In their highly variable and asymmetric relations, during which the politi¬cal-military elites of Japan at times not only favoured, but also opposed and strictly controlled the European presence, missionaries – particularly the Jesuits – tried to negotiate this power balance with their interlocutors.
This collection of essays analyses religious and cultural interactions between the Christian missions and the Buddhist sects through processes of coopera¬tion, acceptance, confrontation and rejection, dialogue and imposition, which led to the creation of new relational spaces and identities.
Table Of Contents
- About the editors
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- Notes on Contributors
- Introduction (Angelo CATTANEO and Alexandra CURVELO)
- The Project Data Collection (Ana Fernandes PINTO and Linda Zampol D’ORTIA)
- Contextual Chronology of the Christian Mission in Japan (Daniele FRISON)
- Maps (Alexandra KOUSSOULAKOU)
- Part I Interactions between Christian and Buddhist Written Cultures and Practices
- Saints, Sects, and (Holy) Sites: The Jesuit Mapping of Japanese Buddhism (Sixteenth Century) (Linda Zampol D’ORTIA, Lucia DOLCE, Ana Fernandes PINTO)
- Mincing Words: Terminological Sublation in the Japanese Christian Doctrines (José Miguel Pinto dos SANTOS)
- Memento Mori and Impermanence (Mujō, 無常): The 1600 Jesuit Mission Press Edition of Japanese Poems on the Nine Stages of a Decaying Female Body (Kusōka, 九相歌) (Carla TRONU)
- In Search for a Buddhist Ecumenical Reformation in Contact with Christianity (Frédéric GIRARD)
- Part II Interactions between Buddhist and Missionary Material, Musical and Visual Culture
- The Adaptation of Vernacular Sacred Spaces in the Catholic Architecture of Early Modern Japan (Rie ARIMURA)
- European Music as Taught in Jesuit Seminaries in Japan: The case of four noble youths who visited the Pope in 1585 (Kathryn BOSI MONTEATH)
- A Culture In-Between: Materiality and Visuality in the Christian Mission in Japan in the Early Modern Age (Alexandra CURVELO)
- Part III Interactions Between Buddhist and Jesuit Scientific Cultures
- Spatial and Linguistic Patterns in Early Modern Global History. Iberian and Dutch Merchants, Jesuit Missionaries, Buddhist Monks and Neo-Confucian Scholars and Their Interactions in Japan (Angelo CATTANEO)
- The Epistemology of Vision: Buddhist versus Jesuit Cosmology in Early Modern Japan (D. Max MOERMAN)
- Part IV The Aftermath
- Neither Apostates nor Martyrs. Japanese Catholics Facing the Repression (1612–Mid-Seventeenth Century) (Martin Nogueira RAMOS)
- Orthodoxy and Acculturation of Christian Art in Japan: The Transformation of the Eucharistic Representation of ‘Hidden’ Christians (Yoshie KOJIMA)
- New Evidence and Perspective of the Pedro Marques Missionary Group: At the Tail End of the Jesuit Enterprise in Japan (Susumu AKUNE)
- List of Illustrations
- Series index
Susumu Akune holds an MA from Kyōto University and has completed submission stage of PhD dissertation there. He currently works as a collaborative researcher at Kyōto Prefectural University. From April 2011 to March 2014 his research work on “Missionary and Diplomatic Activities of the Society of Jesus in the Indochina Peninsula in the Seventeenth Century” was funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. A member of the research team for the “Vatican and Japan: The 100 Year Project” of the Kadokawa Culture Promotion Foundation, his recent interests focus on the presence of the Portuguese and the Dutch in Asia in the early modern period. Among his publications are “Aratana Nihon jōhōgen toshite no Orandajin: “Namban bōeki” danzetsu ikō ni okeru Iezusukai Nihonkanku no jōhō shūshū” (Dutch Merchants as a “New Information Source on Japan”: Information Gathering of the Japan Province of the Society of Jesus in the post-Portuguese Namban-trade Era), in Yōgaku, vol. 25 (2018); Senpuku Kirishitan Zufu (Hidden Kirishitan of Japan Illustrated) co-authored by Takashi Gonoi et al (Kamakura Shunjusha, 2021).
Rie Arimura received her Ph.D. in History of Art from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in 2011. Her Ph.D. dissertation entitled Iglesias kirishitan: el arte de lo efímero en las misiones católicas en Japón (1549–1639) was awarded by the Mexican Academy of Sciences, and published by the Universidad Iberoamericana in 2017. Since 2013, she is Associate Professor in the Department of Art History at the Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores Unidad Morelia of the UNAM. She is author of Iglesias kirishitan: el arte de lo efímero en las misiones católicas en Japón (1549–1639) (Mexico City: Universidad Iberoamericana, 2017). Her research lines are: the mendicant art in colonial Mexico and the artistic exchanges between Europe, Asia and the Americas in the early modern era.
Kathryn BOSI MONTEATH
Kathryn Bosi Monteath graduated from the University of Otago (New Zealand) with a PhD thesis on The Five-part madrigals of Benedetto Pallavicino (c.1551–1601). She was Morrill Music Librarian at Villa I Tatti: the Harvard University Institute for Italian Renaissance Studies in Florence, from 1973 until 2016. Besides contributing to a modern edition of the music of Pallavicino and studies of its style, she has published on a variety of other Renaissance topics, including an article on the visit to Mantua in 1585 of the four Japanese youths converted to Christianity by Jesuit missionaries, who paid a ceremonial visit to the Pope that year. Amongst some 30 public concerts at I Tatti, she produced Tenshō Shōnen Shisetsu: the Italian tour of Four Japanese Youths in 1585, which traced the boys’ travels from their arrival in Livorno to their departure from Genoa. She is currently writing programmes on early music for the Rete Toscana Classica.←9 | 10→
Angelo Cattaneo is a Researcher for the CNR – National Research Council of Italy, based at the ISEM – Istituto di Storia dell’Europa Mediterranea, and an Affiliated Researcher of CHAM – Centre for the Humanities (NOVA FCSH, Lisbon). His research centres on two main topics which span from the 13th to the 17th centuries: the cultural construction of space (studying cosmography, cartography, travel literature and the spatiality of languages and religions); and the history of cross-cultural encounters at the interface of the European (in particular Portuguese) and Asian empires, focusing on Catholic missions and trade. He was the PI of the exploratory project The Space of Languages. The Portuguese Language in the Early Modern World (FCSH NOVA, 2015–2017). Amongst his current projects, he is pursuing the study of the corpus of Japanese nanban ‘world map’ folding screens, and the history of the first contacts of world languages and cultures in early modernity from a global perspective.
With a PhD in History of Art on Nanban Art and its circulation between Asia and America (c.1550–c.1700), Alexandra Curvelo is Professor at NOVA FCSH, Lisbon, Researcher and Board member of the Art History Institute (IHA / NOVA FCSH), and Affiliated Researcher of CHAM – Centre for the Humanities (NOVA FCSH). She is the author and/or editor of several books, including Nanban Folding Screens Masterpieces. Japan-Portugal XVIIth Century (Chandeigne, 2015), book chapters and scientific articles. From 2010 to 2016, she was the editor in chief of the Bulletin of Portuguese-Japanese Studies. Among others, she was co-curator of the exhibitions A Striking Story: Portugal-Japan 16th – 20th Centuries (Lisbon, 2018/19); Portugal, Jesuits, and Japan: Spiritual Beliefs and Earthly Goods (Boston, 2013), and Scientific Curator of the exhibition Nanban Commissions. The Portuguese in Modern Age Japan (Lisbon, 2010/11). Her research focuses on the visual and material culture of early modern Japan during the Iberian presence and on processes of cultural transfers between Asia and the Americas in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Linda Zampol D’ORTIA
Linda Zampol D’Ortia is Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellow at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and Australian Catholic University. She obtained her PhD in Religious Studies and History from the University of Otago (New Zealand), in 2017, with the dissertation The Cape of the Devil. Salvation in the Japanese Jesuit Mission Under Francisco Cabral (1570–1579). She was adjunct lecturer at Ca’ Foscari University, where she taught “Early modern Christianity in Japan”; she has published articles and book chapters on related topics. She has held research fellowships at the Centre for Religious Studies of Ruhr University Bochum, at the National Library of Australia, and the Centre for Comparative Studies of Civilisations and Spiritualities of the Giorgio Cini Foundation.←10 | 11→
Lucia Dolce (PhD Leiden University, 2002) is Numata Professor of Japanese Buddhism at SOAS University of London, and Chair of the Centre for the Study of Japanese Religion and of Centre of Buddhist Studies. She has published extensively, in English and in Japanese, on the hermeneutical and ritual practices of Japanese Buddhist traditions, in particular Nichiren Buddhism and Tantric Buddhism; on ritual iconography; and on Shinto-Buddhist combinatory cults.
Graduated in Japanese Language and Culture from “La Sapienza” University of Rome (2009), Daniele Frison holds a Ph.D. in History of the Portuguese Discoveries and Expansion from the New University of Lisbon (2014) with a dissertation entitled The Nagasaki-Macao trade between 1612 and 1618: Carlo Spinola SJ Procurator of Japan. His research focuses on the cultural exchanges between Europe and Asia, specifically on the history of the mission and the evangelization of Japan in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, from global perspective. His most recent works include “A face hidden behind the façade. New evidences about Carlo Spinola’s authorship of the project of São Paulo’s Church” (Review of Culture 55, 2017), “The Jesuit monopoly of the souls in Japan from its beginnings to its end” (in Il Grande Viaggio. La missione giapponese del 1613 in Europa, 2019), and the entry “Carlo Spinola”, in the Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (vol. 93).
Frédéric Girard is Emeritus Professor of the French Institute of Oriental Studies, specializing in classical Japanese studies, works in the fields of historical, philological and social sciences relating to the history of Buddhism and the religions of Japan. He works on the fundamental texts of the Avatamsaka current, from India to Japan, on the classical texts of Sino-Japanese Zen, with an emphasis on the work of Dōgen (1200–1253) and on philosophy in Japan, currently on the Christianity-Buddhism dialogues and intellectual exchanges. He makes inquiries through classical works touching the arts (Nō, tea, martial arts) and more modern. He taught Japanese Buddhism, Religions and Thought in the École Pratique des Hautes Études (History and Philology Section), at Geneva University, and Waseda University. He gained the Shibusawa-Claudel Prize 1992 and the International Prize of Kanazawa University, 2018. He is the author, among others, of Dōgen’s Dialogues in China, Geneva, Droz, 2017.
Yoshie Kojima (BA and MA, History of Art, Waseda University, Tōkyō; PhD. Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa) is a Professor at the Department of Art History of Waseda University of Tōkyō, after serving as an Associate Professor at the Department of History of Sophia University of Tōkyō. Her main areas of research are the reception of Western art in Japan during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries, and the Romanesque and Gothic art of Northern Italy. Her publications ←11 | 12→include (in Japanese) “Fumi-e and Catholic Art after the Council of Trento” (The Waseda Journal of Art History, 56, 2018) (in Japanese), “Missionary Art Japan and India: The Virgin Mary after Scipione Pulzone” (The Waseda Journal of Art History, 55, 2017), “Reproduction of the Image of Madonna ‘Salus Populi Romani’ in Japan” (Between East and West: Reproductions in Art, Cracow 2014), and the book Storia di una cattedrale: il Duomo di San Donnino a Fidenza (Pisa 2006).
D. Max Moerman (Ph. D. Stanford University, 1999) is Professor in the Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Cultures, Barnard College, Columbia University and Co-Chair of the Columbia University Seminar on Buddhist Studies. His research interests lie in the visual and material culture of pre-modern Japanese Buddhism. His publications have examined such topics as the burial of Buddhist sutras and images; the death of the Buddha in medieval painting and Edo-period print culture; islands of women in the history of Japanese cartography; narrative and iconographic traditions of lepers and hot springs; woodblock printed talismans used in feudal oaths and legal disputes; and the history of the Japanese Buddhist cartography. He is the author of Localizing Paradise: Kumano Pilgrimage and the Religious Landscape of Premodern Japan (2005) and The Japanese Buddhist World Map: Religious Vision and the Cartographic Imagination (2021).
Ana Fernandes PINTO
Ana Fernandes Pinto is Researcher at CHAM – Centre for the Humanities (NOVA FCSH, Lisbon). She holds a PhD in History on The Missionary Narrative on Catholics Martyrs in Japan (1598–1650). She teaches in the Master of History of the Portuguese Empire at NOVA FCSH, and she is the editor in chief of the Bulletin of Portuguese and Japanese Studies (CHAM).
Author of the book Uma Imagem do Japão. A Aristocracia Guerreira Nipónica nas Cartas Jesuítas de Évora, 1598 (Macau: 2004) and of several scientific articles. Coordinator and co-author of a Data Collection with references to Buddhist sects, systems of beliefs, and practices in missionary writings within the research project Interactions Between Rivals. The Christian Mission and Buddhist Sects in Japan (c.1549–c.1647).
She was co-curator of the exhibition A Striking Story: Portugal-Japan 16th – 20th Centuries (Lisbon, November 2018–March 2019), and scientific and editorial co-coordinator of its catalogue, which won APOM’S prize for Best Exhibition Catalogue (2019).
Martin Nogueira RAMOS
Martin Nogueira Ramos is an associate professor in Japanese studies at the École Française d’Extrême-Orient and the head of the EFEO centre in Kyōto. His Ph.D research dealt mostly with Catholicism and Hidden Christianity in nineteenth-century Japan. At present, he is studying the spreading and rooting of Catholicism in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Kyūshū society. Recently, he has published: La Foi des ancêtres: chrétiens cachés et catholiques dans la société villageoise japonaise (XVIIe- XIXe s.) (CNRS éditions, 2019), “Renier sa foi sans ←12 | 13→perdre son âme. Les catholiques japonais au début de la proscription (XVIIe s.)” (Cahiers d’études des cultures ibériques et latino-américaines 5, July 2019), and “The Monk and the Heretics: A Reappraisal of Sessō Sōsai’s Anti-Christian Documents (Mid-Seventeenth Century)” (Japan Review 35, 2020).
José Miguel Pinto dos SANTOS
José Miguel Pinto dos Santos holds a doctorate in History from NOVA-FCSH with a thesis on the process of cross-cultural transmission of natural philosophy during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Japan. He is Guest Professor (Global) at Keio University-Faculty of Letters, and Researcher at CHAM – Centre for the Humanities (NOVA FCSH, Lisbon). His research focus is on Japanese intellectual history during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He has edited the doctrine written by Marcos Jorge, Padre Marcos Jorge, S.J.: Doutrina Cristã escrita em dialogo para ensinar meninos (Lisboa: Paulus, 2016) and, with António Guimarães Pinto, the Portuguese translation of the catechism authored by Alessandro Valignano, S.J., Catecismo da Fé Cristã, no qual se mostra a verdade da nossa santa religião e se refutam as seitas japonesas (Lisboa: Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau, 2017).
With a PhD in History on Sacred space and ritual in early modern Japan: the Christian community of Nagasaki (1569–1643) (SOAS, University of London), Carla Tronu is an Associate Professor at Kansai University of Foreign Studies and Associate Researcher at Kyōto University. Author of several articles and book chapters including “The Post-Tridentine Parish System in the port city of Nagasaki”, in Nadine Amsler et al. (eds.), Catholic Missionaries in Early Modern Asia (Routledge, 2020). She held postdoctoral research positions at Tenri University (JSPS 2014–2015), the Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture (2015–2016), and Kyōto University (JSPS 2016–2019). She has been a member of competitive research projects in Spain, Portugal and Japan and is currently the PI of a KAKENHI Project ‘Laity in the Early Modern Japanese Mission: Confraternities and Missionary Rivalry’ (2020–2023).
This book results from a Research Project funded by FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P. (the Portuguese National Funding Agency for Science, Research and Technology) under the title Interactions Between Rivals. The Christian Mission and Buddhist Sects in Japan (c.1549–c.1647) (reference: FCT – PTDC/HIS-HIS/118404/2010).
The outputs of this project, of which this publication is the chief attainment, is the result of work by an interdisciplinary team of researchers and the collaboration of three institutions: CHAM – Centre for the Humanities (School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa – NOVA FCSH), as promoting Research Unit, the École Française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO, Paris) and the Italian School of East Asian Studies (ISEAS, Kyōto).
The collaboration among these institutions, active in Portugal, France and Japan with their different structures, but converging interests to promote culture and international collaboration through research and publishing, enabled favourable constellations of collaborative energies which have allowed us to reconsider and to explore the intense historical and cultural interactions that shaped the crucial decades between the mid-sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century, at the interface of the encounter among Catholic missionaries, Iberian and Dutch merchants, Japanese military and political elites, Buddhists monks, neo-Confucian scholars, as well as the numerous Japanese commoners with whom the missionaries interacted. In particular, we are deeply grateful to Silvio Vita – at that time, director of ISEAS – and his assistant, Yamamoto Makimi for facilitating our research missions in Japan, meetings with numerous Japanese scholars, and making it possible to gain entry to several temples, archives and museums, otherwise more difficult to access. We are also grateful to the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS, University of London), and particularly to Lucia Dolce, for hosting one of the project’s workshops and meetings in March 2014.
Thanks to the FCT funding, it was possible to put together a team of scholars coming from different parts of the world – Portugal, Japan, Spain, Italy, the UK, France and Mexico – creating the opportunity to meet, exchange archival data that each of us had been assembling and studying for years, discuss information and points of view, and learn immensely from each other. Furthermore, it enabled us to work in archives, libraries, museums and private collections, including examining materials held in Japanese Buddhist temples and European catholic churches.
The project ran from March 2012 to September 2015 with Alexandra Curvelo as Principal Investigator (PI) and Angelo Cattaneo as Co-PI. The research team included Rie Arimura, Lucia Dolce, Nicolas Fiévé, Daniele Frison, Frédéric Girard, Makoto Hayashi, Ana Fernandes Pinto, Martin Nogueira Ramos, José Miguel Pinto dos Santos and Silvio Vita. As Research Fellows (Grant Holders), we have relied on the work and expertise of Helena Barros Rodrigues, Carla Tronu and Linda Zampol ←19 | 20→D’Ortia, the latter two researchers writing essays for this book. All the research team contributed to this volume in one way or the other, and other colleagues have joined us, as is the case of Susumu Akune, Kathryn Bosi Monteath, Yoshie Kojima and Max Moerman, who have accompanied this long process almost from the beginning. We are deeply grateful to all of them and the Project Consultants: João Paulo Oliveira e Costa (NOVA FCSH) and François Lachaud (EFEO), two of the Project’s mentors, and Jean-Noël Robert (EFEO).
For the gestation of the project and this book, we benefited from an international network of scholars and friends from Portugal, Italy, the United States, Spain, Japan, and other countries who, with liberality, joined their intellectual energies and specialized knowledge to help and sustain the whole team.
In the last phase of preparation of this volume, the synergy with the Cost Action 18140 People in Motion: Entangled Histories of Displacement across the Mediterranean (1492-1923), or PIMo, and in particular with Giovanni Tarantino (Action Chair, University of Florence ) and his scienific board, made it possible to publish the essays in this volume in open-access.
The PIMo project focuses on the forms of displacement and dispossession across the Mediterranean from the fifteenth century to the present and the significance of dislocation for individuals and communities, centering on the ideas, objects, and writing that accompanied them.1
The project Interactions Between Rivals project. The Christian Mission and Buddhist Sects in Japan (c.1549 – c.1647), addressed these very issues, however having Europe and Japan as two observation points. Within the framework of different and at the same contiguous spatialities, this common interest and sensitivity for the study of the entangled forms of displacement and dispossession has allowed a mutual enrichment and exchange of methods and experiences with the PIMo seminar series ‘Visual Grammars of Globalization’ proving in particular a fertile ground for reflective learning. Our heartfelt thanks go to the scientific community of PIMo and, in particular to Giovani Tarantino, for having accepted and supported this volume.
Paula Monteiro, the project manager at the School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (NOVA FCSH), was always willing to help and work with us. Stephen Berkwitz, Orion Klautau, Rômulo Ehalt, Patrick Schwemmer and Radu Leca followed our work enthusiastically and gave us their valuable advice. To Nandini Chaturvedula, who translated and revised many of the texts; to Kathryn Bosi Monteath and Hannah Sigur who also contributed to the linguistic revision, to Alexandra Koussoulakou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), the author of the maps; and to Katsura Washizu, who gave precious help in obtaining ←20 | 21→the rights and reproduction permissions for some of the photographs, goes our warmest gratitude.
Finally, we would like to thank Marília dos Santos Lopes and Peter Hanenberg who agreed to include the book in the series Passagem of Peter Lang Publishing Group, as well as the personell of Peter Lang Publishing Group: in particular Ute Winkelkötter, for her most professional attitude, encouragement, patience and collaboration in the preparation and printing of this book.
Lisbon, Florence, September 2021,
Alexandra Curvelo and Angelo Cattaneo
This book stems from the research project Interactions Between Rivals: The Christian Mission and Buddhist Sects in Japan (c.1549–c.1647) hosted by CHAM – Centre for the Humanities, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (NOVA FCSH), and funded by the FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P. (the Portuguese National Funding Agency for Science, Research and Technology) (reference: FCT – PTDC/HIS-HIS/118404/2010), which ran from March 2012 to September 2015 with Alexandra Curvelo as PI and Angelo Cattaneo as Co-PI.1 The research team included as fundamental researchers Arimura Rie, Lucia Dolce, Nicolas Fiévé, Daniele Frison, Frédéric Girard, Hayashi Makoto, Ana Fernandes Pinto, Martin Nogueira Ramos, José Miguel Pinto dos Santos and Silvio Vita, and as Research Fellows (Grant Holders) Helena Barros Rodrigues, Carla Tronu and Linda Zampol D’Ortia.
The project and the book are not about the Christian mission in Japan during the early modern period. If the factual context in which the Christian mission in Japan evolved during almost a century framed our work and also appears in this book through the inclusion of a Contextual Chronology prepared by Daniele Frison, our main focal point was located not in Europe, but Japan, and aimed at a bifocal perspective. From the initial stages of conceptualizing the proposal – a work in which François Lachaud (École française d'Extrême-Orient) played a key role – it was clear that we aimed at promoting comprehensive research on the way that Catholic Southern Europeans and Japanese confronted each other, interacted and mutually experienced religious Otherness through the study of a composite cultural heritage, created in Japan by either side. This was the central structural axis of the project, as it is of the texts that can be read in the present volume. Each author directly associated with the project or following it from an early stage conducted his or her research in line with this chief principle.
The comprehensive portrait of these interactions has been studied during the duration of the project and beyond it through four main lines of enquiry that are in some way reflected in the way this book is organized:
1. References to Buddhist sects, system of beliefs, and practices in missionary writings.
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- Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2021. 516 pp., 45 fig. col., 17 fig. b/w, 1 tables.