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  • All: Trust and Virtual Worlds. contemporary Perspectives x
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different media. In our time, it is impossible to think of fiction only in relation to literature, given that virtual worlds make up such a large part of contemporary media that they constitute, for great swathes of the world’s popu- lation, the only form of fiction they are familiar with. Moreover, taking different media into account often necessitates a revision of traditional narratological concepts. This is especially true of metalepsis, which requires us to distinguish carefully between theater, film, cartoons, and liter- ature. So the ‘presence effect’ (effet de

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signification shifted elsewhere, a gap opened up between, for instance, virtual wages based on a wider world, and the realities of life lived in Ireland. Sustaining this particular fiction could not continue and has all but collapsed. 7 See Republic of Ireland, Constitution, Articles 1–3. <http://www.maths.tcd.ie/pub/ Constitution/Articles 1–3.html>. 8 See P. J. Mathews, ‘In Praise of “Hibernocentricism”: Republicanism, Globalisation and Irish Culture’, The Republic, 4 ( June 2005), pp. 7–14. Living in a Global World: Making Sense of Place in This Side of Brightness 49 It

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from a Canadian perspective, “worlding” is understood according to Spivak’s definition and usage of the concept. Yet, on the other hand, “worlding” is reinvigorated and re-read in contrast to compara- tive frameworks, for instance in the research conducted by Susan Gillman and Kirsten Silva Gruesz. This second notion of “worlding” encompasses under- standings of global or globalized literatures, also echoed in John Muthyala’s ar- ticle “Reworlding America: The Globalization of American Studies,” in which Muthyala calls for “remapping the disciplinary boundaries

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contemporary theorization of these concepts in sociology and philosophy. As Michael P. Farrell argues, artists’ groups may be small and do not necessarily have utopian or political intentions: they may, on the other hand, be founded on affective bonds, on relationships of friendship, intimacy, shared aesthetic and literary interests, trust or empathy.20 In his study of the Rye circle and the collaboration between Ford Madox Ford and Joseph Conrad, Farrell shows that affective bonds and collaborative work may take the shape of narrative and conversational situations

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distinctiveness. However, in a world contoured by numerous possible webs of exchange, it is the case that location is increasingly penetrated or suffused by distance. More and more we live simultaneously at a fixed address while inhabiting multiple, virtual, connected and phantasmagoric sites. Tomlinson claimed what he termed the ‘telemediatisation’ of communication has created a culture of immediacy. He also considered how the new cultural practices and spaces of global modernity have lead to an intersection of the political and the 8 Arjun Appadurai, Modernity at

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Tanielian and Jaycox, “Invisible Wounds of War”; Yonkman and Bridgeland, “All Volunteer Force.” To provide a brief transatlantic contextualization, the German Bundeswehr has much less prominence in the public, owing to critical perspectives on the role of the military in World War II and the Holocaust. Public memory about these historical events still generates wary public discussions on the relationship between the military and civil society. However, German participation in the Afghanistan campaign has raised public awareness of veterans’ mental health and

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hardened profes- sional, old beyond his or her actual age.”24 As psychologists John P. Wilson and Steven M. Silver argue, warriors thus gain a “new perspective on self and the world” that the home community must help interpret and put into context.25 The Native veterans’ communities often acknowledge this maturation and contextu- alization by granting them heightened social status and trusting them to employ their experience in new positions within the tribal social structure. War experience poses a danger to both its bearers and to the communities to which they

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contemporary works that deployed similar strategies. A collection put together with the same intentions, although its author did not have Glanvill’s scientific outlook, is Richard Baxter’s The Certainty of the World of Spirits. Baxter was a Puritan theologian and was not affiliated to the Royal Society, but, like Glanvill, he regarded ghosts and witches as empirical objects, and the demonstration of their existence as a weapon against ‘sadducists.’ However, Baxter’s work is noteworthy less for its attempt to con- form to the protocols of empirical knowledge than for

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story of Noah's Ark here, followed by Sara Maitland's retelling the Noah's story in Arky Types. Along with religion and fundamentalism, she mocks a variety of issues: celebrities, romance books, sexism, cliches, food industry, fashion and consumerism. Noah, living in the commercialized world, recalling the contemporary one, in the process of advertizing Christianity puts on stage and films his play "Genesis or How I Did it," however, God decides to make it a reality show and use his power to flood the world. He also demands to have Genesis rewritten to conceal

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of African descent. Africa as “home” becomes largely theoretical, increasingly remote, indistinct, and inac- cessible. The migrant is displaced, alienated—sufficiently estranged from both old and new worlds—not quite fitting into either. When considering the deculturalizing and alienating effects of colonization and its configuration within diaspora experience, Jamaica Kincaid— from the perspective of the colonized—convincingly recounts the un- fortunate fallout. Kincaid candidly testifies, “. . . what I see is the mil- lions of people, of whom I am just one