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Forces of Secularity in the Modern World

Volume 1

Series:

Stephen Strehle

Stephen Strehle is a leading scholar of church/state issues. In this volume, he focuses his rigorous historical analysis and philosophical acumen upon a topic of great interest today and source of cultural wars around the globe—the process of secularization. The book starts with a discussion of early capitalism and how it saw the real world functioning well-enough on its own principles of individual struggle and self-interest, without needing religious or moral principles to meddle in its affairs and eventually dispelling the need for any intelligent design or providential orchestration of life through the work of Darwin. The book then discusses the growth of the secular point of view: how historians dismissed the impact of religion in developing modern culture, how scientists conceived of the universe running on self-sufficient or mechanistic principles, and how people no longer looked to the providential hand of God to explain their suffering. The book ends with a discussion of how the Deist concept of human autonomy became a political policy in America through Jefferson’s concept of a wall of separation between church and state and how the US Supreme Court proceeded to dismiss the importance of religion in shaping or justifying the values of the nation and its laws. The book is accessible to most upper-level and graduate students in a wide-variety of disciplines, keeping technical and foreign words to a minimum and leaving scholarly details or debates to its extensive notes.

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Index

 

A

accommodationism, 235

Adams, John: church and state, 22324, 247nn41, 43; his religion, 245n27; human depravity, 223; mixed government, 222, 242n2; Puritan Revolution, 222; Reformed background, 22224, 247n35; secularity, 221, 245n27, 246n34

agapē and eros, 2325

Allegheny County v. ACLU of Pittsburgh, 232

American Civil Liberties Union, 23941

American history texts, 8889, 111, 11415nn4–8, 116n12

argumentum ex ignorantia: Newton, 143n41, 144n45; US Supreme Court, 1011, 23638, 257n120, 265

B

Baldwin, Roger, 240, 26061n152

Baptists, 213n147, 217, 24445n23

Bayle, Pierre: faith and reason, 5, 30, 7172; Mandeville, 29, 60, 78n72; self-interest/self-love, 5, 2930; skepticism, 29

Beard, Thomas, 15153, 165, 175n102

Black, Hugo, 22930, 25051n73

Blaine Amendment, 22527

Boisguilbert, Pierre de, 2728, 50n126

Bolingbroke, Henry St John, Viscount: Adams, 205n40; Bible, 18687; church and state, 188; Jefferson, 18588; Jesus, 19687, 206n57; miracles, 187

C

Calvin, John: divine providence, 9, 15051, 159; Jefferson, 188, 207n71, 209n102; Mandeville, 5455; predestination, 167n10; usury, 40n2

Catholicism and the wall of separation, 22627, 229, 244n21, 249n57, 25051n73

communism, 3

D

Darwin, Charles: analogy of a ship, 7, 61, 72, 82n129; capitalism, 21; Hume, 82n129; “invisible hand,” 6465; Malthus, 6, 6870, 82n129–30; Mandeville, 6, 68; Spencer, 84n142

Deism: church/state separation, 9, 17980, 212n145; Descartes, 13132; Franklin, 203n33; Henry, 243n6; Helvétius, 4748n98; Jefferson, 180, 212n145; revealed religion, 9; Voltaire, 9192

Descartes, René: mass, 142n32; mechanistic universe, 8, 13032

Diderot, Denis, 34, 95, 181, 201n6

Domat, Jean, 2728

Du Pont de Nemours, Pierre Samuel, 35

E

écrazer l’infâme, 183, 202n28

Epicurean triangle, 9, 149, 166n1; Christian response, 16364; Jewish mystics, 165

Everson v. Board of Education, 22930

F

Fackenheim, Emil, 160, 163, 172n73

faith and reason: Bayle, 5, 30, 7172; Jansenists, 2728; Mandeville, 5, 6061, 7172; Pascal, 44n57

First Amendment, 219; ACLU, 24041; argumentum ex ignorantia, 23638, 257n120; Black, 22930; Burger, 23132, 235; interpretation, 22728; Jefferson, 10, 22830, 238, 241; laïcité, 23839; line of separation, 10, 245n25, 235, 25556nn114–15; Madison, 228, 230, 238, 241, 255n114; O’Connor, 23132, 252nn85, 89, 258n133, 259nn143, 146; parochiaid, 23334, 25354nn99–100; Pledge of Allegiance, 239; public prayer, 23232; Puritans, 237; Rehnquist, 23435, 25960n146; religious liberty, 238, 25859n137; secular purpose, 23536, 256n116; US Supreme Court, 22431; wall of separation, 10, 22831, 250n70, 251nn79–80

Founding Fathers, 8889

Foxe, John, 90, 25152n81

French Revolution: Michelet, 98100, 122n99; Rousseau, 97; utilitarianism, 39, 50n134; Voltaire, 97

G

Gibbon, Edward: Christianity, 8, 105113; Hume, 105, 107; Jews, 108; Middle Ages, 110111; philosophes, 105, 108109; religious view, 105; Rome, 8, 107109; Voltaire, 115

Graeco-Roman roots, 24546n28

Grant, Ulysses S., 225

Greenberg, Irving, 160

H

Helvétius, Claude Adrien: Mandeville, 58; self-interest/self-love, 3234; utilitarianism, 34, 36, 39, 58, 72

Holocaust, 9, 15764; Christianity, 15859; death of God, 160, 165, 175n105; Epicurean triangle, 9; Fackenheim, 160, 163; Greenberg, 160; Jewish identity, 16263, 174n95; nation of Israel, 17374n92; OT God, 9, 157, 15960, 16365; Rubenstein, 15860, 16263; secular Jews, 16263; ultra-orthodox, 15758; Wiesel, 16162

Hume, David, 7; analogy of a ship, 61, 82n129; British system, 101; cause and effect, 107, 13738; Cromwell, 102; Elizabeth I, 100101, 103; Gibbon, 105, 107; History of England, 100104, 11213; philosophes, 113; Protestants/Puritans, 101104, 113; utilitarianism, 66; Voltaire, 100

I

“invisible hand”/divine providence: Darwin, 65; natural law, 6566; physiocrats, 36; Smith, 6465

J

Jansenists, 5, 2528; Boisguilbert, 27; Domat, 2728; Nicole, 2628; Puritans, 42n33; self-interest/self-love, 2528

Jefferson, Thomas: Baptists, 200, 217; Bible, 18687, 191; Bolingbroke, 18588; Calvin, 188, 207n71, 209n102; Christianity, 10, 18485, 18892, 19596, 200; church and state, 10, 188, 195200; clergy/priests, 191; Deism, 910, 17980, 185, 188, 196, 199, 212n145; duplicity, 198200, 210n112, 214n154; his religion, 18891; Jesus, 186, 18991, 208n79; Jews/Judaism, 18587, 200, 205n50; French Revolution, 204n35; letter to the Danbury Baptist Association, 10, 19799, 213n147, 214n155; materialism, 207n70, 208n79; miracles, 187; morality, 18889, 208n77, 214n152; Paul, 18687, 190; Priestly, 190, 196; public education, 19196; Quakers, 192, 200; Reformed/Puritans, 188, 19192, 199, 209n103; religious liberty, 200; religious policies, 10; Scottish Enlightenment, 208n77; University of Virginia, 19496, 211n131; Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, 197, 212n144; Voltaire, 18485, 205n38; wall of separation, 198200, 213n148, 214n149, 22930; William and Mary, 194

Jesus: Bolingbroke, 18687, 206n57; historical Jesus, 8788, 209n88; Jefferson, 18687, 18991, 208n79; Paine, 203n34; secularism, 154; suffering, 165; Voltaire, 183

Jews/Judaism: Bolingbroke, 18687; capitalism, 3940n2; Gibbon, 108; Holocaust, 9, 15764; identity, 16263; Jefferson, 18687, 205n50; Paine, 203n34; Voltaire18283

K

Kant, Immanuel, 11, 88, 13738, 159, 257n131, 26970n11

L

laïcité, 23839

laissez-faire: Mandeville, 61, 78n75; physiocrats, 3637; Smith, 66, 79n82; Spencer, 84n142

La Rochefoucauld: Mandeville, 74n5; self-interest/self-love, 3032; Smith, 63

Lemon v. Kurtzman, 23536

letter to the Danbury Baptist Association, 10, 19799, 22830, 250n70, 251nn79–80

Liberal League, 22425

Lisbon, 9, 15556; Mitchell, 156; Voltaire, 15556

Lynch v. Donnelly, 23132

M

Madison, James: Baptist, 218; church/state separation, 21921, 228, 230, 24445n23; Henry, 218; his religion, 217; First Amendment, 21921, 228, 230, 238; Jefferson, 191; line of separation, 245n25; Mason, 218, mixed government, 223, 242n2; Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, 21819, 259n138

Malthus, Thomas: Darwin, 6, 6870; poor-laws, 67, 72; Smith, 6768, 82n128; Spencer, 8283n130; Wallace, 6869

Mandeville, Bernard, 5, 5361; analogy of a ship, 61, 68; Bayle, 29, 56, 60, 78n72; Darwin, 61, 68; Fable of the Bees, 5354; faith and reason, 6061, 7172; Helvétius, 58; honor, 56, 64; human depravity, 54; Jansenists, 5, 54; Machiavelli, 58; Malthus, 8283n130; La Fountaine, 74n2; La Rochefoucauld, 74n5; laissez-faire, 61, 78n75; Reformed religious background, 5455, 5860, 77n60; Rousseau, 74n5; self-interest/self-love, 5556; Smith, 54, 56, 6264, 68, 74n7; utilitarianism, 58, 7576n33

McCollum v. Board of Education, 23031

Michelet, Jules, 7, 97100; Christianity, 99100, 112; French people, 97, 122n99; French Revolution, 97100, 112, 122n99; philosophes, 9799; Rousseau, 98; Voltaire, 98

Middle Ages, 7; Foxe, 90; Gibbon, 110111; Voltaire, 9193

Mitchell, John, 9, 156

N

Newton, Isaac: Descartes, 13133; gravity, 13233, 135, 143nn38, 40; Helvétius, 3334; mechanistic universe, 89, 13135, 137, 139; Puritans, 13435; religion, 8, 13234, 144n46

Nicole, Pierre, 2628

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 267

Nygren, Anders, 2324

P

Paine, Thomas, 184, 203n34

Pascal, Blaise: death, 164; faith and reason, 41n57; self-interest/self-love, 25, 42nn34, 36, 43n39

Paul: agapē and eros, 2324; Bolingbroke, 18687; Jefferson, 18687; Paine, 203204n34

physiocrats: agriculture, 3738; Du Pont, 35; laissez-faire, 3639; natural order, 36; Quesnay, 3538; self-interest/self-love, 36

postmodernism, 138, 247n35, 256n118, 267

Puritans: Adams, 22224; altruistic capitalism, 2223, 71; American history, 89; American Revolution, 97; American texts, 89, 112; Beard, 15153; Calvin, 15051; Hume, 7, 101104; Jansenists, 42n33; Jefferson, 188, 19192, 199, 209n103; Mather, 15354; modern science, 8, 12930; natural theology, 49n120; Newton, 13435; predestination, 167n10; providence, 9, 15057, 167n8; Puritan Revolution, 7, 97, 102, 124n139, 222; Quakers, 121n84, 192; Raynal, 9697, 121n84; religious tolerance, 124n139

Q

Quakers, 9697, 121n84, 192, 200

Quantum Physics, 9, 135

Quesnay, François, 3438, 62

R

Rand, Ayn, 7273

Raynal, Guillaume Thomas François, 7, 9597; Christianity, 9597; English system, 96; priests, 95; Puritans, 9697, 121n84; Quakers, 9697, 121n84; Renaissance, 9596

Realpolitik, 5, 58, 71

Renaissance: Raynal, 9596, 112; Voltaire, 91

Reynolds v. United States, 22829

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: French Revolution, 97; human dignity, 34; Mandeville, 74n5, 75n21; Michelet, 98; self-interest/self-love, 4647nn83–84, 8889, 92; Smith, 63, 80n94

Rubenstein, Richard, 15859, 16263, 172n73

Russell, Bertrand, 115n73, 145n62, 14950, 27071n15

S

Secularization Thesis, 2

self-interest/self-love, 2334, 6364, 73, 80nn102, 108

separation of church and state: Deism, 17980; France, 180

Smith, Adam: agriculture, 79n85; Darwin, 68; honor, 64; “impartial spectator,” 66, 72; “invisible hand”/divine providence, 6465; laissez-faire, 66, 79n82; La Rochefoucauld, 62; Malthus, 6768; Mandeville, 54, 56, 6263, 68, 74n7; Quesnay, 62; Rousseau, 63, 80n94; self-interest/self-love, 6364, 80nn102, 108; utilitarianism, 6566

Social Darwinism, 67, 22, 6673

Spencer, Herbert, 70, 84n142

T

Third Republic, 7, 98

U

United States Supreme Court, 1011; argumentum ex ignorantia, 1011, 23638, 257n120, 265; Black, 22930; Burger, 231, 235; Jefferson, 10, 22830; 238, 241; laïcité, 23839; line of separation, 10, 245n25, 255n114–15; Madison, 228, 230, 238, 241, 255n114; O’Connor, 23132, 252nn85, 89, 258n133, 259nn143, 146; parochiaid, 23334, 25354nn99–100; Pledge of Allegiance, 239; public prayer, 23233; Puritans, 237; Rehnquist, 23435, 25960n146; religious liberty, 238, 25859n137; “secular purpose,” 23536, 256n116; wall of separation, 10, 22831, 250n70, 251nn79–80

utilitarianism, 34, 36, 39, 6566, 72, 7576n33, 269n11

V

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, 197, 21819

Voas, David, 2

Voltaire: America, 184; Bible, 18283; Christianity, 9194, 183, 202n12; divine providence, 9, 155; écrazer l’infâme, 183, 203n28; enlightened history, 7, 9094; French Revolution, 97; Gibbon, 105; his religion, 182; importance of religion, 202n13; Jefferson, 184; Jesus, 183; Jews/Judaism, 91, 18283; Lisbon, 9, 15556; Michelet, 98; Middle Ages, 9193; miracles, 202n17; Muslims, 92; Protestantism, 94; Puritans, 94; religious toleration, 91, 118nn34, 42, 18182

W

wall of separation: Allegheny County v, ACLU of Pittsburgh, 232; ACLU, 24041; argumentum ex ignorantia, 336–38; Black, 22930; Blaine Amendment, 22527; Catholics, 22627, 229, 25051n73; definition of religion, 256nn117–18; Everson v. Board of Education, 22930; Jefferson and Madison, 10, 198200, 213n148, 21921, 22431, 238, 241; laïcité, 23839, Lemon v. Kurtzman, 23536, Lynch v, Donnelly, 23132; McCollum v. Board of Education, 23031; Reynolds v. United States, 22829

Weber, Max: altruistic capitalism, 3, 2223; secularity, 271n16

Wiesel, Emil, 16162

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 11, 136, 139, 145n58, 269n11