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The Wine Goblet of Ḥāfeẓ

A Comparative Study of the Influence of Ḥāfeẓ on the Fifteenth-Century Classical Persian Poet Jāmī

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Bahman Solati

In this innovative book, Bahman Solati presents a comparative study of Ḥāfeẓ, an internationally renowned poet in the West, particularly in Germany, France, and the Anglophone world for the past 250 years, and his influence on the fifteenth-century classical Persian poet Jāmī.

Having played a key role on the stage of world literature and poetry, present available studies in the West suffer from a dearth of good research works on Ḥāfeẓ. This text aims to fill this gap, including coverage of commentaries, critical studies, and compilations of Ḥāfeẓ’s Divān, juxtaposing them with works and poetry of Jāmī to evaluate the influence of Ḥāfeẓ on this fifteenth-century mystic and poet. Comprehensive notes and an extensive bibliography are added bonuses of the book.

Devotees of Persian literature and those of Persian-speaking countries (Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan) will find this text of particular interest, as will academics interested in Persian poetry and literature. The usefulness of this research alone for students and scholars alike is of itself enough to make this book worth adding to any library.

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Chapter 5: Persian Poetry and Mysticism

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This chapter focuses on the influence of Ḥāfeẓ on Jāmī. Here, selected verses from the Dīvān of Ḥāfeẓ will be juxtaposed and examined with verses similar in theme, and on occasion in meter and rhyme, to ones in the collected works of Jāmī. I first provide examples of Ḥāfeẓ’s poetic terms and phrases.

Persian Poetry and Mysticism

In comparing the poetry, I focus on the extent of the inspiration that Jāmī took from Ḥāfeẓ. Jāmī had doubts about whether Ḥāfeẓ had studied with a Sufi, or if he was a Sufi at all.1 However, he was absolutely sure that Ḥāfeẓ’s Dīvān was one of the most beneficial books a Sufi could study.2

Many modern critics (including Muṭṭaharī and Purjawādī), although not necessarily viewing Ḥāfeẓ as a follower of a Sufi order, do perceive him as a mystic ʽārif.3 Therefore, his accounts of wine, sin, and music, as well as his references to desire and pleasure, are read as unvaryingly metaphorical, even persistently mystical; the metaphorical icons of sin and erotic pleasure. In this assessment, Ḥāfeẓ’s character as a rind (an inspired libertine) and his resistence to religious authorities, including Sufi ones, are the symbols of malāmatī4 ← 67 | 68 → trends in Sufism.5 Some critics, however, such as Aḥmad Kasravī, read the the poetry of Ḥāfeẓ more at face value, or even view Ḥāfeẓ as a corrupt...

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