Investigating the occupation of Massalia territory before the foundation of the Greek city to the Roman period, these findings provide an overview of the diverse issues behind the circulations between Greeks from Phocaea and Celtic populations. This reflection on a key region of the Euro-Mediterranean space rests on the analysis of archaeological findings, including: urban excavations, spatial studies, analysis of necropolis, submarine remains, paleo-environmental data, and reviewing the ancient literary documentation. These new and innovative findings in Greek Marseille and Mediterranean Celtic Region will be of particular interest to both students and scholars exploring the political, economic and cultural fields of relationships between the Greek migrants and the populations they started to meet at the end of the seventh century BC.
2. Greeks, Celts and Ligurians in South-East Gaul: Ethnicity and Archaeology (Sophie Bouffier / Dominique Garcia)
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2. Greeks, Celts and Ligurians in South-East Gaul: Ethnicity and Archaeology
SOPHIE BOUFFIER AND DOMINIQUE GARCIA
Recent syntheses concerning the Celtic Mediterranean (Py 1993; Garcia 2014), or south-east Gaul (Chausserie-Laprée 2000), present lucid analyses of material culture, the dynamic nature of Mediterranean exchange networks, the rise of the urban phenomenon, and the impact of humans on the natural environment. On the other hand, since the pioneering work of Guy Barruol (1969), the study of pre-Roman Provençal peoples has not been subject to re-examination. Modern anthropological perspectives allow us to clarify the development of these pre-literate populations. It is this approach that we wish to develop in this paper; associating a critical historical approach with the philological and archaeological data (Poutignat & Streiff-Fenart 1995; Amselle & M’Bokolo 1999). The Celts and Ligurians of southeast Gaul are analyzed, not as immutable entities, nor as stable divisions of humanity, but as the product of contingent historical, social, political, and economic processes, in which the Greek merchants and migrants played a determining role.
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