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The Socio-Cultural and Philosophical Origins of Science

Translated from the Russian by Ivan Zhavoronkov

Anatoly Nazirov

The Socio-Cultural and Philosophical Origins of Science discusses the formation of spiritual culture and reveals the prerequisites for the developments of philosophy (reflection), science (objectification), religion (spirituality), and art (conventionality) from a common root: animistic thinking. Philosophy emerges as reflexive thinking which transforms the animistic into the ideal, the polarization of which into a subject-object relation becomes the basis for the emergence and development of science. The study shows that any new thought in culture that answers the question of being goes through the same stages of mysticism, poetics, rhetoric, grammar, logic, and mathematics. The book is designed for students to prepare for the PhD candidate examination in the philosophy of science, as well as for scholars (scientists) interested in the methodology of scientific knowledge. It would also appeal to both students and professors in various disciplines across humanities and social sciences, as well as to anyone interested in understanding the commonalities and differences among, and the origins of, philosophy, science, religion, and art.

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English Sources

Bridgman, Percy W. The Nature of Physical Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Brinton, Daniel G. Religions of Primitive Peoples. New York/London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1897.

Eliade, Mircea. [The Myth of the Eternal Return: Or,] Cosmos and History. Moscow: Progress, 1987.

——— Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972.

Feyerabend, Paul K. “Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism.” In Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 3, edited by HerbertFeigl and GroverMaxwell, 28–97. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962.

Frank, Philipp. Modern Science and its Philosophy. Leningrad, 1950.

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd ed. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Reichenbach, Hans. The Rise of Scientific Philosophy. Berkeley/Los Angeles: California University Press, 1951.

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