism in Nigeria
  • 3.4.2. Professionalization Challenges in Institutions
  • 3.5. The Missionary’s Trajectory Effect on Journalism
  • 3.5.1. The Religious Premise of Journalism
  • 3.5.2. The Demands for Professionalized Journalists
  • 3.5.3. Social Ethics Approach to Social Communication
  • 4. Theoretical Discussions and Clarifications
  • 4.1. Approaches to Professionalizing Journalism
  • 4.2. Encyclicals and the Social Means of Communication
  • 4.3. The impact of CSE in Journalism Practices
  • 4.4. The Role of Culture-Driven Values in Journalism and Democracy
  • 4.5. Ethical Concepts
  • 4.5.1. Social–Ethical Actions and Responsibility
  • 4.5.2. Normative Theories
  • 4.5.3. Classical Moral and Traditional Approaches
  • 4.5.4. Professional Code of Ethics for Journalists
  • 4.5.5. Journalism Professional Culture and Media Ethics
  • 4.6. The Conceptions of Universal Cultural Values
  • 4.6.1. The African Cultural Values and Ethics
  • 4.6.2. The Christian Social Principles
  • 5. Integrating the Principles of CSE in Professionalizing Journalism in Nigeria
  • 5.1. Interdependencies between CSE and Journalism
  • 5.2. Opposing Trends of Social Values in Journalism Education and Practice
  • 5.3. CSE within the Nigerian Diversified Cultures
  • 5.4. The Relevance of CSE for the Nigeria Media Landscape
  • 5.4.1. Human Dignity
  • 5.4.2. Solidarity
  • 5.4.3. Subsidiarity
  • 5.4.4. The Common Good
  • 5.4.5. Justice
  • 5.4.7. Truth
  • 6. Professional Code of Ethics for Journalists and the Contextual Reality
  • 6.1. The Relevance of Professional Journalism Code of Conduct
  • 6.1.1. Corruption in Journalism Practice
  • 6.1.2. Ethical Reporting
  • 6.1.3. Accountability in News Reporting
  • 6.1.4. Objectivity and Fairness in News Reporting
  • 6.2. Contextual Cultural Values and Journalism Legal Framework
  • 6.3. Social Values and Ethical Issues Confronting Journalists
  • 7. The Conflicting Tenets of African CV and Journalism Practice
  • 7.1. The Basic Role of CV in the Society
  • 7.2. The Effects of Igbo CV in Journalism
  • 7.3. Cultural Perception of Respect in Journalism Practice
  • 7.4. Truth and Honesty: Values in Igbo Culture and Journalistic Principles
  • 7.5. Culture Oriented Values and Professional Ethics at Conflict
  • 8. Study Design and Methodology
  • 8.1. Qualitative Research Approach
  • 8.1.1. Semi-Structured Interview Groups
  • 8.1.2. Qualitative Content Analysis
  • 8.1.3. Category System
  • 8.2. Quantitative Research Approach
  • 8.2.1. Generation of Samples
  • 8.2.2. Collection of Empirical Data
  • 8.2.3. Questionnaires
  • 8.3. Selected Interview Partners Based on Research Criteria
  • 8.3.1. Representatives of Universities/Institutions
  • 8.3.2. The Representative of Journalism Association and Unions (NUJ)
  • 8.3.3. The Representative of Theological/Cultural Fields
  • 8.3.4. Representatives of Media Organizations
  • 8.3.5. The Representative of Non-Governmental Organizations
  • 8.3.6. Representatives of Experts from Major Ethnic Groups
  • 8.3.7. Students from Diverse Cultural/Religious Settings
  • 9. Empirical Research Results
  • 9.1. Presentation of Qualitative Results
  • 9.1.1. The Relevance for Professionalizing Journalism
  • 9.1.2. Incorporation of CSE in Curricula
  • 9.1.3. Reflection of CV in Journalism Education
  • 9.1.4. Cultural and Professional Background of Tutors
  • 9.1.5. The Role of Media Ethics/Legal Structure
  • 9.1.6. Journalism Education Programmes and Pathways
  • 9.1.7. National and International Collaboration
  • 9.1.8. Integration of Human Rights
  • 9.1.9. Press Freedom / Access and Freedom of Information
  • 9.2. Presentation of Quantitative Data Analysis Procedure
  • 9.2.1. Software Adopted for Data Analysis
  • 9.2.2. Distribution of Questionnaires
  • 9.2.3. Summary of Quantitative Process
  • 9.2.4. Wizard Pro Statistics and Analysis
  • 9.2.5. Questionnaire Subdivisions
  • 9.2.6. Descriptive Statistics of Demographics
  • 9.3. Descriptive Statistics of Survey
  • 9.3.1. Overall Perception of Journalism Profession
  • 9.3.2. Integration of CSE and CV in Journalism Education
  • 9.3.3. The Significance of Family Values
  • 9.3.4. Curriculum Contents
  • 9.3.5. Quality of Education
  • 9.3.6. Professional Constraints
  • 9.3.7. Adherence to Ethical Guideline
  • 9.3.8. Media in Advancing Democracy
  • 9.3.9. The Influence of Corruption
  • 9.3.10. Economic Consequences
  • 9.3.11. Compromises in Journalism Professionalism & The Relevance of Christian Social Principles
  • 9.3.12. Promotion of Human Rights
  • 9.4. SPSS Cross Tabulation with Pearson Chi-Square
  • 9.5. Reflection of Research Process
  • 9.5.1. Future Changes and Challenges
  • 9.5.2. Recommendations
  • 10. Conclusion
  • Bibliograpy
  • A. Questionnaire of Dissertation
  • Appendixes

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List of Acronyms

ACHPR African Charter on Human Peoples and Rights

AEO African Economic Outlook

AG Action Group

AL JAZEERA Arabic Language Television Channel Media Network

APC All Progressive Congress

BBC British Broadcasting Corporation

BDC Bureau de Change

BES Brown Envelope Syndrome

CST Catholic Social Teaching

CSE Christian Social Ethics

CNN Cable News Network

CPI Costumer Prize Index

CV Cultural Values or Culture-driven Values

EFA Education For All

FHR Freedom House Report

FOI Freedom of Information

FRCN Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria

GDP Gross Domestic Profit

GOUE Godfrey Okoye University Enugu

HDI Human Development Index

HRR Human Rights Report

IICB International Institute for Capacity Building

IHDI Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index

IMF International Monetary Funds

INEC Independent National Electoral Commission

JMP Joint Monitoring Programme

LFN Laws of the Federation of Nigeria

MDGs Millennium Developmental Goals

MEST Ministry of Education, Science and Technology

MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey

MWA Media Wise Admin

NACA National Agency for the Control of Aids

NAN News Agency of Nigeria

NBC Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation

NBC National Broadcasting Commission

←19 | 20→

NBS National Bureau of Statistics

NCNC National Convention of Nigerian Citizens

NCNE National Commission for Nomadic Education

NCTJ National Council for Training of Journalists

NGE Nigeria Guild of Editors

NGO Non-Governmental Organizations

NMC Nigerian Media Council

NNUC Nigeria’s National University Commission

NPAN Nigerian Newspapers Proprietors of Nigeria

NPC National Peoples Convention

NPC Nigerian Press Council

NPE: National Policy on Education

NPHCDA National Primary Health Care Development Agency

NPO Nigerian Press Organization

NUJ Nigerian Union of Journalists

PDP Peoples Democratic Party

PPP Purchasing Power Parity

PTTE Presidential Task Team on Education

PVC Permanent Voters Card

RSF Reporters Without Borders

SOML Saving-One-Million-Lives

SPJ Society of Professional Journalists

SPSS Statistics Packet for Social Sciences

UBE Universal Basic Education

UDHR United Nations Declaration of Human Rights Article 19

UNA United Nations Article 18

UNDP United Nation Development Programme

UNESCO United Nations for Education, Science and Cultural Organisation

UNFPA United Nations Population Fund

UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund

UPE Universal Primary Education

USA United States of America

USAID United States Agency for International Development

WB World Bank

WHO World Health Organization

WJEC World Journalism Education Congress

←20 | 21→

←22 | 23→


Descriptive Statistics

Fig. 1. Q.1: Overall Perception of Journalism Profession

Tab. 1. Q.2: Integration of CSE and CV in Journalism Education

Tab. 2. Q.3: Professionalization Procedures

Tab. 3. Q.4: The Significance of Family Values

Tab. 4. Q.5: Access to Education

Tab. 2. Q.6: Curriculum Contents

Tab. 3. Q.7: Institutional Familiarity with the Concepts

Tab. 5. Q.8: Quality of Education

Tab. 6. Q.9: Education Characteristic and Professional Standards

Tab. 7. Q.10: Contextual Challenges in Professional Practices

Tab. 4. Q.11: Assessment of Legal Framework and Regulatory Bodies

Tab. 8. Q.12: Non-Adherence to Professional Ethical Guideline

Tab. 9. Q.13: Perception of Institutions as Role Models

Tab. 10. Q.14: Media act as Major Actors in advancing Development Democracy

Tab. 11. Q.15: Social Media Effect in Electoral Processes

Tab. 12. Q.16: The Influence of Corruption in Journalism

Fig. 5. Q.17: Contributions of Media Professionals

Tab. 13. Q.18: Consequences of Economic Constraints

Tab. 14. Q.19: Violations of Ethics and Values

Fig. 6. Q.20: Compromises in Journalism Professionalism

Tab. 15. Q.21: Relevance of Christian Social Principles

Fig. 7. Q.22: Promotion of Human Rights

Fig. 8. Q.23: Implementation of Freedom of Information Bill

SPSS Cross Tabulations (Correlations of Questions with Variables)

Tab. 16: Q. 1. Overall Perception of Journalism Profession * Religion

Tab. 17: Q. 1. Overall Perception of Journalism Profession * Ethnic

Tab. 18: Q. 2. Integration of CSE and CV in Journalism Education * Age

Tab. 19: Q. 2. Integration of CSE and CV in Journalism Education * Faculty

(See Appendix for detailed Research Results including Data Analysis)

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Co-dependency Diagram

This interactive diagram below indicates the core conceptual approach. Hypothetically, it suggests the evolving co-dependency of Christian social ethics, culture-driven values, professional codes of ethics and quality education as key elements in professionalizing journalism.

From a critical outlook, the diagram presents the various factors the professionalization of journalism in Nigeria grapples thus far. These different elements constitute the imperative issues this dissertation intends to deal with. However, it proposes a review of these elements in higher education and journalism practices to improve the professional standards for social and democratic progress.

←25 | 26→

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1. Introduction

This dissertation titled Journalism in Nigeria: Possibilities for Professionalisation in the Light of Christian Social Ethics and Culture-driven Values was developed to examine the challenges confronting the professionalization of journalism from scientific perspectives. Over the years, professionalization has common characteristics of quality education and specialized knowledge known as the “graduatization of journalism”.2 In Nigeria, reviewed works show an apparent struggle in dealing with the decline of ethical values in higher education and professional practices, thereby revealing the quality of education and the standard of journalistic professionalism. Empirical research conducted in this regard aimed at, on the one hand, to assess the socio-ethical relevance of professionalization as beneficial to democratic development, and on the other hand, the challenges journalists encounter that hinder the implementation of professional ethics and cultural values (CV), which are indispensable elements that foster human dignity and rights, justice, solidarity, the common good and subsidiarity. Founded on this, the author argues for the need to integrate Christian social ethics (CSE) and culture-driven values (CV) in journalism to reinforce ethics and value-driven education and practices in journalism profession. This research project is symmetrically built on previous research, reviewed works and comparative studies on international journalism education and standards (IJES), which argued on the relevance of journalism education for professional identity and ethical standards.

The social responsibility of journalism mandates journalists to act as mediators between the citizens and the ruling power, therefore in a world of multicultural reality, the obligation of media professionals is connected with various levels of people, ‘ethnic groups, institutions, religions and cultures within and among countries’.3 In addition, the publication of Yushu’a on ‘Regional Parallelism and Corruption Scandals in Nigeria: Intranational Approaches to African Media System’ reveals the disregard for human dignity in journalism profession, especially in developing countries resulting in underpayment, exploitation, deprivation of incentives and job insecurity all of which subvert the principles of human ←27 | 28→dignity and the common good.4 Just as CSE advocates for human and social well-being, the social function of global journalism is similar as it encourages human development and dignity; the common good and monitors how national resources are distributed equally to citizens regardless of class, gender, age, ethnicity and religion.

The global discourses on journalism professionalization began since 1908 as the profession was undergoing a momentous transformation from formal training to legitimate professionalization.5 The perception of journalism as a profession or craft, its procedures, professional functions suitable for Western trade with advanced purpose and societal obligation in a democratic environment contributed to the ongoing debates on journalism professionalization.6 Later in the 20th century, strict reformation and ethical inquiry on the attitude of media practitioners characterized the status of journalism and became one of the various ways adopted to improve the profession.7 These efforts, notwithstanding, the perception of journalism as a profession currently suffer from ethics and quality deterioration.8 Ethics is perceived as a discipline with practical orientation that probes profound normative issues within its scope.

The study of Ward J. Stephen ‘Ethics and the Media: An Introduction’ explains ethics as a flexible series of guidelines relevant for human actions, demonstrated in individual and social efforts to deal with the dilemmas occasioned by situational transformation, unforeseen concerns and novel manner of thoughts.9 Ward argues ethics is reflective and as such pragmatic in rational social issues, hence, ascertains that “meditative engagement can occur in any area of society. For example, developments in genetic knowledge call for new ethical thinking in the sciences of life. Media ethics requires urgent reflective engagement because basic values are under question and new issues challenge traditional approaches to responsible journalism.”10 The thoughts on ethics is applied by people rooted ←28 | 29→with significant variations and values and that makes ethics in this context introspective.

Over half a decade, Nigerian investors, media owners, experts and other stakeholders have raised concerns in the search for a unique way to define journalism. The Nigerian press was founded on Christian ethical principles to empower citizens, promote individual dignity and rights, stimulate reading culture and inculcate “Western values through education to enable citizens to participate proactively in social and political discourses”.11 It is also important to note that, as the country has been developing since 1990, there has been a growing need for qualified journalists in Nigeria; inadequate training and a lack of human resources are lamented in view of the situation at the time. From the exceeding submissions, it suffices to argue that journalism profession in Nigeria has historical narratives, though scarcely researched with lack of updated studies, which is the motivation behind this research project.

As modern technologies continue to evolve, global agitation for standard professionalizing of journalism assumes critical ethical dimension; professional exigencies inspire the attention of contemporary scholars towards explicit ethical considerations in journalism. Noticeably, the Nigerian Union of Journalists policy focuses on how to maintain dual status, namely as a profession and business, instead of deliberating on ethical concerns and the feasible methodologies to address the incessant influx of amateurs and excessive proliferation of non-professionals into journalism. The 1964 declaration of the first Nigerian Newspaper Proprietor12 exposed the absolute need for ethics and values as the hallmark for sound professional journalism in the country. The proprietor declares,

“In order to live up to its highest standards and ethics, there is a need in this country for journalists who will take pride in their profession and develop a sense of duty to the public. An ill-educated journalist is a liability to the press and the nation, but a professionally trained journalist, armed with a background of sound university education will transform the practice of journalism into an asset to the credit of our nation.”13

←29 | 30→

In 2015, a study conducted by Ojomo adopted this notion, reaffirming that any society aspiring to attain ethical standards must be disposed to sustain quality education and standard professionalism as social values. The media expert claims that journalists as information pacesetters, require a quality university education to enable them to act responsibly and promote an ideal, structured and democratic society.14 Journalists wield significant power in the state compared to medical practitioners; therefore, education and practices deprived of quality and standards might endanger the lives of patients with wrong prescriptions and treatments.15 For “an ill-educated journalist could pose a problem than as an asset to society.”16 This assertion challenges universities and other training institutions to assume their critical responsibilities in offering balanced and quality education as a value required to equip students for the job market, which seem complex and competitive. Journalists nurtured with CSE and CV, as stipulated in various cultures such as Nigeria, are expected to contribute to their profession with sound character. Standard professionalism in journalism is imperative if journalists must adhere to ethical guidelines and provide credible information through which they contribute as Watchdogs to maintain social order. Such discourses are required in journalism profession. At this point, before delving into other theoretical and practical considerations, Section 1.1 describes precisely the historical development of journalism.

1.1. Background of Study

Journalism development in Nigeria began ‘fifty years’ before the country gained its independence in 1960, albeit the Nigerian Press existed preceding the inception of other leading institutions such as the federal and state governments.17 As a result, the press became influential in the country’s political landscape together given its social character, which influenced and shaped the social roles of the media over time.18 Compared to other professions in the country, journalism is considered an earlier practising profession that had subsisted before other training institutions were entrenched to produce professionally trained ←30 | 31→journalists.19 Hence, to conduct a socio-historic appraisal of the evolution of the Nigerian media,20 specific characteristics ought to be considered concerning the narratives that typified the development of journalism and the country.

Journalism in the country started with the establishment of the first newspaper ‘Iwe Irohin’ in 1859 initiated by a Western Christian missionary, Rev. Henry Townsend.21 The purpose was to promote knowledge, enfranchisement and democracy to ensure proactive participation of citizens in political and social dialogue, which guarantees their inalienable rights, obligation and dignity as human persons.22 Later, in 1954, training in mass communication and journalism began with two-week vocational courses, steered by the University College, Ibadan.23 Mass communication and journalism training took off in 1962, although the category of people who opted for the job were laid-off employees to earn a living, secure a job and serve in the public domain.24 At that period, institutions offered only practical skills and training as certificate courses through internship training.25 Predominantly, Western-driven pattern of practice26 also impacted on the structure, philosophy and professional development.

Pioneer journalists embraced the British Model for Mass Communication in their quest to acquire writing ideas and opinions to subdue colonialism.27 They developed an interest in journalism practice and at the same time, understood ←31 | 32→the power of the pen as a vital tool to combat colonization.28 Without primary education and professional standards in journalism, such patriotic efforts helped to restore the dignity of the country.29 The current journalism is perceived as an emergent profession compared to the European and American models, even though the Mass Communication model30 of journalism training and practice was developed in the United States.31 However, the mode of instruction disregarded the demands for professionalization deeply rooted in CSE and CV peculiar to contextual cultures and religions.

The above notions prove that ethics-driven values alongside quality education are indispensable for university curricula if journalists are willing to maintain standard practices oriented towards restoring the dignity of the profession. With such values, the journalist can maintain professional authenticity, develop respect for the job and stay committed for the right reasons. The works initially cited reveal that journalists rarely observed core ethical principles of journalism even though the profession had Christian ethics and CV dimensions at its inception. Without a global acquiescence on the process to professionalize journalism, the quality of education, pathways, programmes and ethical questions with regard to journalism are also not clarified. Amateur journalism cannot promote a democratic process and the development of society without proper journalism training; thus, substandard and ethical issues in journalism become problematic as will be grasped in Section 1.2.

1.2. Statement of Problem

The historic evolution of journalism with a religious undertone notwithstanding, the problems associated with the professionalization of journalism in Nigeria can be grouped under three categories namely education, technical infrastructures and ethical responsibilities. Contextual studies show an ostensible decline of values and ethics, though some universities offer bachelor and master degrees up to doctorate levels and some polytechnics and mono-technics offer diploma ←32 | 33→certificates.32 Similarly, “stand-alone” schools of journalism or media industries offer on-the-job training, in-house certification and promotion privileges.33 Yet, unqualified professional are endorsed with credentials as personnel at various levels (universities and administrative professionals),34 consequential to a particular deficiency in the quality of education and training offered in Nigeria, which affects the process of professionalization in journalism.

Excellence and credence in journalism remain relevant and crucial in resolving issues that ensue out of social conflicts.35 Training is challenged not only by political systems worldwide but also by technological innovations and the rapid growth of media diversity. Key factors that were identified during the empirical research are conflicts between CV and professional ethics, low-quality education, literacy divide,36 low wages, poor curriculam for journalism schools,37 lack of qualified educators because of substandard training of staff and the professional dichotomy between formal and informal journalism education and amateur practices.

The challenges facing professionalizing journalism often connect with “economic, social and political hostility to low professionalism, poor remuneration system, unfriendly legal framework, closure, harassment, assassination, outright ban, ownership manipulations, incompetence and poor adherence to professional and ethical standards.”38 The above mentioned problems evidently indicate that the principles of CSE to promote human dignity, the common good, justice, solidarity and subsidiarity are challenged.

Scholars such as Akinfeleye, Ojomo, Salawu, Barungi and others raised concerns on the relevance of excellence in journalism education and practice.39 ←33 | 34→The unexpected behaviour of modern media professionals and their crucial function as ‘agenda setters, watchdogs and mediators’40 for society and good governance remain causal to these problems.41 Research outcome reveals the high demands and the need for the renaissance of CV and religious tenets within the formation institutions specifically in public and private schools, universities, professional institutes and above all in higher education for mass communication and journalism. The infringement on CV and professional ethics as a significant challenge to the practice of journalism exposes the substandard nature of the profession.

1.3. Objectives and Limitations of the Study

This research work is one of the contemporary research projects that approached issues related to professionalizing journalism from a Christian social–ethical and culture-driven points of view. It intends to awaken the critical mind of students, professionals, media stakeholders and political actors of their inherent religious and CV in dealing with ethical dilemmas, all of which are germane to journalistic professionalization. Founded on reviewed works and pedagogical orientation, it serves as reference material with emphasis on the significance of CSE and CV as the basis to professionalize journalism amidst the many challenges within the Nigerian media landscape and beyond. Likewise, it proposes to complement existing scholastic literatures in Church, state, public and private libraries, universities, schools of mass communication/journalism, media houses and other interdisciplinary disciplines. Its optimal input aims to benefit policymakers, students and regulatory bodies. The challenges envisaged may be implementing the integration of CSE in educational institutions given the diversity of cultures, religion and tradition within the Nigerian education sectors. This dissertation anticipates giving the best chance of success to future journalists and students ←34 | 35→aspiring to become professionals in other fields regardless of all the enumerated concerns. It will contribute significantly to existing researches and scarce empirical studies on journalism in Nigeria.

Rarely is any research conducted without limitations, which implies that flaws are part of the research processes. The difficulties experienced during the research trips were accessing original studies because of the lack of previous and current studies on the topic. However, there are scarce studies on CSE and CV as elements to professionalize journalism. More importantly, there are dearth of methodological researches in this area of study. The limited time to conduct this empirical research poses a limiting factor because of the distance and logistics. Another challenge was rescheduling of interviews with partners given their busy programmes and those of the institutions.


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2021 (December)
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2022. 394 pp., 9 fig. col., 26 tables.

Biographical notes

Maryann Ijeoma Egbujor (Author)

Maryann Ijeoma Egbujor is a catholic Reverend Sister of the Daughters of Divine Love Congregation, Nigeria. She holds a B.A. in Média aux Éducation from the Catholic University of West Africa, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, an M.A. in International Media Studies from the Deutsche Welle Akademie/University of Bonn/University of Applied Sciences Bonn Rhein Sieg, Germany, and a Diploma in Journalism from the London School of Journalism, UK. She completed her PhD in Journalism Professionalisation, Christian Social Ethics and Cultural Values at the Faculty of Theology, University of Freiburg/Breisgau, Germany. She has conducted field research in Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa, among other countries. Her areas of interest include media projects, media ethics, social ethics, cultural studies, globalisation, media policy and digital literacy.


Title: Journalism in Nigeria: Possibilities for Professionalisation in the Light of Christian Social Ethics and Culture-driven Values
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