Global Risks And Crises Management In Tourism

Theoretical And Practical Perspectives

by Elbeyi Pelit (Volume editor) Hasan Hüseyin Soybali (Volume editor) Ali Avan (Volume editor)
©2021 Edited Collection 174 Pages


Tourism is one of the most sensitive industries across risks and crises based on economic,
social, and political developments. In recent years, the challenges such as
terrorism, epidemics, and economic blockades based on political tension between
countries not only cause increased risks and threats on destinations but also cause
decreased touristic mobility. A global pandemic, depressed economy, political uncertainties,
and social problems can also interrupt the touristic movement. This book
focuses on global risks and crises management in the tourism industry with a proactive
approach. It is aimed to create an essential source/reference about preparation to
emergencies, steps to be taken to eliminate uncertainties and risks, and effective risk
and crisis management practices, and to guide managers and industry practitioners.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the editors
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • What We Have Learned From COVID-19? Managerial Advantages of Crisis in Tourism (Ahmet BAYTOK, Ali AVAN and Özcan ZORLU)
  • Crisis, Terrorism, Epidemic Diseases and Their Impacts on International Destination Selection (Bayram ŞAHIN, Selda GÜVEN and İbrahim MISIR)
  • Domestic Tourism post Covid-19 – An Opportunity to Revive Turkish Tourism? (Selcen Seda TURKSOY)
  • Economic Effects of Tourism and Tourism in the Period of Economic Crises (İbrahim Tolga ÇOŞKUN)
  • Probing the Efficiency of Tourism Sector before and after Economic Crisis Periods: The Case of European Union Countries (Berna (KIRAN) BULĞURCU)
  • The Impact of COVID-19 on City Indices in Turkey: An Event Study Analysis (Nesrin ÖZKAN)
  • Tourism Higher Education Management and Policies in Times of Crisis (Alper ATEŞ and Ömür Hakan KUZU)
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Notes on Contributors
  • About Editors

List of Contributors


Prof. Dr. Elbeyi PELİT


Afyon Kocatepe University

Faculty of Tourism


Prof. Dr. Hasan Hüseyin SOYBALI


Afyon Kocatepe University

Faculty of Tourism


Assoc. Prof. Ali AVAN


Afyon Kocatepe University

Faculty of Tourism


Chapter 1

Assoc. Prof. Ahmet BAYTOK


Afyon Kocatepe University,

Faculty of Tourism


Assoc. Prof. Ali AVAN


Afyon Kocatepe University

Faculty of Tourism


Assoc. Prof. Özcan ZORLU


Afyon Kocatepe University

Faculty of Tourism


←9 | 10→Chapter 2

Assoc. Prof. Bayram ŞAHIN,


Balıkesir University

Faculty of Tourism


Lecturer Selda GÜVEN


Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University

Ezine Vocational School


Res. Asst. İbrahim MISIR


Osmaniye Korkut Ata University

Kadirli School of Applied Sciences


Chapter 3

Asst. Prof. Selcen Seda TURKSOY


Ege University

Faculty of Tourism, Çeşme


Chapter 4

Res. Asst. İbrahim Tolga ÇOŞKUN


Çukurova University

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences


Chapter 5

Assoc. Prof. Berna (KIRAN) BULĞURCU


Çukurova University

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences


←10 | 11→Chapter 6

Nesrin ÖZKAN


Atlas University

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences


Chapter 7

Assoc. Prof. Alper ATEŞ


Selçuk University

Faculty of Tourism


Assoc. Prof. Ömür Hakan KUZU


Selçuk University

Beyşehir Ali Akkanat Faculty of Tourism


Ahmet BAYTOK, Ali AVAN and Özcan ZORLU

What We Have Learned From COVID-19? Managerial Advantages of Crisis in Tourism

1 Introduction

In tourism behavior, visitors travel with a variety of motivators (psychical, emotional, personal, cultural, personal development, and status) which trigger the economic aspect of the tourism industry (Swarbrooke & Horner, 2007: 54). However, these motivators cannot guarantee ever-growing international tourist arrivals and correspondingly stable growth of tourism supply. Hence, tourism demand requires not only the existence of disposable income but also appropriate conditions such as political stability, comfortable and safe transportation, proper destination management, and high-quality tourism services. Further, visitors in tourism desire to feel themselves in safety and healthy atmosphere. Thus, a chaotic atmosphere or comfortless conditions directly decrease the number of tourist arrivals. Crises in local, national, or global contexts are also a threat risk for tourism arrivals due to their reasons and potential results. Therefore, each crisis in the tourism industry, regardless of its size and content, should be taken into account and be managed properly. It is a fact that the tourism industry is very sensitive to crises, especially if there are perceived health and/or security concerns for visitors. Among a variety of different crises, pandemic conditions such as COVID-19 are also directly affect tourism demand, which is the core element for tourism activities. Hence, tourism demand shapes the destinations and tourism supply. Based on this reality, the general effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and its reflections on managerial operations in thermal hotels are discussed in this study. In the study, authors have also aimed to reveal the lessons learned from the COVID-19 for hotel managers.

Crisis management is preparation for low-probability or unexpected events that could threaten an organization’s viability, reputation, or profitability (Pride & Ferrell, 2009: 455). Recently, crisis management has become more significant for tourism enterprises because several infectious diseases threaten the global economy and human lives (Shang, Li, & Zhang, 2021) and dependence on intangible knowledge capital to survive in an unsteady market that frequently witnesses economic turmoil (Paraskevas et al., 2013: 131). As a result, each hotel in the tourism industry develops a variety of managerial tools to prevent crises. ←13 | 14→However, they cannot have a hold on macro crises, while they can prevent micro crises with those efficient tools. COVID-19 pandemic is a global crisis for hotels like every enterprise operating in economic markets. In other words, hotels have some barriers to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Even they behave proactively, some global restrictions such as flight bans and shutdowns of hotel operations force hotel managers to develop unprecedented methods and techniques. Hotel managers could turn the COVID-19 pandemic into an opportunity with those methods and techniques and could gain some advantages from this undesired atmosphere. Considering this fact, this study stresses the managerial advantages of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of thermal tourism management with qualitative research.

2 Why Crises Matter in Tourism?

In Wuhan, Hubei Province, after a cluster of cases of pneumonia were reported by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, China, on December 31st, 2019, World Health Organisation (WHO) reported on social media on January 4th that there was a cluster of pneumonia cases with no deaths in Wuhan. This statement was also identified as a novel coronavirus. The first COVID-19 case outside of China was detected in Thailand on January 13th. Later on, the novel coronavirus outbreak (2019-nCoV) was declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30th by the advice of the Emergency Committee (EC). Deeply concerned by the alarming levels of transmission and severity, WHO assessed that COVID-19 could be considered as a pandemic (on March 11th) (WHO, 2020). On this date, the first case in Turkey was recorded and the first death due to COVID-19 occurred on 15 March. As of the beginning of March 2020, the rate of the epidemic slowed down in China, while there was an increase in COVID-19 cases and deaths due to this infection in Iran, the Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Italy. In the ongoing process, serious case increases were seen first in Europe and then in North America, and as of the beginning of May 2020, the epidemic continued to be seen in almost all countries in the world (Ministry of Health of Turkey, 2020).

Due to the transmissions of Covid-19, one of the firstly announced travel restrictions is came from North Korea on January 21, 2020 (Smith & Zhang, 2020). A few days later, nearly all of China’s neighboring countries have restricted travel to and from the Republic of China (O’connor, 2020). The U.S. announced travel restrictions one month later from China’s first warning about the pandemic (Bollyky & Nuzzo, 2020). In Turkey, it has decided that to stop all flights from China as part of coronavirus on February 5, 2020. All the passengers of far ←14 | 15→eastern countries like Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Malaysia, were permitted entry to Turkish airports by screening with thermal cameras and considering coronavirus measures (Hürriyet Daily News, 2020). On March 13, 2020, The Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, Turkey announced that flights to nine countries (Germany, France, Spain, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Austria, Sweden, and the Netherlands) were stopped until April 17, 2020 (Keleş, 2020).


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2022 (February)
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2021. 174 pp., 15 fig. b/w, 31 tables.

Biographical notes

Elbeyi Pelit (Volume editor) Hasan Hüseyin Soybali (Volume editor) Ali Avan (Volume editor)

Elbeyi Pelit is the director of Institute of Social Sciences. His research areas include working in the fields of tourism, tourism education, tourism management, human resources management, and Tourism policy. He is the head of Tourist Guidance department and a senior lecturer at the Afyon Kocatepe University Faculty of Tourism. Hasan Hüseyin Soybali is the vice dean of Faculty of Tourism at Afyon Kocatepe University. He is a professor in Tourism Management department, and his research interests include organizational behavior in tourism, human resources management, tourism policy, and planning and sociology of tourism. Ali Avan is the vice dean of Faculty of Tourism at Afyon Kocatepe University. He is an assistant professor in Tourism Management department now, and his areas of research include consumer behavior in tourism, and services marketing and sustainability in tourism.


Title: Global Risks And Crises Management In Tourism
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176 pages