Show Less
Restricted access

The Socio-Cultural and Philosophical Origins of Science

Translated from the Russian by Ivan Zhavoronkov

Anatoly Nazirov

The Socio-Cultural and Philosophical Origins of Science discusses the formation of spiritual culture and reveals the prerequisites for the developments of philosophy (reflection), science (objectification), religion (spirituality), and art (conventionality) from a common root: animistic thinking. Philosophy emerges as reflexive thinking which transforms the animistic into the ideal, the polarization of which into a subject-object relation becomes the basis for the emergence and development of science. The study shows that any new thought in culture that answers the question of being goes through the same stages of mysticism, poetics, rhetoric, grammar, logic, and mathematics. The book is designed for students to prepare for the PhD candidate examination in the philosophy of science, as well as for scholars (scientists) interested in the methodology of scientific knowledge. It would also appeal to both students and professors in various disciplines across humanities and social sciences, as well as to anyone interested in understanding the commonalities and differences among, and the origins of, philosophy, science, religion, and art.

Show Summary Details
Restricted access

Chapter Two The Attempt at a Pre-theoretical Synthesis of Knowledge in Theosophy


Chapter Two

The Attempt at a Pre-theoretical Synthesis of Knowledge in Theosophy

The term “Theosophy” is derived from the combination of the Greek terms “Theos,” God, and “Sophia,” Wisdom. Originally, theosophy appeared to be identical to theology, whereas later it “came to be called a body of teachings about the deity that proceed from subjective mystical experience and seek to expound this experience as a coherent system.”1 Such a broad understanding of theosophy makes it possible to relegate Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Kabbalah, and occult teachings to theosophy. However, this term was more widely recorded in sixteenth–eighteenth century mystical teachings, which stood outside of the Christian church tradition and which were represented by such names as J. Boehme, Paracelsus, L.C. de Saint-Martin, E. Swedenborg, and F. Oetinger. In the nineteenth century, there develops a tradition of understanding theosophy as a synthesis of the mystical knowledge of God and rational philosophy.

Thus, theosophy forms into an independent tendency standing out from the esoteric and occult teachings; however, it continues to be in close contact with the latter. Theosophy as an independent tendency takes shape in the nineteenth century, whereas occultism, according to ←37 | 38→researchers, comes from ancient Egyptian and ancient Indian teachings and its traditions divide into two branches: Western, of Egyptian origin, and Eastern, or Indian, one which was previously cultivated in India and which later took the form of theosophism in Europe. The legends of the Western branch rest on Hermes, Moses,...

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

This site requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals.

Do you have any questions? Contact us.

Or login to access all content.