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Reframing Roman Liturgy

A Critical Edition of Onofrio Panvinio’s Vetusti aliquot rituales libri

by Filip Malesevic (Author)
©2022 Others 384 Pages
Open Access

Summary

This book presents a critical edition of a collection of liturgical manuscripts that the
Augustinian friar Onofrio Panvinio (1530–1568) assembled in the 1560s for the Cardinal
Alessandro Farnese as well as for Hans Jakob Fugger in Augsburg. Onofrio Panvinio is
primarily known for his antiquarian studies about ancient Rome and for his edition
of Bartolomeo Platina’s Lives of the Popes. His preoccupation with the Roman rite,
however, remains until today largely unnoticed by modern scholarship. This edition
of Panvinio’s Vetusti aliquot rituales libri highlights his interests in the development
of Roman liturgy during the last sessions of the Council of Trent (1545–1563) by presenting
the various documentary as well as cultural layers of Panvinio’s collection of
Roman ritual manuscripts.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Abbreviations
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Reframing the Roman Rite between Trent and Rome: Onofrio Panvinio’s Liturgical Works
  • 1.2 The Contents of Panvinio’s Liturgical Compilation and Its Manuscripts
  • 1.2.1 BAV, Vat. lat. 6112 and BAV, Vat. lat. 4973
  • 1.2.2 BSB, Clm 132
  • 1.2.3 BAM, H 142inf. and ACP, vol. 137
  • 1.3 Caprarola: A Failed Enterprise?
  • 1.4 Ceremonial Culture in Sixteenth-Century Bavaria
  • 1.5 Roman Liturgy and Curial Ceremony: Francesco Mucanzio and the Legacy of Paris de Grassis
  • 1.6 The Sala Regia and the Reconfigurations of Curial Ceremony in the Vatican Apostolic Palace: The Limits of Panvinio’s Liturgical Works
  • 2. Vetusti aliquot rituales libri vulgo Ordines Romani De officio Missae vel Caeremoniales appellati
  • I. Illustri et geneorso Domino Io. Iacobo Fuggero Kirckbergae Weissenhorni et cet. Domino
  • II. De missarum vel missae et liturgia vocibus quibus corporis sanguinusque D. N. Jesu Christi sacramentum a latinis graecisq. significatur
  • III. Ritus quibus Judaei celebrioribus festis inter convicandum ex maiorum suorum institutione olim utebantur
  • IV. Missarum sive sacri convivij mysteria, qua ratione D. N. Iesus Christus primum, deinde post eum Apostoli celebraverunt
  • V. Ritus sacrae communionis eiusque caeremoniarum descriptus a S. Justino Philosopho et Martyre
  • VI. De sacrificio Ecclesiae Christi ex Clementis Alexandrini
  • VII. Qua ratione sacri conventus Tertulliani aetate haberi solerent, ex eiusdem apologetico, et alijs libris, diviisque Cypriani operibus descripti
  • VIII. Descriptio Synaxeos, sive Sacrae communionis circa CCC Domini annum apud Christianos fieri solite ex Dyonysij Ecclesiastica Hierarchia sumpta
  • IX. Codex Gelasianus de ordine processionis ad ecclesiam sive ad missa(m) ritu S. R. E. a s. Gregorio magno Papa reformatus
  • X. Romanus ordo qualiter celebrandum sit Officiu(m) missae circa tempora Karoli magni Imperatoris in S.R.E. usurpatus
  • XI. Romanus ordo alius superiori similis est per eadem tempora usurpatus. Qua ratione solemnis missa in Romana Ecclesia antiquitus celebrantur
  • XII. Ordo Romanus tertius ex duobus supra relatis concinnatus de officio Missae in Romana ecclesia ante DCCC annos servari solitus
  • XIII. Ordo processionis quam diebus festis episcopus misssam publicam celebrari constituens servare solitus erat in occidentali ecclesia antiquitus usitatus
  • XIV. Micrologus sive Ordo Missae secundum usum S. Rom. Eccl. ante D. tos annos frequentatus
  • Caput primum
  • De Gloria in excelsis et dominus vobiscum cap. II
  • De prima oratione in missa caput III
  • De numero orationum caput IV
  • De autenticis orationibus caput V
  • De conclusione orationum caput VI
  • Iterum de conclusione orationu(m) cap VII
  • De epistola ad missam legenda cap. VIII
  • De evangelio in qua parte sit legendum cap. IX
  • De oblatione in altari componenda cap. X
  • Quid super oblationem sit dicendum cap. XI
  • Quid actum sit in canone cap. XII
  • Quid superfluum sit in canone cap. XIII
  • De signis quae super oblatam fiunt cap. XIIII
  • De acceptione oblationis in manus cap. XV
  • De commemoratione dominicae passionis cap. XVI
  • De commemoratione mortuor(um) et reliquis observatis usque ad finem canonis cap. XVII
  • De panis confractione et communicatione cap. XVIII
  • De vitanda instinctione cap. XIX
  • Repetitio a superioribus Missae cap. XX
  • De benedictione post missam cap. XXI
  • Quid sacerdos agat post missam cap. XXII
  • De oratione super populum caput XXIII
  • XV. Interpretatio vocum Ecclesiasticarum. Quae vel obscurae, vel barbarae videntur
  • Officia sive magistratus
  • Officia honores sive magistratus
  • Sacrae aedes et ipsarum partes
  • Sacrarum aedium ornamenta
  • Sacrarum vestium genera
  • XVI. De Stationibus Urbis
  • Stationes quae nostro tempore in singulis Urbis Ecclesijs per annum celebrantur. Cap. IX
  • Ex Libris Cencii Cardinalis S. R. E. Camerarii Liber ritualis antiquus quem Caeremoniale vocant ante CCCC annos in Romana Ecclesia usurpatus
  • XVII. Libri vetustissimi ritualis quem Caeremoniale vocant
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere tempore Adventus domini, caput primum
  • Annotationes in cap. primum
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere in vigilia et in festo nativitatis domini, cap. II
  • Annotationes in cap. II
  • Quomodo detur presbyterium cap. III
  • Annotationes in cap. III
  • Quid domnus papa facere debeat in festo Sancti Stephani, caput quartum
  • De presbyterio, quod in die sancti Stephani datur caput quintum
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere in die Epiphaniae caput sextum
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere in pruificatione beatae Mariae virginis cap. VII
  • Annotationes in cap. VII
  • Quid debeat facere domnus papa in annunciatione et nativitate beatae Mariae caput VIII
  • Quid debeat facere domnnus papa in Assumptione eiusdem virginis cap. IX
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere feria quarta cinerum in capite Quadragesimae cap. X
  • Annotationes in cap. X
  • Quid dominus papa facere debeat dominica quarta Quadragesimae cap. XI
  • Annotationes in cap. XI
  • De feria quarta maioris hebdomadae
  • Quid domnus papa facere debeat in c(a)ena Domini cap. XII
  • Annotationes in cap. XII
  • Quomodo detur presybterium in caena domini caput XIII
  • De mensa pontificis Romani, et pauperum mandato feria quinta in caena domini cap. XIV
  • Quid domnus papa facere debeat feria sexta in parasceve, caput XV
  • Annotationes in cap. XV
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere in sabbato sancto cap. XVI
  • Annotationes in cap. XVI
  • Antiqui baptismi ritus
  • Quid debet domnus papa facere in die Paschae cap. XVII
  • Annotationes in cap. XVII
  • Antiquus ordo Romanus
  • De prandio Pontificis, et vesperis Paschalibus caput XVIII
  • Annotationes in cap. XVIII
  • Vetus liber Romani ordinis
  • Qui debet domnus papa facere in secunda die paschae cap. XIX
  • Annotationes in cap. XIX
  • Vetus liber Romani ordinis
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere sabbato in albis caput XX
  • Annotationes in cap. XX
  • Qualiter domnus papa pergit in Letania maiori in festo sancti Marci ad s. Petrum cap. XXI
  • Annotationes in cap. XXI
  • De presbyterio quod datur in die sancti Marci ad sanctum Petrum cap. XXII
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere in festis Ascensionis Domini, et Pentecostes cap. XXIII
  • Annonationes in cap. XXIII
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere in Natali sancti Joannis Baptistae cap. XXIV
  • Annotationes in cap. XXIV
  • Quid domnus papa facere debet in festo sanctorum Apostolorum Petri, et Pauli, cap. XXV
  • Annotationes in cap. XXV
  • Quid debeat domnus papa facere in festo commemorationis beati Pauli Apostoli cap. XXVI
  • Quid facere debeat domnus papa in festo S. Laurentij cap. XXVII
  • Quid domnus papa facere debeat in Exaltatione sanctae crucis cap. XXVIII
  • Annotationes in cap. XXVIII
  • Quid debet facere domnus papa in dedication ecclesiarum sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, cap. XXIX
  • De sabbato IV temporum, quod in duodecim lectionibus dicitur. Ex vetusto libro Caroli Magni Imperatoris
  • Libri ritualis Pars II
  • De presbytero, quod datur civibus Romanis pro arcubus quomodo et quibus detur. Caput primum
  • Annotationes in cap. I
  • De presbyterio, quod thuribulis datur, quibus, et quommodo detur cap. II
  • Nomina ecclesiarum quae sunt ignotae, et sine clericis
  • De varijs presbyteris, quae per anni circulum in diversis stationibus, et solenni tatibus dari solent caput III
  • De presbyterio, quod datur ijs, qui in Letanijs maioribus, in festo Sancti Marci in processione ad Sanctum Petrum venerunt, caput III
  • Quibus scholis datur presbyterium, et quantum, caput V
  • De officio Adexteratorum cap. VI
  • De Ostiarijs caput VII
  • De Mappularijs, et Cubicularijs cap. VIII
  • De maiorentibus, qui stimulati dicuntur cap. VIII
  • De Vastararijs cap. IX
  • De Fiolarijs caput X
  • De Ferrrarijs columnae, et S.ti Angeli caput XI
  • De Caldararijs caput XII
  • De Bandonarijs cap. XIII
  • De Scopalatijs cap. XIV
  • De mandatarijs caput XV
  • De Muratoribus cap. XVI
  • De Carbonarijs cap. XVII
  • De Judaeis cap. XVIII
  • De presbyterio officialium Camerae Camerarij caput XIX
  • Qui debeat habere, et facere magister senescalcus cap. XX
  • Quid debeat habere, et facere magister Pincerna, cap. XXI
  • Quid debeat senatores, et praefectus Urbis habere, caput XXII
  • Libri ritualis Pars III
  • Quomodo debeat summus pontifex eligi et consecrari sive elegatur in Urbe sive tetra, aut si creatus et non consecratus ad Urbe accedat, quid faciendu(m) sit
  • Annotationes in cap. I
  • Qualiter Romanus Imperator debet coronari cap. II
  • 3. Onofrio Panvinio’s Liturgical Antiquarianism in the Whirlwind of Ceremonial Opulence
  • 3.1 Ceremonial Frameworks of the Roman Rite and Panvinio’s Liturgical Compilation
  • 3.2 Panvinio’s Conundrum: Ceremonial and Liturgical Imagery of the Emperor
  • Appendix
  • 1 Interpretatio vocum Ecclesiasticarum. Queae obscurae vel barbarae videntur
  • 2 Benedicti beati Petri canonici liber politicus ad Guidonem de Castello tunc Cardinalem S. Marci postmodum factus est Celestinus II
  • 3 De Missa nominee
  • Bibliography
  • Printed Sources
  • Secondary Literature

←18 | 19→

1. Introduction

1.1 Reframing the Roman Rite between Trent and Rome: Onofrio Panvinio’s Liturgical Works

During the last sessions of the Council of Trent (1545–1563) the council fathers achieved passing a decree that would ignite a revision of all the liturgical books. The decree was drafted to sustain the value of the Roman rite in respect to the council’s doctrinal declarations over the sacraments, especially concerning the celebration of Mass. The original draft that the deputation of theologians at Trent drafted for the debate was produced in close relationship with the decree over the celebration of Mass. However, this first sketch was rejected by the legates, who feared the decree would only prolong the debate and thus postpone the scheduled sessions, consequently also delaying a closure of the council. The text of the draft was therefore revised many times until it was rewritten into a general decree that would have been easily approved. Only on 4 December 1563 would the Tridentine Council attempt to force a more rigorous discussion over the issue of how the liturgical books were to be precisely revised and reformed. The legates as well as the deputation of theologians nevertheless remained preoccupied with this stalemate of whether to proceed with the necessary elaborations of a reform of the liturgical books or rather to concentrate on concluding the council. The council fathers seem to have opted for the latter option, which is why they eventually bid farewell to a detailed decree on how the liturgical books were to be revised, eventually transferring all the necessary provisions to the pope and the Roman Curia: “It enjoins that whatsoever has been by them done shall be laid before the most holy Roman Pontiff, that it may be by his judgment and authority terminated and made public. And it commands that the same be done in regard of the Catechism, by the Fathers to whom that work was consigned, and as regards the Missal and Breviary.”1

←19 | 20→

Cardinal Carlo Borromeo’s letters during the last period of the Tridentine Council disclose that the council fathers were to continue the work which the General of the Theatines and Cardinal Bernardino Scotto had started with revising the Roman Breviary as well as the Missale Romanum. On 6 July 1563, Borromeo wrote to the legates in Trent that Scotto was to send the necessary documents from Rome, alongside some suggestions for improving these two liturgical books. A month later, however, Borromeo’s hopes that the council fathers could accomplish the necessary revisions regarding the liturgical books were defied by Pope Pius IV’s desire to see the council concluded as soon as possible.2 By the time the deputies of the council started with the required preparations to introduce a thorough revision of the liturgical books, the Franciscan Francisco de Cordobà made some remarkable observations about the state of the council, which echoed like a prophetic forewarning: “There are two councils going on in the Church: one is the council convened in Trent, while the other is assembled in Rome with the Pope. Both councils are somehow at war with each other.”3 While the fate of the Roman liturgy at the council, as represented by the books of the Breviary, Missal and Ritual, can largely be reconstructed with the help of the Tridentine documents as well as the epistolary evidence of select curial prelates, who, like Carlo Borromeo or the Bishop of Bologna Gabriele Paleotti, participated at the closing sessions of the council. The specific directives concerning the issue of how the Roman rite was to be reaffirmed accordingly, however, remain largely overshadowed by the colossal monument of documents that the council fathers had left behind.

The influence of the Roman Curia on the development of the Tridentine Council had remained a sharp thorn in the eyes of the council fathers since the opening of their first sessions in 1545. The painstaking issue of an inevitable revision of the Roman liturgy during ←20 | 21→the concluding years of the council could only survive if this matter was completely handed over to the Holy See. A crucial element of this strategy was the critical compactness of its own liturgical culture that the Roman Curia had built up until the council’s start, which became unequivocally entangled with Curial Ceremony, which the Masters of Ceremonies had started to consolidate into the Caeremoniale Romanae Curiae since the later half of the fifteenth century.4 The envisioned adjustments of the liturgical books deliberated at Trent could only be successfully effected within the overall ecclesiological organization of the Roman Church if the Roman rite was appropriately reconfigured to the prescriptions required by Curial Ceremony and its directives for the celebration of the liturgy. Ultimately, such an achievement would have enabled a remarkable impact of Tridentine reforms upon Rome’s urban topography, transforming the whole city into a universal landscape of salvation. But this reshaping of Rome and its urban image would have to wait until the ascendancy of Cardinal Ugo Boncompagni as Pope Gregory XIII who was elected as Pius V’s successor in 1572, when the Cardinal and later Librarian of the Biblioteca Vaticana Guglielmo Sirleto finally finished the necessary revisions of the Breviarum and Missale Romanum. The Curia nevertheless initiated a thorough revision of the Roman liturgy well before the Tridentine Council fathers were to reassemble for their third and final period. These improvements that select curial prelates, such as the Cardinal Marcello Cervini and Sirleto, had directed before the council fathers would finally attempt at solidifying a reform of the Roman liturgy with an appropriate decree primarily aimed at providing a historiographical proof of St Peter’s presumed arrival and subsequent martyrdom in Rome. The resolution of this fundamental issue, which carried substantial implications for sustaining the Curia’s claim over the primacy of Rome and the papal office, charged the Roman rite with a dynamic force that would unload itself primarily in the restoration of the feast of the Cathedra Petri (St Peter’s Throne) during Paul IV’s pontificate around 1558.

Apart from Marcello Cervini’s circle of curial prelates such as Sirleto, another figure who would soon prove to be indispensable for the Roman ←21 | 22→Curia’s defensive strategies of sustaining their claims of papal primacy was the Augustinian friar Onofrio Panvinio. Panvinio had arrived in Rome in 1548 to conclude his studies in theology, and five years later he was appointed lecturer (lector) of the Augustinian Order. In 1557 he received the degree of magister sacrae theologiae.5 Panvinio had a particular talent for gathering various sources and compiling them quickly. This partially explains how he was able to manage publishing more than 3,000 pages of scholarship during the thirty-eight years of his life.6 The first attacks on the primacy of the Roman Church as well as against the upheld belief within the Roman Curia that the Apostle Peter came to Rome had been expressed by Martin Luther in condensed form in his 1520 published treatise On the Papacy, and two years later in his On the Nobility of the German People. Luther’s critique of the papacy and the Curia’s “Constantinianism” (Constantinheit) would inspire other theologians in furthering his reformed theological thought, eventually even expanding it to determine a Protestant narrative of Church Historiography.

During the middle years of the sixteenth century a debate between the reformer and editor of the Magdeburg Centuries, Matthias Flacius Illyricus, and the Dominican preacher in Augsburg, Johann Faber, unfolded after Faber published two discourses defending St Peter’s arrival in Rome in 1550, resuming and subsequently disputing Luther’s original attacks.7 Panvinio was strongly influenced by Cardinal Marcello Cervini, who would be elected pope in 1555, during his first years in Rome. This influence is confirmed by Panvinio’s De primatu Petri that he dedicated to Cervini in 1553 according to a letter Panvinio wrote to ←22 | 23→the Cardinal on 1 November of that year.8 Panvinio’s De primatu Petri, in which he defended St Peter’s arrival to Rome, would remain unpublished until 1589. Nevertheless, the treatise was regarded by Cervini’s circle of friends and collaborators, such as the later Cardinal Librarian Guglielmo Sirleto, as a promising work. Panvinio presented a concise argument against the Protestant denials of the papal claims of its primacy which the Magdeburg Centuriators would later also include into the first volume of their Church History in 1559.9

The issue of how papal primacy was to be defended historiographically also encouraged Panvinio to embark upon the far larger, but unfortunately never fully completed, project of composing a complete Historia Ecclesiastica from the Early Church until his own times. After Pope Marcellus II’s death in 1555, however, these historiographical concerns within the Curia shifted toward their ritual implications for essential days in the liturgical calendar, which were linked with those feasts dedicated to Rome’s primary Apostle Peter, first and foremost the solemnities of the Cathedra Petri. Pope Paul IV Carafa, Cervini’s successor on the throne of St Peter’s, restored this liturgical feast day to 18 January. Originally, the commemoration of the Cathedra Petri had first been celebrated in Antioch, whereupon a commemorative celebration followed in Rome on 22 February. With the papal ←23 | 24→constitution Ineffabilis divinae Providentiae from 6 January 1558, Paul IV succeeded in restoring Rome’s primacy over that of Antioch in respect to the celebrative sequence of this solemn liturgy.10 In order to realize this crucial alteration, the Carafa Pope had to disprove the assertions made against St Peter’s presence in Rome by Protestant theologians in the wake of Luther’s own challenges of the papacy and of the Curia that now also implied a substantial paradigm in understanding the liturgy, particularly that of Rome. In the papal consistory held on 14 January 1558, a discourse was read, which the Apostolic Ptoronotary and Paul IV’s most trusted consultant in liturgical matters Guglielmo Sirleto had composed. The pope praised Sirleto’s treatise as having been written “on the basis of the authority of many Greeks and Latins from Antiquity.” Sirleto attempted at conclusively proving that the Apostle Peter had been residing in Rome before suffering his martyrdom there.11 Panvinio’s own historiographical endeavors in treating ←24 | 25→the same issue therefore required a particular adjustment of Church historiography towards readjusting the Roman liturgy, ultimately allowing to sustain the theological claims made by the papacy over its apostolic primacy.

Details

Pages
384
Year
2022
ISBN (PDF)
9783034344593
ISBN (ePUB)
9783034344609
ISBN (MOBI)
9783034344616
ISBN (Softcover)
9783034343022
DOI
10.3726/b19297
Open Access
CC-BY-NC-ND
Language
English
Publication date
2022 (February)
Published
Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2022. 384 pp., 8 fig. b/w.

Biographical notes

Filip Malesevic (Author)

Filip Malesevic is working as a research and teaching associate at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland). His research focuses on the cultural history of Rome and the Roman Curia between the 14th and 17th century.

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