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Peace and Peacemaking in Paul and the Greco-Roman World


Edward M. Keazirian

Peace and Peacemaking in Paul and the Greco-Roman World compares the Apostle Paul’s understanding of peace with various conceptions of peace in the Greco-Roman thought world of the first century. In contrast to similar studies that focus on the question of pacifism in the ancient world, the author seeks to clarify how the Greeks defined peace and then to show how their conception of war and peace established the ethos that ultimately defined them as a people.
From their earliest days, the city-states that eventually became Greece were constantly ravaged by war. Their myth, legend, religion, education, philosophy, and science created and perpetuated the idea that conflict was essential for existence. This idea passed to Rome as well so that by the first century, the Greco-Roman world consistently viewed peace as brief periods of tranquility in an existence where war and conflict were the norm.
Paul, however, insists that peace must be the norm within the churches. Peace originates in God and is graciously given to those who are justified and reconciled to God through Jesus Christ. God removes the enmity caused by sin and provides the indwelling Spirit to empower believers to think and behave in ways that promote and maintain peace.
Three social dynamics (shame-honor, patron-client, and friendship-enmity) are at work in Paul’s approach to conflict resolution and peacemaking within the churches. Rather than giving specific procedures for resolving conflict, Paul reinforces the believers’ new identity in Christ and the implications of God’s grace, love, and peace for their thoughts, words, and behavior toward one another. Paul uses these three social dynamics to encourage believers in the right direction, but their ultimate motivation and empowerment must arise from their common relationship with God in Jesus Christ by the power of the Holy Spirit.


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List of Abbreviations xiii


Chapter Two Abbreviations AB Anchor Bible Ad fil. Jas. Isocrates Epistula ad filios Jasonis (Letter to the Children of Jason) Ag. Aeschylus Agamemnon (Agamemnon) Agr. Tacitus Agricola Alex. fort. Plutarch De Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute Alex. Plutarch Alexander Anab. Arrian Anabasis Alexandri Antid. Isocrates Antidosis Areop. Isocrates Areopagiticus Ath. pol. Aristotle Athênaiôn politeia (Constitution of Athens) ATLA American Theological Library Association Att. Cicero Epistulae ad Atticum BAGD Bauer, W., W. F. Arndt, F. W. Gingrich, and F. W. Danker. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 2nd ed. Chicago, 1979. BDAG Bauer, W., F. W. Danker, W. F. Arndt, and F. W. Gingrich. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 2nd ed. Chicago, 1999. BDF Blass, F., A. Debrunner, and Robert W. Funk. A Greek Gram- mar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Litera- ture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. Biblio. hist. Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca historica De pace Isocrates De pace (On the Peace) Def. Plato Definitiones (Definitions) Deiot Cicero Pro rege Deiotaro Descrip. Pausanias Graeciae descriptio (Description of Greece) Diatr. Epictetus Diatribai (Dissertationes) Ecl. Virgil Eclogae xiv PEACE AND PEACEMAKING IN PAUL AND THE GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Epit. Justin Epitome of the Philippic Histories of Pompeius Trogus Epod. Horace Epodi ESV English Standard Version Eth. nic. Aristotle Ethica nicomacheia (Nicomachean Ethics) FFFS Fitzgerald, John T., ed. Friendship, Flattery, and Frankness of Speech: Studies on Friendship in the New Testament World. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 82. Leiden:...

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