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The Wine Goblet of Ḥāfeẓ

A Comparative Study of the Influence of Ḥāfeẓ on the Fifteenth-Century Classical Persian Poet Jāmī

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Bahman Solati

In this innovative book, Bahman Solati presents a comparative study of Ḥāfeẓ, an internationally renowned poet in the West, particularly in Germany, France, and the Anglophone world for the past 250 years, and his influence on the fifteenth-century classical Persian poet Jāmī.

Having played a key role on the stage of world literature and poetry, present available studies in the West suffer from a dearth of good research works on Ḥāfeẓ. This text aims to fill this gap, including coverage of commentaries, critical studies, and compilations of Ḥāfeẓ’s Divān, juxtaposing them with works and poetry of Jāmī to evaluate the influence of Ḥāfeẓ on this fifteenth-century mystic and poet. Comprehensive notes and an extensive bibliography are added bonuses of the book.

Devotees of Persian literature and those of Persian-speaking countries (Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan) will find this text of particular interest, as will academics interested in Persian poetry and literature. The usefulness of this research alone for students and scholars alike is of itself enough to make this book worth adding to any library.

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Introduction

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Looking through the eyes of Persian culture, we see that human beings are not entirely driven by intellect or consistent in their use of reason. On the contrary, men and women are most moved by emotion. Persian philosophy is a perfect illustration of this, as it is most commonly written in both poetry and prose. Here, I believe, is where the brilliance of the Persians rests, in the beauty of their language and the expression of their culture, especially their literature, which has endured over two and a half millennia.1

In this book I demonstrate the influence of Ḥāfeẓ, one of the greatest Persian poets, on the thoughts, poetic language, and philosophy of the gifted fifteenth-century classical Persian poet Jāmī. I will undertake close readings of parts of Ḥāfeẓ’s poems that focus on divine love and lean toward concepts that are somewhat mystical—at least as I understand them. Translations of Ḥāfeẓ’s poetry and various other verses are my own, unless otherwise stated. The rest of translations are by Maryam Zohreh-vand.

Mullā Nūr al-Dīn ʽAbd al-Raḥmān Jāmī, believed to be the last of the great classical Sufi poets, and, in the words of Edward G. Browne, “one of the most remarkable geniuses whom Persia ever produced,”2 was born in the town of Jām in Khurāsān in 817/1414 and died in 898/1492.3 During Jāmī’s lifetime, his hometown of Herat became...

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