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Re-Building a Nation-State

Iraq After Saddam (Post 2003)

by Ghalib Al-Abadi (Author)
©2022 Monographs 278 Pages
Series: Studies in Political Transition, Volume 17

Summary

The book provides the main principles of Nation-State Building. It explores the applications of these principles to many states, including Poland, South-Africa, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Iraq. It also gives insight on the role of the US-led coalition in Iraq after the fall of Saddam’s Regime in 2003. It covers the fields Political System, Legislation and Judiciary System, New Constitution, and Security. The author employed additional research methods to provide a deep understanding of the political situation following the changes of regime, including interviews and surveys, namely in Iraq. Finally, the book provides a method of evaluating the success or failure of the Nation-Building process of other nations by using the main principal rules of Nation-Building theories.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • Tables and Figures
  • Tables and Figures Notes
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Acronyms
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.1.1 Theoretical Framework of the Analysis
  • 1.1.2 Analysis Argument
  • 1.1.3 Research Questions
  • 1.1.4 Aims and Objectives
  • 1.2 The Structure of the Book
  • Chapter 2. Research Methodology
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Data Collection
  • 2.2.1 Choosing the Methodology
  • 2.2.2 Methodological Problems in Practice: Constraints
  • 2.2.3 Access to the Field
  • 2.2.4 Questionnaires as a Research Method
  • 2.2.5 Questionnaire Survey: Sample Selection and Size
  • 2.3 Survey Questions
  • 2.3.1 Focus Group as a Research Method
  • 2.3.2 Focus Group Topics
  • 2.3.3 Focus Group Sessions
  • 2.3.4 In-Depth Interviews as a Research Method
  • 2.4 Conclusion
  • Chapter 3. Nation-Building: History, Themes, and Perspectives
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Sovereignty and the Modern Nation-State
  • 3.3 State and Nation-Building
  • 3.4 Governance and Nation-Building
  • 3.5 Constitution and Nation-Building
  • 3.6 Post-Conflict Reconstruction
  • 3.7 The Failure of Nation-State Building
  • 3.8 The Failed-States Index
  • 3.9 The Successful Rebuilding of Nation-States: Germany and Japan after World War II
  • 3.10 Nation-Building and External Factors
  • 3.11 Conclusion
  • Chapter 4. State-Building in Post-Conflict and Post-Authoritarian Environments: The Cases of Poland, South Africa, and Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Poland
  • 4.2.1 Historical Background
  • 4.2.2 Political Institutionalisation
  • 4.2.3 Constitutional and Electoral Rules
  • 4.2.4 Economic Transformation
  • 4.2.5 Summary
  • 4.3 South Africa
  • 4.3.1 Historical Background
  • 4.3.2 Transition Process
  • 4.3.3 New Constitution
  • 4.3.4 Truth and Reconciliation
  • 4.3.5 Summary
  • 4.4 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 4.4.1 Historical Background
  • 4.4.2 The Dayton Peace Agreement
  • 4.4.3 The Role of the International Community
  • 4.4.4 The Political System
  • 4.4.5 Summary
  • 4.5 Successful Post-Conflict and Post-Authoritarian State-Building: A Typology
  • a) Discourse and Politics of Democratic Reconstruction and National Unity
  • b) Integrative and Consociational Approaches to Post-conflict and Post-authoritarian Power-sharing
  • c) Justice and Reconciliation: Retributive and Restorative Approaches
  • d) The Role of the International Community: Security and Stability
  • 4.6 Conclusion
  • Chapter 5. A Critical Analysis of US Strategic Goals Regarding Iraqi Democratisation
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Relations between the US and Iraq before the 2003 Invasion
  • 5.3 The Invasion of Iraq in 2003
  • 5.4 US Strategic Policies during Saddamʼs Regime (1979–2003)
  • 5.5 The Use of Chemical Weapons by Iraq and the US
  • 5.6 Looting during the 2003 Invasion
  • 5.7 Iraqʼs Reconstruction during the Occupation
  • 5.7.1 Arguments of the US Civil Governor of Iraq
  • 5.7.2 US Policy towards Iraqʼs Security
  • 5.7.3 Corruption during the Occupation
  • 5.7.4 The Destruction of Iraqʼs Infrastructure
  • 5.8 Conclusion
  • Chapter 6. The Political System
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Iraqi Opposition Parties
  • 6.3 Governing Council
  • 6.4 Political Parties
  • 6.5 De-Baʿathification Order
  • 6.6 The Rising Power of the Kurds in Post-War Iraq
  • 6.6.1 The Kurdsʼ Position in the Period between the First and Second Gulf Wars
  • 6.6.2 The Position of the Kurds after the Second Gulf War
  • 6.6.3 The Isolation of Kirkuk from the Government of Baghdad
  • 6.7 Conclusion
  • Chapter 7. The New Constitution and Legal System
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Iraqʼs Constitution
  • 7.3 The Legal System
  • 7.4 The Judiciary
  • 7.5 Electoral Law and Process
  • 7.6 The Creation of Independent Institutions
  • 7.7 Iraq: Centralised and Decentralised Power
  • 7.8 Conclusion
  • Chapter 8. Security of Iraq After 2003
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Iraqʼs Security under Saddam
  • 8.3 Insufficient US Military Deployment in Iraq
  • 8.4 The Deterioration of Security and the Rise of Sectarian Violence
  • 8.5 Dissolving the Iraqi Army
  • 8.6 Militia Merger – Coalition Order 91
  • 8.7 Saddamʼs Trial
  • 8.8 The Impact of Reduced Security on Iraqʼs Nation-Building
  • 8.9 Conclusion
  • Chapter 9. Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Index of Names
  • Appendix 1: In-Depth Interviews
  • Appendix 2: Interview Questions
  • 1. The US and Iraqi Opposition Plans Pre- and Post-2003
  • 2. Security and Violence (Including Saddam Trial)
  • 3. Iraq as Sovereign Nation-state
  • 4. Iraqʼs Reconstruction
  • 5. Transparency and Corruption
  • 6. The Relationship between Kurdistan and the Central Government
  • 7. Communication
  • Appendix 3: Survey Questions
  • Appendix 4: Survey Sample
  • Series Index

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Tables and Figures

Tables

Table 1: Methods of triangulation (Johansson, 2004)

Table 2: Survey participants and participation rate per 100,000 populations by province and gender

Table 3: Topics of major questions of the questionnaireʼs survey

Table 4: Demographic information

Table 5: Focus group descriptions

Table 6: Main differences between contract and permanent jobs as identified in the focus groups

Table 7: Samples of interview questions

Table 8: Intervieweesʼ details

Table 9: Difference between ›state‹ and ›nation‹ (adapted from Craigie, 2011)

Table 10: Difference between ›state‹ and ›nation‹ building (adapted from Fritz/Menocal, 2007)

Table 11: Main principles of nation-state building (Dobbins et al., 2007; Bogdandy et al., 2005; Fritz/Menocal, 2007; OECD, 2008; Brahimi, 2007; Fukuyama, 2004)

Table 12: Main principles of the post-conflict reconstruction features

Table 13: Measuring the success and failure of a nation (adapted from Bogdandy et al., 2005)

Table 14: List of Failed States 2005 (FFP, 2005)

Table 15: List of Failed States 2007 (FFP, 2007)

Table 16: List of Failed States 2013 (FFP, 2013)

Table 17: New countries that have emerged since the 1990s

Table 18: Reasons for the US invasion of Iraq in 2003

Table 19: US strategic role and goals in Iraqi crises (1972–2003)

Table 20: Effect of US policy on Iraqʼs nation-building during the occupation

Table 21: »In your opinion, what are the chances of obtaining a government job?«

Table 22: »Do you think that the goal of government is to provide public services and work for you?«

Table 23: »If you have a problem, to whom do you think you should complain?«

Table 24: Comparison between De-Baʿathification and Denazification implemented by the US

Table 25: Main US division policies in Iraq post 2003

Table 26: Summary of US Policies towards Iraq

Table 27: Main differences between the British and US policies towards Iraq and their differing methods of nation-building after occupation

Table 28: »Are there any rules for the conduct of vehicle traffic in the cities of Iraq?«

Table 29: »Are there any annual safety checks for cars?«

Table 30: »Are the drivers, who may prove dangerous for other vehicles (by driving the car on the wrong side of the road, etc.), held accountable?«

Table 31: »Is it a requirement to obtain a driving license to drive a vehicle on the road?«

Table 32: »Do you get justice if you have a case in an Iraqi court?«

Table 33: »Do you get justice if you bring a case to an Iraqi police station?«

Table 34: »If the answer is ›no‹ for one or both of the previous questions, what do you think is the reason?«

Table 35: »In your opinion, what is the best for the future of Iraq?«

Table 36: »Who do you think are the main actors that caused the violence which occurred in Iraq after the occupation?«

Table 37: »Do you think that the government is able to protect and provide security for you and for your family?«

Figures

Figure 1: Survey participants and participation rate per 100,000 populations by province and gender

Figure 2: The characteristics of a nation-state (based on Wallis, 2014: 18)

Figure 3: Reasons for the US invasion of Iraq in 2003

Figure 4: »In your opinion, what are the chances of obtaining a government job?«

Figure 5: »Do you think that the goal of government is to provide public services and work for you?«

Figure 6: »If you have a problem, to whom do you think you should complain?«

Figure 7: »Are there any rules for the conduct of vehicle traffic in the cities of Iraq?«

Figure 8: »Are there any annual safety checks for cars?«

Figure 9: »Are the drivers, who may prove dangerous for other vehicles (by driving the car on the wrong side of the road, etc.), held accountable?«

Figure 10: »Is it a requirement to obtain a driving license to drive a vehicle on the road?«

Figure 11: »Do you get justice if you have a case in an Iraqi court?«

Figure 12: »Do you get justice if you bring a case to an Iraqi police station?«

Figure 13: »If the answer is ›no‹ for one or both of the previous questions, what do you think is the reason?«

Figure 14: »In your opinion, what is the best for the future of Iraq?«

Figure 15: »Who do you think are the main actors that caused the violence which occurred in Iraq after the occupation?«

Figure 16: »Do you think that the government is able to protect and provide security for you and for your family?«

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Tables and Figures Notes

Table 1 Data collected from Johansson (2004) website and entered in table in MS Word document.

Tables 2–8 Data collected from methodology survey and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 9 Data collected from Craigie (2011) and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 10 Data collected from Menocal (2007) and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 11 Data collected from Dobbins et al. (2007) and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 12 Data adapted from literature in Chapter 3 and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 13 Data adapted from Bogdandy (2005) and entered in table in MS Word document.

Tables 14–16 Tables copied from FFP (2005); website currently not available.

Table 17 Data collected from literature (Chapter 3) and entered in table in MS Word document.

Tables 18, 21–23, 28–37 Data adapted from methodology survey and entered in table in MS Word document.

Tables 19, 20 Data adapted from literature and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 24 Data adapted from Chapter 6.5 and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 25 Data adapted from Chapter 6.6.3 and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 26 Data adapted from Chapter 6.7 and entered in table in MS Word document.

Table 27 Data adapted from Chapter 7.2 and entered in table in MS Word document.

Figure 1 Data collected from methodology survey and entered in table in MS Word document.

Figure 2 Data collected from Wallis (2014) and entered in table in MS Word document.

Figures 3–16 Data adapted from methodology survey and input in MS Excel.

←18 | 19→

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank all the authors who have written about nation building. without them, I would not have been able to lay the groundwork for my book. I extend my thanks to those who discussed the affairs of different countries, especially Iraq.

I am also extremely grateful to the people of Iraq and the various governmental ministers, executives, professors, and other people, who answered my survey questionnaires and participated in the interviews and focus groups; without them, this book would not have achieved its aims.

I would like to express my gratitude to Dr John Roberts, Dr Sharon Lockyer, Dr Oliver Scharbrodt, Professor Klaus Bachmann, and Sina Nikolajew, for their advice, guidance, and their assistance in editing this book, and for the people at Peter Lang Publishing house for their cooperation.

Finally, thanks to my wife, Tuka, my daughters Dania, Fatima, Mariam, and Yasmin, and to my son, Ali.

Details

Pages
278
Year
2022
ISBN (PDF)
9783631887165
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631887172
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631887189
ISBN (Hardcover)
9783631871195
DOI
10.3726/b20372
Language
English
Publication date
2022 (October)
Published
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2022. 278 pp., 16 fig. b/w, 37 tables.

Biographical notes

Ghalib Al-Abadi (Author)

Dr Ghalib Al-Abadi, a political analyst, obtained his PhD from Brunel University in London, England, at the Sociology department of Social Science Media and Communications. He completed his studies in Computer Science and finished his masters in Westminster University in Communication Policy.

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