Gustave Hervé (1871–1944) at the Extremes of the French Third Republic
Chapter 25 Interwar Foreign Policy: The Increasingly Turbulent Eye Between Two Storms
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Hervé’s foreign policy positions, which were continually being developed and promoted in La Victoire during the interwar period, not only illustrate the limits of Hervé’s idealism, they also underlined his anti-Marxism. His domestic policy was connected to his foreign policy because his ideals of order and harmony entailed European peace. To create order and harmony, domestic and foreign affairs were both judged on the basis of the needs of France. Because France had been victorious in World War I, peace would guarantee not only international order, it would promote the position of France. In the course of the interwar period, Hervé, often simultaneously, supported what Arnold Wolfers described many years ago as three virtually mutually exclusive foreign policy positions. (1) He favored “the unquestioned preponderance of power on the side of the defenders of the established order.” (2) He also called for “a removal of the causes of revolt in order to eliminate the chances of an explosion.” (3) He sometimes even admitted the benefits of Wilsonian international panaceas and collective security in his quest for order and peace though his early illusions soon faded.1
Gilles Heuré argued that the foreign policy of the P.S.N. was generally quite sound. An “approval of the League of Nations, an entente cordiale with England, and pacifism were its main lines.” His version of “national socialism, similar to the ideas of rootedness and cultural heritage dear to the nationalism of Barrès, ← 737 | 738 → had no imperialist...
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