Africa’s Journey

From Colonialism to New Imperialism

by Alka Jauhari (Author)
©2022 Monographs XIV, 172 Pages


Africa experienced direct and indirect foreign interventions since the continent’s colonization by the Europeans in the nineteenth century. These interventions have had political, economic and social consequences for the continent and its people. This book explores the journey of Africa under different periods of foreign intercession, beginning with colonial conquest, followed by the Cold War, subsequent globalization and the most recent phase of new imperialism. It sheds light on the legacies of these interventions in the form of unbroken cycles of war, conflict, poverty, underdevelopment and violation of human rights. The book ends on a positive note highlighting that many African countries in the new century are finding their way towards political stability and economic resurgence while also shunning foreign influence.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1. The Colonial Conquest
  • Post-Independence Conflicts in Sudan (British Africa)
  • Post-Independence Conflict in Rwanda (Belgian Africa)
  • Post-Independence Conflict in Angola (Portuguese Africa)
  • Post-Independence Conflicts in French West Africa
  • Chapter 2. The Superpower Rivalry
  • Superpower Rivalry in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Central Africa)
  • Superpower Rivalry in Somalia (The Horn of Africa)
  • Superpower Rivalry in Angola (Southern Africa)
  • Chapter 3. The Scourge of Globalization
  • Tanzania: Social Impact of the SAPs
  • Ghana: Economic Impact of the SAPs
  • Zimbabwe: A Basket Case
  • Chapter 4. The New Imperialism in Africa
  • China in Sudan: The Politics of Oil
  • China in Zambia: The Mineral Scourge
  • China in Zimbabwe: The Politics of Corruption
  • Chapter 5. African Resurgence: Changing the Roadmap
  • Rwanda: Building a National Identity
  • Mozambique: Reconstructing the Economy
  • Ghana: Redefining Globalization
  • Zambia: Reshaping the Partnership
  • Index

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I would like to offer my thanks to my former colleagues, Professor Gary L. Rose and Professor June-Ann Greely, from Sacred Heart University, for their constant support towards my research endeavors. Both Dr. Rose and Dr. Greely invested their precious time in reviewing some parts of my work and giving me their valuable advice. I also want to acknowledge the assistance from the library staff of my current employer, University of New Haven, especially Amber Montano. Ms. Montano’s timely contribution to my research, particularly during the Covid times, was very useful for my project. A special recognition is also due to my students. Their thought-provoking enquiries and the follow-up discussions were extremely beneficial. And, last but not the least, this work would not have been possible without the unceasing encouragement and support from my family.←ix | x→

←xiv | 1→


A fellow colleague from Africa took me to task at a conference when I was presenting my paper as a panelist. The title of my paper was Building Peace in Africa: A State-Society Pursuit. During my presentation I happened to mention, “Africa is prone to conflict.” This colleague, who was sitting in the audience, did not appreciate the comment. I later corrected myself. Africa being predisposed to conflict is an “Afropessimist”1 characterization of the continent. The continent is indeed not inherently prone to conflict.

But then I questioned myself, could it be that certain conditions have warranted strife and conflict in Africa? All the literature on Africa that I reviewed pointed me in that direction. Since the time Africa became an important part of the world historical explorations, it has been directly or indirectly administered and subsequently maneuvered by the foreign powers. I also found that the foreigners conducted their mission in Africa to the detriment of the local societies.

Most conflicts in Africa largely find their origins during the period of external control. In the background of my research, I have written this book to analyze the political, economic and social impact of the foreign sway in Africa. My purpose is to highlight that Africa’s fate has been primarily ←1 | 2→engineered towards failure by the imperialist intent of the outside powers. The critics of this sentiment will however argue that this view is one-sided. Domestic elements should share an equal responsibility in contributing to the fate of the continent. In my examination of African history, I have given due consideration to the internal factors.

Nevertheless, the evidence clearly suggests that the genesis of conflicts in Africa directly lay in the political machinations of the foreign forces. In this context, I have also stressed that Africa has the potential to tread the path of prosperity in the absence of negative external influences as has been demonstrated by the success of many African countries in the 21st century.

Road to Africa: A Historical Perspective

Africa has traversed from being an unsung continent to becoming a coveted prize for the outside world due to its natural wealth. The pre-historic and ancient Africa marked the former phase when Africa was often referred to as a ‘dark continent.’ The primary rationale for this so-called darkness of the continent at that time was limited knowledge of the land and the expected backwardness of the inhabitants. The Eurocentric historians maintained that Africa had no history during this period.2


XIV, 172
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2022 (April)
Colonialism Cold War Globalization New Imperialism Conflict foreign intervention, Conflict-resolution Economic resurgence Alka Jauhari Africa’s Journey From Colonialism to New Imperialism
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Oxford, Wien, 2022. XIV, 172 pp., 3 tables.

Biographical notes

Alka Jauhari (Author)

Alka Jauhari has a Ph.D. from Lucknow University, India. She is currently a faculty member in the Department of Political Science and Legal Studies at the University of New Haven in West Haven, CT-USA. Her research is primarily focused on political and economic issues in Africa. She has published many articles on growth and development as well as on conflict and conflict resolution in Africa.


Title: Africa’s Journey